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This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer.
C.B.  04051 (71)
"U 528"
Interrogation of Survivors
July, 1943
This Report is not to be considered accurate in all respects, having been prepared before complete information was available.  It is therefore not to be taken as historically correct.



          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  


Attention is called to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
Official Secrets Acts.
C.B.  04051 (71)
"U 528"
Interrogation of Survivors
July, 1943
  N.I.D. xxxxx/43.  


          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  


  Introductory Remarks  
  Details of "U 528"  
    (i)  Type;  (ii)  Displacement;  (iii)  Building Yard;  (iv)  Armament;  (v)  Diesels;  (vi) Tank Capacities;  (vii)  Pumps;  (viii)  G.S.R.;  (ix)  Radar;  (x)  D/F;  (xi)  S.B.T.;  (xii)  Conning-tower Badge;  (xiii)  Field Post Number.  
  First and Last Patrol of "U 528"  
      (i)  "U 528" leaves Kiel with five other U-Boats;  (ii)  Approach to and Passage of Rosengarten;  (iii)  "U 528" damaged while attacking a small Convoy;  (iv)  "U 528" again damaged;  (v)  "U 528" ordered Home;  (vi)  "U 528" meets a supply U-Boat;  (vii)  Events leading up to sinking.    
  Sinking of "U 528"  
  General Remarks on U-Boats  
    (i)  Hydrophones;  (ii)  Aerials;  (iii)  G.S.R.;  (iv) Evasion of British A/SV;  (v)  A/A Training at Misdroy;  (vi)  Guns;  (vii)  Anti-Aircraft U-Boats; (viii)  Look-Outs;  (ix)  Pressure Dock Tests;  (x)  U-Boat Losses;  (xi)  Look-Out Balloons.  
Appendix "A."
    Early History and Trials of "U 528"  
      (i)  Building;  (ii)  Commissioning;  (iii)  U.A.K. Trials;  (iv)  First Torpedo-firing Exercises at Gdynia;  (v)  Agru-Front at Hel;  (vi)  At Danzig;  (vii)  Tactical Exercises off Pillau;  (viii)  Return to Danzig;  (ix)  Second Tactical Exercises;  (x)  Final Overhaul at Hamburg;  (xi)  Completion of Torpedo-firing Exercises;  (xii)  Further Tactical Exercises;  (xiii)  Silent Running Trials at Rönne;  (xiv)  Final Adjustments at Stettin;  (xv)  At Kiel prior to first Patrol.    
Appendix "B."
    Ship's Company of "U 528"  
      (i)  Complement;  (ii)  Captain;  (iii)  First Lieutenant;  (iv)  Second Lieutenant;  (v)  Engineer Officer;  (vi)  Midshipmen;  (vii)  General.    
Appendix "C."
    Nominal Roll of U-528"  
    Ship's Company of "U 528"  
      (i)  Survivors;  (ii)  Casualties;  (iii)  Total crew.  
Appendix "D."
    Table of Comparative Tank Capacities of two 740-ton U-Boats  
  (C49418)                                                                                                                             B*  


 U-BOAT, SUNK BY H.M.S. "FLEETWOOD" AT 1530(Z) ON 11th MAY, 1943.
          "U 528," a 740-ton U-Boat, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg von Rabenau, was sunk by H.M.S. "Fleetwood," escorting Convoy O.S. 47, at 1530 (Zone time) on 11th May, 1943, in position 46° 53' N., 14° 22' W.  Previously she had suffered considerable damage from aircraft attacks, which had partially incapacitated her for diving.  
          Four officers, including the Captain, three midshipmen and 38 ratings survived out of a total complement of 56 men.  
          She was on her first patrol and had sunk nothing.  During her sole patrol (Section III), "U 528" was constantly being surprised and bombed or depth-charges by aircraft.  These attacks coincided with the breakdown of her G.S.R. which seldom, if ever, worked properly.  
          The stiffened morale of prisoners and their adamant refusal to discuss service matters, presented Interrogators with a problem reminiscent of the earliest days of the war.  There is little doubt that this was due to the fact, admitted by survivors, that, at some time after capture, officers had been allowed to mix with men and had cautioned or threatened them into silence.  It is vital, if interrogation is to be successful, for officers to be segregated from men immediately after capture and not to be allowed to communicate with them.  
