This record was kindly provided by the generous assistance of Tony Cooper

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  A 1,600-TON SUPPLY U-BOAT, SUNK AT 0510 ON 20th AUGUST, 1942.  
          "U 464" was a supply U-Boat.  She is the first of her type to be sunk this war from which prisoners have been captured.  This report contains a description of supply U-Boats and their functions.  
          She was straddled by depth-bombs from a United States Catalina aircraft at 0510 G.M.T. on 20th August 1942, in approximate position 61° 58 N., 17° 05' W., and so damaged that she was unable to dive.  She soon afterwards scuttled herself and 51 survivors were picked up by the Icelandic motor vessel "Skaftiellingur," which happened to be in the vicinity.  
          Between 0845 and 0930 they were embarked in H.M.S. "Castleton," which, together with H.M.S. "Newark," was detached from Force S.N.73 in answer to the aircraft's request, and brought into Reykjavik.  
          At 0200 on 21st August, the survivors embarked in H.M.S. "Queen of Bermuda" at Reykjavik for the United Kingdom.  
          Owing to the special nature of their boat, they had all received extensive security drill.  They had been told that prisoners from "U 570" (now H.M.S. "Graph") were to come before a court-martial after the war.  
          The following are the English equivalents of naval ranks used in this report:  
Kapitan zur See   Captain.
Fregattenkapitän   Commander (senior).
Korvettenkapitän   Commander (junior).
Kapitänleutnant   Lieutenant-Commander.
Oberleutnant zur See   Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See   Sub-Lieutenant.
  The expression (Ing.) after a rank denotes Engineer, (M.A.) denotes an officer holding a commission in the Marine Artillery and "der Reserve" denotes a reserve officer.  
          "U 464's" complement totalled 53, of which 51 survived.  
          The captain was Kapitänleutnant Otto Harms, of the 1933 term.  He wore the Iron Cross, 2nd Class, and the U-boat badge.  Before the war he served in the cruiser "Leipzig" and claimed to know a number of British naval officers, whom he had met in Ceuta and Tangier.  In 1937, he was adjutant of the 2nd Naval Gunnery Division and in 1938 joined the U-Boat arm.  He had command of "U 56," as 250-tonner, up to October, 1940, and made seven patrols in her, mostly in the North Sea area.  He was said never to have sunk a ship and to have won for himself a reputation for caution not suited to a U-boat captain.  Survivors said that it was doubtless this quality which caused him to be given command of a supply U-boat.  During most of 1941, Harms served ashore at the Gdynia U-boat school.  On 1st January, 1942, he was promoted Kapitänleutnant and shortly afterwards given command of "U 464."  Harms had a very good opinion of himself and used to say "The name Harms stands for quality."  His subordinates did not share this view.  He was unpopular with his ship's company who thought him too severe.  To complaints he replied that he was the captain and that was that.  Before joining the navy, he served for a short while with the Norddeutscher Lloyd Company.  
          Oberleutnant zur See Erich Voelz, the First Lieutenant, was aged 38 and was promoted from the lower deck.  He entered the German navy in 1925 as an ordinary seaman and was commissioned in the spring of 1940.  After a period at sea he went to Gdynia for U-Boat training.  He was the most experienced man in the boat, having been 17 years at sea.  He wore the Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd Class, the sports badge and the U-Boat badge.  Between leaving his U-Boat school and joining "U 464," he served in three U-boats in the Atlantic.  He gave more orders to his brother officers than to the men who considered him efficient.  
          The Second Lieutenant, Oberleutnant zur See der Reserve Herbert Rannoch, aged 30, was in the merchant service before the war, when he served in the Norddeutscher Lloyd liners "Bremen" and "Potsdam."  He was the captain's secretary.  He joined the German naval reserve on 1st July, 1940 having first closed down his building business in Berlin.  After undergoing the officer cadet's course at Stralsund, he took a W/T course at Aurich.  He volunteered for U-Boats to get away from  
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  W/T, which he disliked and was sent to the U-Boat school at Pillau, where he went to sea on a number of occasions in school-boats commanded by Wernhagen and Meyer.  He was commissioned in 1941 and latter appointed to "U 464."  Like most of "U 464's" ship's company, he had a low opinion of his captain.  He was a fervent admirer of the British, whom he had got to know well while in the merchant service.  At the interrogation he wept at the thought of Britain and Germany being at war.  Some of the crew thought him a coward.  
          The Engineer Officer, Leutnant (Ing.) Friedrich Bach, aged 30, had also been promoted from the lower deck.  It was his first U-Boat patrol.  His shipmates thought he lacked courage at the time of "U 464's" sinking, when he urged the abandonment of the boat.  
          "U 464" also carried a Surgeon-Lieutenant, Marineoberassistentarzt Ernst Linka.  In accordance with the terms of the Geneva Convention governing the treatment of prisoners of war, he was not available for interrogation.  
          Of the remaining 48 members of "U 464's" ship's company, five were Chief Petty Officers, 16 Petty Officers, and 27 other ratings.  Of this total, 18 were seamen, four telegraphists and 26 engine room personnel.  
          Some of the Chief Petty Officers had had considerable experience.  Six of them had done between three and nine previous patrols.  The other members of the crew, however, had no previous patrols to their credit and were the usual type of young and inexperienced U-Boat personnel.  
          The atmosphere in "U 464" was not happy.  Not only did the Officers not get on well together but the Petty Officers also failed to see eye to eye.  This had a depressing effect on the rest of the ship's company, many of whom said after capture that they had felt all along that something would go wrong in their boat.  
          The Chief Quartermaster had asked the captain if he might carry out the duties of the Third Officer of the Watch, which is customary in U-Boats, but this was refused.  Survivors disliked him greatly and said that this would have made matters even worse.  Harms said this man was so uneducated that he could not even count.  
          All survivors said they would much rather not have served in a supply U-Boat.  "U 464's" original Chief Quartermaster felt this so strongly that he managed to get himself drafted elsewhere.  
          One E.R.A. was drafted to "U 464" when she called at Bergen to take the place of a sick man.  
          On capture, seven of her ratings were found to be suffering from acute gonorrhea, while about half the remainder, mostly stokers, appeared to be in the convalescent stage.  They tried to excuse themselves by saying they had bad colds.  
          Some of the experienced personnel were intended for transfer to other U-Boats if required.  
          "U 464," a 1,600 ton, Type XIV boat of the serial "U 459" to "U 464" (see Section VIII.) was laid down at the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, on 12th March, 1941.  She was built on the slips next to the plate sheds and iron store (Marked number 44 in plan 20 to C.B. 1818).  She was launched on 31st December, 1941.  Many of her future complement were then drafted to Kiel to stand by the boat during completion.  While at Kiel, the ship's company were accommodated in the old cruiser "Hamburg" in the Deutsche Werke until she was hit by a bomb and burnt out on 13th March, 1942, after which they were accommodated in barracks close to the Ellerbeker Tor.  
          One man, who was drafted to her on 12th February, 1942, said that on that day she lay in dry dock No. 2, in the Süd Werft (see Plan No. 20 to C.B. 1818), where she was having her bottom painted and electrical fittings installed.  She did not enter the pressure-dock, owing to her excessive beam.  Soon afterwards, she proceeded to a berth opposite the smithery in the Inner Hafen, where she lay until her commissioning on 30th April.  This was celebrated by a party on board the accommodation ship "Sierra Cordoba," lying in the Wik harbour.  Kapitänleutnant Oskar Möhle, Senior Officer of the 5th U-Boat Flotilla, to which she was attached, came on board "U 464" and inspected her.  
          As soon as she was commissioned, "U 464" passed into the hands of the U-Boats Acceptance Command, for which she did trials near Kiel throughout May.  These included trimming tests and engine trials.  She went over the D.G. range at Holtenau.  
          At the end of May, having completed trials under the U-Boats Acceptance Command, she proceeded to Danzig, on which port she was based until the beginning of July.  While at Danzig she was under the orders of the U-Boats Acceptance Division ("U-Boots Abnahme Gruppe"), under the supervision of which she did a number of tactical exercises in the Baltic, one of them lasting for 10 days.  These included the transfer of oil to other U-boats and diving tests.  On one of these exercises she was rammed on her port quarter at night by another U-Boat, but the pressure hull was not damaged.  The collision took place because the captain insisted on cutting through an operational grid square instead of skirting it, although he knew there were other U-Boats exercising in it.  The bow of the other U-Boat was stove in as far as the pressure hull.  The first time "U 464" dived she ran aground, having in error submerged to 170 metres (557 ft.).  This caused temporary chaos in the boat, but little damage.  


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          While based on Danzig, she often made short trips to Gdynia and back, partly to please her captain, Harms, whose wife lived there.  In Gdynia, Harms made a speech to the younger ratings forbidding them to drink spirits while ashore.  On one occasion they visited Stettin for one night.  