          Equivalent German and Royal Naval Ranks used in this report are:  
Korvettenkapitän Commander (Junior Grade).
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander.
Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich zur See Midshipman (Senior Grade).
Fähnrich zur See Midshipman (Junior Grade).
          The suffix "(Ing.)" after an officer's rank signifies (E), Engineer , e.g., Fähnrich (Ing.) is translated a Midshipman (Junior Grade) (E).  The suffix "d.R." signifies "der Reserve" and is translated as Reserve Officer.  
    IX C.  
  740 tons.  
  Building Yard  
  Deutsch Werft, Hamburg.  
    Guns.  One 105 mm (4.1 in.) forward.  Four light machine-guns, as required, on bridge.  Two 20 mm. guns in line on extended "bandstand" abaft the bridge.  One 37 mm. (1.45 in.) aft.  It was expected that quadruple 20 mm. guns would have been supplied to the U-Boat had she reached her French base.  This might have necessitated the dismounting of the 37 mm. gun.
    Torpedoes.  Twenty-one carried.  Stowage:  Six air torpedoes in upper deck containers, four electric torpedoes in tubes forward, five electric torpedoes in bilges and on floor plates forward, two electric torpedoes in tubes aft, three electric torpedoes as spares in stern compartment.  No "Curly" torpedoes were carried, as this type was said to be in very short supply at Stettin, where "U 528" was armed for her first patrol.  The electric torpedoes carried a longitudinal green stripe near the depth setting.  They had to be ventilated each day.
    Torpedo Pistols.  G.7.H. type only carried.
    Torpedo Tubes.  Four forward, two aft.  The tubes were modified to enable the firing of "Curly" torpedoes.
  Tank Capacities  
    See Appendix "D".  
  (C49418)                                                                                                                              B*2  


  Fitted with Grandin set and Southern Cross type aerial.  The set did not appear to function well owing to cable trouble, and little reliance was placed on it.  It was hooped that an improved model with fixed aerial would be supplied in France.  The double strand, rubber-covered cable leading from the aerial to the set was of the loosely hanging type and was not sealed through the pressure hull.
  Not fitted.  
  Fitted.  The coil was extensible through about 10 ft.
  Conning-Tower Badge  
  A black raven dropping out of a cloud with claws extended.  Formerly, under Kapitänleutnant Fuchs, a globe and a crouching fox.
  Field Post Number  
  (i)  "U 528" Leaves Kiel with five other U-Boats  
          "U 528" left Kiel in the forenoon of 15th April, 1943, in company with five other U-Boats and two Sperrbrecher.  The following line ahead formation was taken up:  One 8,000-9,000-ton Sperrbrecher, "U 528," a second 740-ton U-Boat, three 500-ton U-Boats, and a second Sperrbrecher bringing up the rear.  The vessels passed through the Skagerrak on 16th April, and arrived the same night in Kristiansand S.  "U 528" embarked an additional quantity of fuel.  
          All the U-Boats again put to sea on 17th April, but "U 528" soon parted company and proceeded up the Norwegian coast escorted by one patrol vessel and by seaplanes.  Visibility was bad and the coast could only be seen intermittently.  
          On 19th April, the escort parted company and "U 528" set course for the Rosengarten.  She was proceeding on the surface alternating between slow and half speed, diving only periodically for a maximum of two hours for practice.  
  (ii)  Approach to and Passage of Rosengarten  
          On 18th April an entry in a captured diary states that "U 528" was sighted by an aircraft, dived and was depth-charged without sustaining damage.  
          The diary adds that on 19th April, she was submerged in the North Sea east of the Shetlands.  Seas were reported as heavy.  
          Entries for the next five days run:  
20th April "Submerged in daytime, on surface at night.  Two depth-charges (presumably from an aircraft) to north-east of Faroes."
21st April "On surface north of Faroes.  No special occurrences; sea calm."
22nd April "On surface for exercising 'to diving stations and submerge'; crash-diving.  Sea calm.  To north of Faroes."
23rd April "On surface proceeding through Rosengarten; wind getting up; heavy seas towards evening."
24th April "Still windy."
  (iii)  "U 528" Damage while attacking a small Convoy.  