          At the beginning of July she went to Hela for her Agru-Front training.  (For description see C.B. 4051 (46) ).  This lasted for a week.  The Agru-Front Senior Officer, Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Suhren, came on board once, but usually sent his representative.  "U 464" lay alongside a 500-ton boat which herself lay next to a mine-laying U-Boat.  During the week that "U 464" was based on Hela, she did a number of steep dives one of which was at an angle of 42°.  (See also Section VI (xxiv).)  
          Early in July she returned to Kiel via Rönne, on the island of Bornholm, where she remained two days testing her auxiliaries for silent running.  Her arrival at Rönne was delayed by the receipt of a signal reporting the presence of three Russian submarines in the vicinity, awaiting an opportunity to raid traffic between Germany and Scandinavia.  
          On reaching Kiel she berthed in the same position opposite the smithery in the Deutsch Werke that she had formerly occupied, and the ship's company went on to leave in watches while she was overhauled.  In an air-raid at the end of July, two incendiary bombs fell on her upper deck, and burnt out one of her torpedo containers.  While fitting out the marking buoys were, as usual, taken out.  She was only 11 days fitting out and survivors thought this was far to short for a boat of her type.  
          She remained at her berth at the Deutsche Werke for 14 days, and about 27th July, proceeded to the Tirpitz pier at Kiel-Wik.  Next day she moved to the Gneisenau jetty, where she embarked four torpedoes, afterwards making fast at the Iltis pier from which she proceeded each day until she berthed alongside the neighboring mole, where she took on board her stores direct from lorries.  Prisoners were not certain where she had fuelled before sailing, as many of them were on leave at the time.  They thought, however, that it was from a tanker, as on previous occasions.  
          While she lay at Kiel-Wik, her ship's company were accommodated in the Wik barracks.  
          Between the time of her leaving the yards and sailing on her patrol, "U 464" carried an identification mark consisting of a red circle.  
          During 14 days of her working up, "U 464" carried a Leutnant zur See who acted as Second Lieutenant.  He was there for training and one man believed that he is now Second Lieutenant in either "U 467" or "U 468."  (See Section VIII).  
          On returning to Kiel, Harms discharged his Chief Quartermaster, named Ohlmann, whom he considered inefficient and with whom he had not been able to see eye to eye.  He blamed Ohlmann for having navigated his boat into a minefield off Danzig and for having taken far too long to make Gdynia.  
(All times are German Summer Time)
          "U 464" sailed from Kiel-Wik at 0700 on 4th August 1942.  She was accompanied by two 500-tonners, which proceeded astern of her, and by two or three UJ-Boats.  At the lightship at the seaward end of the fjord they were obliged to heave to for some hours while British mines said to have been laid by aircraft the previous evening were swept.  They finally proceeded to sea at 1000.  On passage between Kiel and Kristiansand S. the four M.G.s were in position on the conning-tower in case of need but were later stowed below.  
          They proceeded on the surface through the Great Belt, the Kattegat and the Skagerrak to Kristiansand S., which they made early in the morning of 5th August.  "U 464" and the other two U-Boats made fast at the pier at Soelyst opposite the corn silos and her ship's company were granted shore leave.  The same afternoon there was a football match between her seaman and engine-room personnel, the engine-room winning 5-2.  In the evening the ship's companies of "U 464" and the two accompanying 500-tonners assembled for a "Bierabend" in the barracks opposite the Kristiansholm fort.  Officers sat at one table and the men at separate tables.  
          Apart from a few minor store items, "U 464" did not embark anything while in this port.  
          About 0700 on 6th August, she and one 500-tonner sailed from Kristiansand S. escorted by two UJ-Boats and proceeded northwards along the Norwegian coast.  Soon after leaving Kristiansand S. the two UJ-Boats and the 500-tonner parted company and "U 464" did a practise dive to 90 metres.  On surfacing, however, it was found that she was leaving an oil track.  The exact reason for this is difficult to determine; an officer said that the trouble was due to two fuel pipes in a tank having been wrongly connected at the time of her building.  He did not think this was sabotage, but ascribed it to lack of experience in building this type of boat.  The tank where the trouble developed was No. 3A to port.  (See Plate 3.)  Harms was at first not certain whether to put into a Norwegian port or whether to proceed as planned.  He reported the matter to the Admiral U-Boats, who immediately ordered him to proceed to Bergen for repairs.  
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          About 8th August, "U 464" arrived at Bergen, where she lay in the dry-dock of the Laksevaag Maskine og Jernskibs Byggeri at Laksevaag.  Her ship's company were accommodated at the Lutzow barracks in the centre of the town and on one occasion visited the Prein barracks for a cinema show.  While in dry-dock, all oil fuel was pumped out of the tank concerned, which was thoroughly overhauled and re-welded.  She then carried out a trial locally, but the leak was still present and she had once more to enter dry-dock.  This time, however, the defect was made good.  
          In the yards at Bergen was one 740-ton U-Boat with the badge of Neptune's trident inverted and several torpedo-boats were in the harbour.  "U 464's" men fraternized with those of the 740-tonner, comparing notes on their respective daily rations.  They discovered that "U 464's" rations were considerably worse than the 740-tonner's and this augmented the bad tone in their boat.  
          While in Bergen, four ratings were court-martialed for having sold their boat's provisions to the local German soldiery and were replaced by four others.  One E.R.A. was landed, suffering from severe toothache, and was also replaced.  "U 464" also disembarked 70 cwt. of fresh potatoes, which had gone bad and replaced them with dehydrated potatoes.  
          She sailed finally from Bergen at 2100 on 16th August, escorted out of the leads by one patrol boat.  She hugged the Norwegian coast until, reaching the latitude of the Faeroes, she altered course to 345°.  Her original orders had been changed.  
          "U 464's" orders were to proceed to sea for the purpose of refuelling and reprovisioning some 10 U-Boats off the South American coast and in the Caribbean, afterwards making St. Nazaire.  She was originally expected to be at sea until early in October, though this period was liable to extension.  
          The exact positions where she was to rendezvous with other U-Boats have not been definitely established.  A rating said that she was ordered to proceed to an approximate position 15° N., 45° W., where she was to refuel certain boats and afterwards to enter the Caribbean.  An officer, on the other hand, said their orders on leaving Norway were to proceed through the Rosengarten into the Atlantic and there await further instructions from the Admiral U-Boats.  (N.I.D. Note:  It is concerned doubtful whether this boat was to proceed to the Caribbean.)  All their kit had been packed and sent to St. Nazaire before they sailed.  Tropical kit had been issued to all on board.  
          On 17th August, "U 464" dived between 0400 and 0500 to 60 m. (197 ft.) and did not surface until between 2200 and 2300 the same evening.  This routine was repeated daily until her sinking.  Harms was taking no risks of being attacked by aircraft, especially as the weather was overcast, with low cloud prevalent, and he knew the area to be generally well covered.  Survivors said that each day at about 1600 the atmosphere in the boat was almost unbearable.  They were, moreover, ordered to stay still so as to conserve oxygen.  
          The first night out from Bergen, when "U 464" had been surfaced for about half an hour, a Petty Officer reported an aircraft which had just appeared out of a low cloud.  None on board paid any attention, however, and "U 464" proceeded on her course.  Survivors said that the aircraft did not sight them.  
          On reaching latitude 65° N. she altered course to 240° to make the passage of the Rosengarten.  She proceeded at a depth of 70 m. (230 ft.), always on the same course.  An officer said that the British mines lay mostly 30 to 40 m. (16-22 fms,) below the surface, with an occasional mine at 60 m.  (33 fms.)  They therefore thought they would be quite safe at 70 m.  When on the surface at night she usually proceeded at about 12 knots.  
          Her hydrophones were continuously manned while submerged and each time that she surfaced she received W/T signals from the Admiral U-Boats.  
          Early one morning about this time, according to Harms, "U 464" received a signal from the Admiral U-Boats reporting the movements of what survivors described as a strongly escorted Allied convoy.  This signal is alleged to have added that "U 464's" and the convoy's courses would cross each other on 20 August.  (N.I.D. Note:  It is doubtful which convoy was concerned and unlikely that "U 464" would be given a course to cross that of any convoy.)  
V.  SINKING OF "U 464"
          (N.I.D. Note:  This section has been prepared from survivors' statements and from reports from the attacking aircraft, H.M. Ships "Castleton," and "Newark" and the master of the "Skaftfellingur" V.E.33.  All times are G.M.T.)  