          Prisoners said that on or about 24th April they sighted a small convoy consisting of four 2,000-3,000-ton ships and two escort vessels with two aircraft circling overhead.  An attempt was made to approach the convoy and torpedo an escort vessel, but before this plan could be put into operation a counter-attack was made in which depth-charges fractured a fuel tank. causing the U-Boat to leave an oil trace.  In addition one of the Q tanks burst.  In spite of this damage, "U 528" attempted to shadow the convoy, experiencing the utmost difficulty owing to the heavy seas.  On the following day "U 528" was again attacked, this time by an aircraft, but little or no damage was sustained.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This was probably convoy R.U.71.  A U-Boat was attacked by aircraft 2/269 in 61° 08' N., 17° 10' W., on course 230° at 1705z on 24th April, 1943.)  


  (iv)  "U 528" again Damaged  
          On 28th April, "U 528" was once more surprised, this time by an aircraft which dropped four bombs or depth-charges near her.  These damages No. 1 torpedo tube, forward, so that it was impossible to withdraw the torpedo.  In addition, No. 8 series of air-bottles was put out of action.  The Engineer Officer, after inspecting the damage, said that he could no longer accept responsibility if the patrol continued.  "U 528" remained submerged overnight and surfaced on the following day, in mountainous seas.  Von Rabenau signaled C.-in-C. U-Boat that "U 528" could only dive "within restricted limits."  He also requested a new cable for his G.S.R., which was not functioning well.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  There were several attacks south of Iceland on 28th April, 1943.)  
  (v)  "U 528" ordered Home  
          On 1st May, von Rabenau received orders to make a rendezvous with a supply U-Boat, transfer his surplus oil and provisions and then return to Lorient.  
  (vi)  "U 528" meets a Supply U-Boat   
          "U 528" turned for home on an original course of 180° and later met the supply U-Boat after searching for her for some days.  A considerable amount of fuel was transhipped to the supply U-Boat, but no provisions.  
  (vii)  Events leading up to Sinking  
          When approaching the Bay of Biscay, on about 10th May, "U 528" sighted another aircraft and submerged.  She later surfaced, but again submerged at 2300 on this day.  
          Up to this time, prisoners said, they had sighted about 12 aircraft in all.  They believed that one 500-ton U-Boat, which had left Kiel with them, was sunk before she got through the Rosengarten, as a signal was intercepted, showing this U-Boat to be three to four days overdue in reporting to base.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  In the absence of a report from H.M.S. "Fleetwood" at the time of interrogation, it was impossible to check prisoners' statements or to correlate them fully with the details of "Fleetwood's" report as finally received.)  
          "U 528" remained submerged the remainder of the night of 10th/11th May.  Because of previous damage, her motors were running at an uneconomical speed in order to maintain trim and by morning her batteries were low.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Two U-Boats were heard transmitting at 2127z and 2315z on 10th May on the convoy's starboard bow.  The visibility was bad and it is considered improbable that either had sighted the convoy.)  
          At dawn she surfaced, but was again surprised by aircraft and bombed.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Halifax aircraft "D" of 58 Squadron sighted and attacked a U-Boat in 46° 55' N., 14° 44' W., at 0701z on 11th May, 1943.  At 0722z, with the convoy in position 47° 07' N., 14° 19' W., course 186°, speed 6 knots, a Halifax aircraft reported by R/T having sighted a U-Boat which had dived in position 217° ZZ 10 miles.  H.M.S. "Mignonette" was ordered to this position and to rejoin by 1000 if not in contact.  At 0749z, an aircraft reported by R/T sighting and attacking another U-Boat (very probably "U 528") in position 280° ZZ eight miles.  H.M.S. "Fleetwood" was ordered to this position with orders to rejoin by 1030 if not in contact.)  
          "U 528" dived to make good her escape, but soon afterwards the propeller noises of a surface vessel were heard on the hydrophones and she then sustained a prolonged depth-charge attack.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0820z "Fleetwood" reported she was in position marked by the aircraft's smoke float.  At 0850 she obtained an asdic contact, range 500 yards, and H.M. Ships "Mignonette" and "Wedgeport" were ordered to join her.  The following depth-charge attacks then took place:  
0851-1/2 1st attack Ten charges: settings 100-225'.
0850-1/2 2nd attack. Ten charges: settings 150-300'.