          "U 464" spent the night of 19th/20th August proceeding at slow speed on the surface on a course of roughly 240° some 150 miles south of Iceland.  Although he had been warned of the presence of an enemy force by the Admiral U-Boats, Harms was feeling more confident now that he had successfully negotiated the British minefields and was not in such a hurry to submerge as hitherto.  He nevertheless ordered the look-out to keep an extra careful watch.  Some survivors thought that he was waiting to receive orders from the Admiral U-Boats regarding his course in the immediate future.  Instead, therefore, of diving about 0400 as soon as he had received the day's  


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  signals he decided to remain on the surface a short while longer.  He did not consult any of his officers before taking this decision.  Survivors considered his action all the more rash as there were low clouds prevalent, thus increasing the danger of attack from aircraft.  At one point, "U 464" nearly hit a floating mine.  
          Ar 0254 on 20 August a United States Catalina aircraft PBY-5A-1 of Squadron 73, took off from Reykjavik on the assigned mission of escorting a British task force in the south-east area.  It shaped course for a point 60 miles ahead of the task force's estimated position.  On reaching this point it turned and flew down the force's estimated route, E.T.A. at task force's position being 0510.  
          At 0501 the aircraft sighted a light off its port bow, which on investigation turned out to be a small two-masted Icelandic fishing vessel with the Icelandic flag painted on her sides.  
          At 0504 the Catalina resumed its course and at 0510 sighted a shape bearing 350° relative about 1-1/2 miles distant in approximate position 61° 25' N., 14° 40' W.  The aircraft at first thought this to be a destroyer and fired a recognition signal from the port blister.  According to survivors this signal was one white followed by one red; "U 464's" signal for the day was five red.  The aircraft then closed to a mile, when it became apparent that the object was a submarine fully surfaced doing less than four knots on a course at right angles to the aircraft and crossing the aircraft's bows from port to starboard.  The Catalina was flying 500 ft. above sea level.  
          It was just dawn, the sky was completely overcast, there were numerous rain squalls and a 35-knot wind was making a heavy sea.  
          The aircraft immediately lost altitude and went to battle stations.  While it was descending "U 464" ignited a flare fixed to the conning-tower which showed a white to yellow light.  Several men on her bridge waved at the aircraft, which at 0510 released five of her six 325 lbs. Mark XVII, Model I Depth-bombs, having a fuse setting of 25 ft. and a stick spacing of 45 ft., at 140 knots.  The sixth bomb failed to release.  Shortly before the bombs fell, "U 464" started to zig-zag.  
          Survivors said one of the bombs exploded to starboard, one to port and three fell on the upper deck forward.  The starboard bomb did the most damage, blowing in diving tanks and giving the U-Boat a considerable list.  It also damaged the pressure-hull.  One of the bombs that fell on deck wrecked a torpedo-container.  
          Survivors said they were taken completely by surprise.  They threw the bombs that had fallen on deck into the water, where they exploded at an estimated depth of about 20 metres (66 ft.), shaking the Diesels on their beds.  A trimming tank was also wrecked and the W/T put out of order.  Two columns of water, 75 and 100 ft. high respectively, were visible from the aircraft on either side of "U 464" as it turned and circled above her before opening fire with its port 50 and bow 30 calibre guns.  By this time "U 464" had manned her 20 mm. gun on the bridge and returned the aircraft's fire, firing two magazines before a faulty round caused the 20 mm, to cease fire.  She also fired her after 3.7 cm. (1.45 in.) gun.  
          The first bursts from both the aircraft's guns were seen to hit the U-Boat.  The aircraft then pulled into the clouds and circled making another run during which fire was once more exchanged.  
          By this time, "U 464" appeared from the aircraft to be badly damaged, losing a large amount of oil, developing a list to starboard and steering a very erratic course.  
          During the aircraft's second attack her crew described the fire from "U 464" as quite accurate and as the range had become too great for effective tracer aiming from the aircraft, she decided to call for help on her W/T, meanwhile remaining in the clouds out of range.  For the next three-quarters of an hour, therefore, the aircraft employed these tactics, the U-Boat opening fire whenever it came within range.  At about 0600 a squall settled over the U-Boat and the aircraft lost contact.  
          As soon as the aircraft attack was over, "U 464" started to look for two of her men who had been washed overboard while manning the 3.7 cm. gun, but was unable to find them.  Harms then ordered speed to be increased, while it was ascertained whether the boat was capable of submerging.  Despite the damage, she managed to attain 8 or 9 knots.  After a short while, the Engineer Officer reported that the boat was incapable of diving and Harms then decided to abandon ship at the earliest opportunity.  At this point, "U 464" sighted the Icelandic fishing vessel which had been identified earlier the same morning by the Catalina.  She then stopped and Harms ordered "Abandon ship."  The fishing vessel drifted her life-raft down towards "U 464" but the line parted, so her master shouted to the crew to jump overboard, when he would try and pick them up.  He also made three or four unsuccessful attempts to close the U-boat.  "U 464" tried to launch her dinghy, but the inflating gear could not be found.  Thinking they might possibly be at sea for a long period, most survivors furnished themselves with a watertight container full of provisions and swam with them towards the Icelander.  
          Prisoners said that their decision to abandon ship was largely influenced by the knowledge that even if the aircraft was no longer evident, it had certainly signalled their position to destroyers or other aircraft.  An officer said that they could have repaired the damage by welding in two or three hours, but they felt sure the British force would have arrived before then.  
          Before abandoning ship, "U 464" had succeeded in rigging up an emergency W/T set and signalled the Admiral U-Boats that she had been attacked by aircraft, was unable to dive, and that she was scuttling herself.  The signal added that the ship's company was saved.  Survivors were especially concerned at their W/T having been rendered useless so early in the proceedings, as they thought there were other U-Boats nearby to which they could have signalled for assistance.  
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Click this text to view a photo of the crew of the VP-73 Catalina that attacked U-464

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          No scuttling charge were fired to sink "U 464."  This was effected by opening the vents forward.  Survivors greatly criticised the Engineer Officer for not having done this himself, leaving it instead to the Control Room and Engine Room Petty Officers, one of whom was nearly drowned in the process.  
          "U 464" then sank on an even keel in approximate position 61° 58' N., 17° 05' W., at about 0815.  Shortly before doing so, she hoisted the German ensign and the last three men on board, one of whom was Harms, sprang into the water.  
          Some survivors blamed the deck watch for not having seen the aircraft sooner.  The watch consisted of one officer, Oberleutnant zur See Voelz, and three ratings.  Most prisoners, however, were inclined to blame the captain for having taken an unnecessary risk in remaining surfaced when he knew that enemy forces were in the neighbourhood.  
          When it was suggested to them that they could have escaped the aircraft's first attack by crash-diving, prisoners said that it took them much longer than the usual 30 seconds to do this and that to attempt a dive would only have made things worse.  
          The position of the Icelandic fishing vessel, subsequently identified as the "Skaftellingur" V.E.33, was regarded with some suspicion by the British destroyer which arrived later.  Some survivors, in fact, stated that her master was willing to take them all back to Norway.  The British destroyers stated that her master appeared delighted to be rid of his charges when transferring them later to a British ship.  "Skaftfellingur" carried no W/T.  
          At 0529 the Catalina had signalled its base as follows:  Am over submarine in position 61° 25' N., 14° 40 W." and this was passed on to the ships of R.A. (M)'s Squadron at 0540.  At 0635 R.A. (M) received a V/S light signal from the aircraft "Submarine attacked 0510 61 25' N., 14 40 W., ahead on your track."  At 0738 the aircraft signalled R.A. (M) "Send cruiser to capture submarine in position in direction we are flying 10 miles."  and a few minutes later R.A. (M) ordered H.M. "Castleton" and "Newark" to co-operate with the aircraft to hunt for the U-boat.  
          "Castleton" and "Newark" then followed the Catalina to the position where "U 464" had last been sighted.  It was not known at that time what had happened to the U-boat, but at 0826 "Castleton" signalled "Submarine believed sunk," and this was later confirmed by the Catalina.  "Skaftellingur" V.E.33 was then sighted close to the position where the U-boat was believed to have sunk and "Castleton" closed her.  The sea was covered with strong-smelling Diesel oil from the sunken U-boat for about a mile around.  A few lifeboats and pieces of floating wreckage, but no corpses were seen.  
          When close alongside, "Castleton" sent her whaler over to "Skaftellingur" to embark prisoners, while "Newark" gave A/S protection.  The transfer of prisoners was carried out expeditiously in very unfavorable weather conditions for boat work and at 0936 "Castleton" and "Newark" rejoined their squadron at 22 knots.  Both ships resumed their positions in the screen by 1320.  
          The master of the "Skaftellingur" reported that some of "U 464's" survivors told him they had picked up four German airman out of a crew of six, but under interrogation prisoners ridiculed this idea.  