0905 3rd attack.  One charge: setting 385'.
0913-1/2 A firm contact not being obtained, and A/S sweep was carried out around the oil slick reported by aircraft.
0933-1/2 "Fleetwood" on course 090°, commenced a box search around the position of the previous attacks.)
          Survivors said that one of the depth-charges from the earlier attacks exploded against their bow compartment, causing a water entry which badly upset trim.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0941z "Fleetwood" sighted spray from the U-Boat's conning-tower.  The boat was then estimated as on a southerly course at an estimated speed of 6-8 knots.  At 0941-1/2 "Fleetwood" altered course towards and the U-Boat dived.)  
          Survivors said that they then went to a depth of some 700 ft.  Electric motors had to be run at full speed to prevent her from sinking still deeper.  
  (C49418)                                                                                                                              B**  


          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0944 "Fleetwood" re-established asdic contact at a range of 1,500 yards.  She then made the following depth-charge attacks:  
0948-1/2 4th attack Ten charges: settings 150-385'.
1016-1/2 5th attack Ten charges: settings 500-550'.
            The U-Boat then appeared to go deep.  Just before this attack was delivered a huge air bubble broke surface close on "Fleetwood's" starboard side.
1024-1/2 6th attack Ten charges: settings 500-550'.
1033 7th attack Ten charges: settings 500-550'.
1045 8th attack Ten charges: settings 500-550'.
1054 "Fleetwood" ran in over the target and commenced a search over the area of the last four attacks.
1210 "Mignonette" joined.)
          During the second series of depth-charge attacks, "U 528" used her S.B.T. gear, but the effect of this was negatived by the fact that each time tanks were blown in order to keep her from sinking too deep, the noise made by the damaged blowing gear was far louder than the S.B.T. charges.  The starboard hydrophones were no longer functioning.  Finally, the torpedo in the damaged forward tube began to run.  This scared Rabenau who, after surveying other damage, which included one water-logged Diesel, many smashed gages and controls and a further series of air-bottles out of commission, decided to surface and abandon ship.  To do this, he was compelled to use his remaining H/P air and all his oxygen.  Prisoners said that their boat surfaced at so steep an angle that it was impossible to stand.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1319z "Fleetwood" sighted the U-Boat bearing 180°, stopped and low in the water at a range of 4,600 yards.)  
          Prisoners continued that their boat made a short attempt to escape on the surface, during which period they believed that she managed to make a short signal to C.-in-C. U-Boats reporting her sinking.  The escape attempt was, however, soon terminated by gunfire from a neighboring surface vessel.  "U 528's" ship's company then jumped into the water, the Engineer Officer having first opened the vents.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1321z "Fleetwood" fired 23 rounds at the U-Boat.  At 1324 she ceased fire and the U-Boat sank stern first.  "Fleetwood" rescued 39 survivors and "Mignonette" six.  "Fleetwood" set course to rejoin convoy at 1445 and at 2230 was in station.)  
  (i)  Hydrophones  
          A prisoner from "U 444" still under interrogation believed K.D.B. hydrophones to be useless.  Although originally constructed as an emergency alternative to G.H.G., the gear was far more delicate and would break down before G.H.G. under the same conditions.  
  (ii)  Aerials  
          (a)  W/T.  The same prisoner from "U 444" stated that the extensible rod aerial for W/T transmission and reception by submerged U-Boats has been found unsatisfactory and is no longer being fitted.  
          (b)  G.S.R.  He said that one type of G.S.R. aerial is mounted on the bridge and is extensible through approximately 10 ft.  
  (iii)  G.S.R.  
          "U 528" was fitted with a "Grandin" receiver.  This was an oblong-shaped box with various knobs and switches as follows:  
Magic eye Top left.
Control lamp Under magic eye.
Anode fuze Below and to left of control lamp (0.5 anode current).
Mains fuze Below anode fuze (2 amps.).
Anode switch Bottom left.
Mains switch Bottom left.
Aerial plug Top centre.
Panel with 4 knobs, 2 for frequency (1-100) coarse and fine, 2 for aerial tuning (1-100) coarse and fine. Centre.
Sound volume control Centre, below.
Oscillators I and II To right of sound volume control.
Conversion table, showing harmonic and ordinary wave Top right.
Condenser switch for high frequency Right centre.