  (i)  Displacement  
          1,600-ton type.  Some survivors said submerged displacement was 1,720 tons and surface displacement, 1,460 tons.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  This displacement is approximately double that of H.M.S. "Graph" ex "U 570".)  
  (ii)  Type  
  (iii)  Builders  
          Deutsche Werke, Kiel.  
  (iv)  Series  
          "U 459" to "U 464," of which all completed.  (See also Section VIII.)  
  (v)  Length  
          67 m.  (220 ft.)  
  (vi)  Beam  
          About 8 m. (29 ft.) over all, including external tanks, which are 1-1/2 m. (4.9 ft.) broad on top; the breadth of the upper deck is about 5 m. (16.4 ft.).  
  (vii)  Draught Fully Loaded  
          6.5 m. (21.3 ft.).  


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  (viii)  Propulsion  
          (a)  Diesels.  By Germania Werft, of Krupp type.  Same as in a 500-ton U-Boat.  Known on board as "Fitch" and "Tetschi."  
          (b)  Motors.  Built by Brown Boveri Compagnie, of Mannheim.  Same as in 500-ton U-Boat.  
  (ix)  Reduction Gear  
          A reduction gear of 1 : 2 was employed between engines and propellers.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  "Graph" has no reduction gear and it is considered doubtful whether "U 464" was so fitted.)  
  (x)  Maximum Speed  
          Surface, 15 knots (fully loaded, 13.5 knots).  Submerged, 6 knots.  
  (xi)  Economic Speed  
          Prisoners stated that the economic speed, using both Diesels, was 10 knots and that the economic speed when employing Diesel-electric drive was 4 knots.  
  (xii)  Fuel  
          Between 600 and 700 tons of fuel were carried, of which about 200 tons were for own use, leaving approximately 50 tons for each of the 10 boats she was to refuel.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  "Graph" carried 115 tons of fuel, of which 55 percent, is inside pressure hull and remainder in external tanks.  
  (xiii)  Victualling Stores  
          35 to 40 tons of victualling stores were carried for other U-Boats.  
  (xiv)  Construction  
          (a)  Pressure Hull.  The maximum diameter of the pressure hull was stated by most prisoners to be the same as in the 500-ton boat H.M.S. "Graph" (ex "U 570"), namely 4.75 m.  (15 ft. 8 in.).  It was mentioned that the pressure hull did not taper as much as in "Graph."  
          The transverse "T" frames except in the centre section, were stated to be built outside the pressure hull and not, as is normal, inside the hull.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  It is considered that the above arrangement of "T" frames is practicable.)  
          The "T" frames were about 2-1/2 in. broad.  
          The fore and aft girders were stated to be spaced about 6 ft. apart and to be about 4 in. broad.  
          Prisoners had the impression that there was more space inside the pressure hull than in normal 500-ton boats, which may be due to the fact that a supply U-boat does not require a number of fittings which would be required in a normal operational boat.  The fact that there were no torpedo tubes, nor torpedoes carried inside the boat, would add considerably to the space available.  
          (b)  Thickness of Pressure Hull.  18 mm.  (.71 in.)  There is no information as to whether the thickness varies.  
          (c)  Freeboard.  An officer said that the distance between the pressure hull and the wooden upper deck was about the same as in 500-ton U-Boats, namely about 2.3 ft. amidships.  The upper deck is wooden throughout, except for the vertical casing.  
          (d)  Watertight Bulkheads.  (See Plate I).  "U 464" had five watertight bulkheads, of which three were dished, namely, one at each end of the control room and the one between the P.O.'s mess and bow torpedo compartment.  
          (e)  Hatches.  Five.  
          (f)  Decks.  The electric motor compartment was divided into two decks.  In the upper were two large air bottles, the distilling plant and provisions, and in the lower the electric motors.  
          (g)  Bunks.  Bunks were in three tiers.  
  (xv)  Slips  
          Forward and aft.  
  (xvi)  Armament  
          (a)  Guns.  Two 3.7 cm. (1.46 in.) one before and one abaft the conning-tower.  One 20 mm. on the bridge.  Four M.G.s not fixed.  Mounting for 10.5 cm. (4.1 in.) but this was not fitted.  Survivors stated that they were not more heavily armed because they were under orders not to attack.  
          (b)  Ammunition.  Magazine had dimensions 2 yards by 1 yard by 1 yard and a capacity of about 4 tons.  (See Plate I).  There were also eight upper deck containers each containing 30 rounds.  