Plug for headphones Bottom right.
One valve. Type Phillipps 46/71.
          "U 528" was given 135 cm. as the wavelength of destroyers acting as convoy escorts.  A prisoner stated that the second oscillator is being withdrawn from all G.S.R. sets.  


  (iv)  Evasion of British A/S.V.  
          The Second Lieutenant of "U 528" stated that, owing to the new British "soundless" S.E., U-Boats have now been ordered to proceed submerged at night and to surface to charge batteries during the day through the Bay of Biscay.  
  (v)  A/A Training at Misdroy  
          There is a four-day course for all deck personnel now being held at Misdroy.  The first three days are devoted to theoretical and practical training in the 20 mm. gun; the last day to the 37 mm. gun.  Each man fires 100 rounds with a 20 mm., and 20/30 rounds with a 37 mm. gun.  
          A prisoner claimed that, after the order had been given by the officer of the watch, fire was unrestricted.  Each individual gun was not given a definite area.  
          The opening range for both 20 mm. and 37 mm. during training was estimated at 1,500 metres.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  One prisoner gave 600 metres for the 20 mm., but from operational reports and previous prisoners statements this is considered unlikely.)  
  (vi)  Guns  
          Some details of various guns were given as follows:  
          (a20 mm.  Ammunition in 20-round clips.  Two-ring sight, speed allowances; smaller ring 50-60 metres per second, larger ring 120 m. per second.  
          Second 20 mm. gun on additional platform manned by members of the watch below.  Approached through conning-tower hatch.  
          (b37 mm.  Elevation estimated at 170°, depression unknown.  Training through 360°.  
          Triple ringsight with speed allowances very approximately varying from 50-80 meters per second for smallest to 150 metres per second for largest ringsight.  Had knob on right side enabling gunner to see only one ringsight at a time.  Survivors said that a 740-tonner which sailed from Kiel with "U 528" had her 37 mm. gun removed in preparation for mounting quadruple 20 mm. guns later.  
          (c)  105 mm.  Elevation estimated at 50°, depression horizontal.  Training 90° to either side.  
  (vii)  Anti-Aircraft U-Boats  
          Officers spoke of anti-aircraft U-Boats at present under construction.  They were described as "sea boats" of some 1,200 tons.  The bridge was said to extend from the torpedo loading gear forward to the galley hatch aft; the deck was on the same level throughout and the after part of the bridge resembled the forward part.  Armament was given as follows:  
          Two quadruple mountings forward, said to 40 mm. power-controlled turrets  
          27 mm. on the bridge forward.  
          20 mm. amidships.  
          15 mm. machine gun on the bridge aft.  
          M.G. 81 with rate of fire 3,000 rounds a minute was also carried.  This was described as a "mowing machine" in that individual shots could not be heard and only a singing noise.  Each clip was said to hold 500 rounds.  
          These U-Boats have orders to remain surfaced on the approach of aircraft.  An officer remarked that it was a suicide job, although possibly a quick way of earning the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross.  
  (viii)  Look-Outs  
          Look-out watches in "U 528" were as follows:  
1st Watch.
2nd Watch.
3rd Watch.
          Look-outs had ordinary anti-glare brown glasses for daytime.  At night no glasses were worn below decks by personnel about to proceed on watch, but they went on deck some ten minutes before taking over.  No special glasses for use against searchlights were known to prisoners.  
  (ix)  Pressure Dock Tests  
          "U 659's" Engineer Officer said that all U-Boats are built to withstand a pressure of 105 metres' depth.  In the pressure dock at Kiel they are tested to 90 kg. (approximately 200 lbs.).  He mentioned that the pressure dock burst when one U-Boat was tested to 110 m.  It is not the pressure hull or valves which give way but the periscope glands.  
          He claimed that a new U-Boat, with periscope shaft some 18 in. longer, prevented this and described these craft as being pressure tight.  He said that this type would withstand any amount of damage to outboard installations, such as screws, without water entering.  
  (x)  U-Boat Losses  
          Three U-Boats have run on mines laid by aircraft in the estuary at Lorient.  
          On one occasion six U-Boats were sunk by aircraft at about the same time, three in the Bay of Biscay and three in the Mediterranean.  
  (xi)  Look-Out Balloons  
          One prisoner alleged that U-Boats will soon no longer be fitted with extensible look-out masts, but will have a balloon instead.  A look-out will be flown in the balloon in order to have a wider horizon.  The prisoner admitted that he had not seen this but had only heard a rumour about it.  


  (i)  Building  
          "U 528 was built by the Deutsch Werft, Hamburg.  She was nearing completion in July, 1942, when members of the complement were drafted to the dockyard to stand by her.  
  (ii)  Commissioning  
          "U 528" was commissioned about 20th September, 1942, with Kapitänleutnant Karl Heinz Fuchs in command.  
  (iii)  U.A.K. Trials  
          "U 528" left Hamburg immediately after commissioning and proceeded to Kiel for acceptance trials with the U.A.K.  These were completed by 26th September.  
  (iv)  First torpedo-Firing Exercises at Gdynia  
          "U 528" then proceeded from Kiel to Gdynia for torpedo-firing exercises.  These took place between 28th September and 5th October.  
  (v)  Agru-Front at Hel  
          "U 528" completed her Agru-Front tests at Hel between 5th and 25th October.  
  (vi)  At Danzig  
          She put into Danzig from 25th to 28th October.  
  (vii)  Tactical Exercises off Pillau  
          "U 528" began her tactical exercises off Pillau at the end of October.  Among others, she was in company with a U-Boat commanded by Korvettenkapitän Bleichrodt and a 1,200 tonner.  Fuchs, who was alleged to have been politically "insecure," immediately fell foul of Korvettenkapitän von Stockhausen, the S.O. conducting the exercises.  After a number of quarrels, von Stockhausen finally achieved Fuchs' removal from his command on the grounds of deficient eyesight.  Fuchs was relieved by Oberleutnant zur See Georg von Rabenau.  
  (viii)  Return to Danzig  
          "U 528" had again returned to Danzig about mid-December.  The ship's Company were then given leave by watches; each receiving eight days.  
  (ix)  Second Tactical Exercises  
          A second series of tactical exercises, with von Rabenau as Captain, began at Pillau, on 29th or 30th December.  Von Rabenau was allegedly a drunkard, and on two occasions put to sea when drunk.  As he was regarded as "politically sound" nothing came of either incident.  On the first occasion he rammed a torpedo recovery vessel and "U 528" had to put into Königsberg for repairs to superstructure.  This ramming occurred on 8th or 9th January, 1942.  
  (x)  Final Overhaul at Hamburg  
          Exercises completed, "U 528" returned to Hamburg, where she went into dock for final overhaul.  She remained at Hamburg from mid-January to 20th February.  
  (xi)  Completion of Torpedo-Firing Exercises  
          "U 528" left Hamburg to complete her working-up trials in the Baltic on 20th February.  Calling in at Kiel for a few hours, she reached Danzig on about 23rd February.  She immediately began further torpedo-firing exercises, which were completed by 8th March.  
  (xii)  Further Tactical Exercises  
          Further tactical exercises took place between the 10th and 15th March from Gdynia.  
  (xiii)  Silent Running Trials at Rönne  
          "U 528" underwent silent running trials off Rönne, on Bornholm Island, while working up, but the exact date is unknown.  
  (xiv)  Final Adjustments at Stettin  
          "U 528" put into the Oderwerke, Stettin, on 18th March.  Adjustments were completed about 6th April, and she had only a trimming test to undergo when von Rabenau, again drunk, rammed a pier and damaged her bows.  Provisional repairs were made with which "U 528" set out on her first patrol.  
          Torpedoes and fuel were embarked at Stettin about 10th April.  
  (xv)  At Kiel prior to First Patrol  
          Leaving Stettin on 11th April, "U 528" arrived at Kiel for the start of her first operational patrol on 14th April.  She here embarked fresh food only.  


  (i)  Complement  
          The complement of "U 528" numbered 56, of whom seven officers, including three midshipmen, and 38 ratings survived.  
  (ii)  Captain  
          The Captain was Oberleutnant zur See Georg von Rabenau, aged 27, 1936 Term.  He had served at one time as First Lieutenant in "U 504."  He took over "U 202" in autumn, 1942, relieving Kapitänleutnant Karl Heinz Fuchs, who had been transferred for reasons including deficient eyesight and "political unreliability."  It was said that, in the opinion of C.-in-C. U-Boats, von Rabenau's "political soundness" outweighed the fact that he was a drunkard.  When he twice involved his boat in collisions during working up as a result of heavy drinking, the incidents were overlooked.  
          Von Rabenau was a burly blonde young man with a full red beard.  This bluff exterior was belied by a shrewdness and cunning which became only too apparent during interrogation.  He produced no statement at all of any intelligence value.  
          Survivors regarded their Captain with mixed feelings.  While they did not criticise his ability, it appeared that they feared rather then respected him.  He had managed to instill into them a degree of security-consciousness which has seldom been excelled in this war.  
  (iii)  First Lieutenant  
          The First Lieutenant, Oberleutnant zur See Werner Opolka, aged 23, 1938 Term, had served from December, 1940, to May, 1942, on the Staff of Admiral Doenitz.  He was happier ashore then at sea and was considered a coward by the Lower Deck.  He was sly and pretentious in his conversations with Interrogating Officers.  
  (iv)  Second Lieutenant  
          Leutnant zur See Til Reinhardt, the Second Lieutenant, aged 20, 1940 Term, was described as little more than a "schoolboy."  He was injured during the final action.  
  (v)  Engineer Officer  
          The Engineer Officer, Oberleutnant (Ing.) Erwin Goerlich, aged 37, was the oldest and most experienced man on board.  He joined the German Navy as a rating in 1925, and was commissioned as Leutnant (Ing.) in 1940.  He said that he had served in battleships, cruisers, and minesweepers. as well as in other U-Boats.  He was a quiet, conventional man who divulged little or nothing.  He was regarded with considerable respect by survivors.  
  (vi)  Midshipmen  
          Of the three midshipmen, Faehnrich zur See Herbert Mann and Faehnrich zur See Werner Schoremer, were both aged 18.  They joined the German Navy together in October, 1941, and were both inexperienced and ignorant.  
          The third midshipman, Oberfaehnrich (Ing.) der Reserve Reimar Lüst, aged 20, had joined the German Navy in January, 1941, for hostilities only.  He claimed that he was due for promotion to the rank of Leutnant (Ing.).  He was Nazi-minded and very security-conscious.  
  (vii)  General  
          The Chief Petty Officer, Petty Officer and other rating survivors were, without exception, adamantly security-conscious.  They were a surly and thoroughly unpleasant body of men.  It appeared that the Engine Room personnel were more experienced in U-Boat warfare than the seamen.  One Stoker Petty Officer had made 13 patrols.  It was said that one torpedo rating, through inefficiency, had caused a battery explosion in an electric torpedo.  



          (i)  Survivors:  
English Equivalent.
Rabenau, Georg von Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant
Opolka, Werner Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant
Goerlich, Erwin Oberleutnant (Ing.) Lieutenant (E)
Reinhardt, Til Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant
Lüst, Reimar Oberfähnrich (Ing.) der Reserve Senior Midshipman (E) (Naval Res.)
Schömer, Werner Fähnrich zur See Midshipman
Mann, Herbert Fähnrich zur See Midshipman
Wolter, Gerhard Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Hinrichs, Bernhard Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Schneider, Karl Eugen Obersteuermann Chief Q.M.,  1st Class
Tietz, Egon Obermascinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class
Burr, Willh Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
Radecker, Heinz Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
Mai, Wilhelm Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
Schmidt, Heinz Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Schupp, Otto Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
22. 8.20
Jürgensen, Eduard Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Junge, Heinrich Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Remmert, Walter Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
Schwardt, Karl Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class
Gräfe, Werner Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
Koitschka, Willy Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Kuhn, Karl Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Köster, Karl Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Jansen, Werner Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Patalla, Werner Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
PIlz, Guido Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Kretschmer, Helmut Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Lau, Willi Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Kraft, Friedrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Leingruber, Siegfreid Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Fuhrmann, Reinhard Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Ludwig, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Faber, Rudlof Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Henne, Friedrich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Werner, Karl Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Ziegewwidt, Heinrich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Treine, Paul Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Maier, Emmerich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Bräuer, Rudlolf Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Stade, Horst Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Boe, Willi Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
Bock, Werner Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
Schulze, Gerhard Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
Franze, Günther Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
24 8.23
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
          (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Roeder, Heinze Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Silbermann, Gerhardt Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Haschke, Gerhart Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class
Bockorny, Rolf Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
Schutz, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Koledcie Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Hofling, Erich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Schulte Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Liszio Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Derling Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Wiotte Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
          (iii)  Total Crew:  
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .


          The following table shows the tank capacities of two IXc U-Boats.  
  "U 110"        Type IXc        Commissioned 21st October, 1940        Built by Deschimag, Bremen.  
  "U 528"        Type IXc        Commissioned 20th September, 1942    Built by Deutschewerft, Hamburg.
          The type numbers of the two boats are identical, and it seems probable that although the outer skins have been altered, the pressure hulls have remained the same.  
          The difference column shows the increased fuel oil capacity of the more recent boat.  This amounts to approximately 60 cubic metres (if it be assumed that the capacities of "Regelbunker" 1 of "U-528" have been given in error as twice their actual capacities which seems possible) or 75 cubic metres of the figures are correct.  
English Equivalent.
Capacities in cubic metres*
"U 110"
"U 528"
Increase in fuel tank capacities in "U 528"
Wasserdichtes Hack Stern buoyancy tank
Tauchzelle 1 No. 1 main ballast tank
Tauchbunker 2 No. 2 main ballast *emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 8.900
Pt. 8.900
+ 1.3
Tauchbunker 3 No. 3 main ballast (emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 12.900
Pt. 12.900
+ 4.9
Tauchbunker 4 No. 4 main ballast (emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 16.330
Pt. 16.330
+ 5.6
Regelbunker 1 Compensating (emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 7.490
Sb. 15.000
Pt. 7.490
Pt. 15.000
+ 15.0
Regelzelle 2 Compensating tank
Sb. 11.050
Pt. 11.050
Untertriebzelle Quick diving tank
Sb. 5.770
Pt. 5.770
Tauchzelle 5 No. 5 main ballast tank
Tauchbunker 6 No. 6 main ballast (emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 17.130
Pt. 17.130
+ 12.700
Tauchbunker 7 No. 7 main ballast (emergency fuel) tank
Sb. 16.300
Pt. 16.300
+ 7.000
Tauchzelle 8 No. 8 main ballast tank
Wasserdichtes Back Bow buoyancy tank
Trimzelle hintern After trimming tank
Trimzelle vorn Forward trimming tank
Torpedozelle 1 Stern W.R.T. tank Sb.
Torpedozelle 2 Stern W.R.T. tank Port
Torpedozelle 3 Forward W.R.T. tank Sb.
Torpedozelle 4 Forward W.R.T. tank Port
Triebölbunker aussen Outboard oil fuel tank
Sb. 27.340
Pt. 27.340
Triebölbunker 1 innen Inboard oil fuel tank
Sb. 5.360
Pt. 3.910
Triebölbunker 2 innen Inboard oil fuel tank
Sb. 7.850
Pt. 7.850
Schmutzmotorenöl tank Lubricating oil (dirty)
Motorenölsammel tank Sb. Lubricating oil collecting tank Sb. engine
Motorenölsammel tank Pt. Lubricating oil collecting tank Pt. engine
Triebölsammel bunker Fuel oil drain
Moterenölvorrats tank, Sb. 1 Reserve lubricating oil
Sb.  ?
Moterenölvorrats tank, Bb.2 Reserve lubricating oil
Pt.  ?
Motorenölhochbehälter, Sb. Fuel oil head regulator, Sb. engine
Motorenölhochbehälter, Bb. Fuel oil head regulator, Pt. engine
Triebölhochbehälter, Luft verdichter Fuel oil head regulator, Air compressor
Waschwasserbrauchsbehälter 1 Washing water (ready use)
Waschwasserbrauchsbehälter 2 Washing water (ready use)
Trinkwasserzelle 1 Drinking water tank 1
Trinkwasserzelle 2 Drinking water tank 2
Trinkwasserzelle 3 Drinking water tank 3
Trinkwasserzelle 4 Drinking water tank 4
? Nil   
Schmutzwasserzelle Dirty water tank
Distillatbehälter 1 Distilled water tank 1
Distillatbehälter 2 Distilled water tank 2
Distillatbehälter 3 Distilled water tank 3
* (N.I.D. Note.  1 cubic metre of fuel oil is approximately .85 ton.)
  (C49418)     500    8/43  



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