          (c)  Torpedoes.  Four air torpedoes in containers on upper deck.  (See Plate 2).  Davits for handling torpedoes.  No torpedo tubes.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  It is considered that there may also be room for stowage of torpedoes inside the U-Boat.)  
          (d)  Mines.  None.  
          (e)  Scuttling Charges.  Five, three of which in magazine and two outside Captain's cabin.  
  (xvii)  Tanks  
          A plan of "U 464's" tanks is given as Plate 3.  (N.I.D. Note:  The plan of tanks, having been obtained from prisoners' statements only, must be accepted with reserve.  It is considered that there would be some diving tanks forward, as the trimming tanks shown would be inadequate.)  The external tanks extend the whole length of the pressure hull and are continued down to the keel.  The tanks are divided by the vertical keel plate, except tank 6a, in which there is a lightened keel plate.  
  (C47371)                                                                                                                              *  


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          The external tanks were strengthened by plates extending between the pressure hull and outside plating of the tanks.  Man-holes for inspection and cleaning were fitted at the top of the tanks and between adjacent tanks.  
          Prisoners stated that the tanks with the maximum capacity were 3a and 4a, respectively, before ana abaft the conning tower.  Tanks 2a and 1a, and similarly 5 a and 6a, decrease in capacity progressively approaching stern and bow.  Only the inner tanks 3 and 4 carried lubricating oil.  
  (xviii)  Tank Capacities  
          (a)  Crash-diving tanks (two), 65 tons each.  
          (b)  Trimming tanks (four), 30 tons each.  
          (c)  Inner fuel tanks (four), 54 tons each.  
          Should an excess pressure develop in the tanks, there was a safety valve fitted.  
          Each of the two compensating tanks took about 30 gallons of water in order to allow for adjustment of displacement through fuel and victuals consumption.  
  (xix)  Spares Carried for Other U-Boats  
          Three cylinders for Diesels.  
          Two pistons for Diesels.  
          Six torpedo pistols.  
          One Junkers compressor.  
          Note:  Some spares for Diesels were carried in a container on deck.  
  (xx)  Hydrophones  
          G.H.G. gear fitted on either side of bow.  (See C.B. 4051 (49), page 13).  
  (xxi)  S-Gear  
          S-gear set and K.D.B. operating in conjunction.  (See C.B. 4051 (49). page 13).  
  (xxii)  S.B.T.  
          Two carried; one in motor compartment and one in bow compartment.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  The S.B.T. is an apparatus which enables the U-Boat to lay a bubble target which may mislead asdic-fitted vessels, who may maintain contact with it instead of with the U-Boat.)  
  (xxiii)  Communications  
          W/T.  "U 464" carried three W/T transmitters, one a 40/70, one a 150 and one a 200-watt set.  Of these, only the 200-watt set was ever used.  She had two receiving sets, one an all-wave and the other a five-valve "6-Kreis" set.  The W/T sets received their current from the batteries through a transformer, which gave 110 volts.  
          V/H/F.  She originally carried a V/H/F set, but it was removed before she sailed.  
          R/T.  None.  
          D/F.  The D/F set was by Lorenz.  
  (xxiv)  Diving  
          (a)  Guaranteed Depth.  120 metres (394 ft.).  
          (b)  Maximum Depth.  Not permitted to dive below 216 m. (708 ft.) even in emergency.  
          (c)  Maximum Depth.  Attained.  160 m.  (534 ft.).  
          (d)  Diving Routine.  Normally dived to 40 m.  (131 ft.) before trimming.  One ton of water was blown for every further 10 m.  (33 ft.) depth below 40 m.  
        (e)  Crash-diving.  It took her about 60 seconds to reach 30 m. (98.4 ft.).
          (f)  Angle of Dive.  She once dived at 42°(N.I.D. Note:  No dive at this angle would be intentional as not only would it probably spill the acid from the battery but other serious difficulties would arise.).  
  (xxv)  Periscopes  
          Two.  Periscope depth was 15 m. (49 ft.).  
  (xxvi)  Propellers  
          Two.  Fitted with guard about 2 ft. long to prevent fouling of fuel hose.  
  (xxvii)  Dinghies  
          Two.  One, 30 ft. by 5 ft., for torpedo transfer, and a 20 ft. dinghy for transfer of stores.  Before proceeding on patrol she also carried a wooden dinghy with outboard motor, but this was landed before sailing.  
  (xxviii)  Air-conditioning Plant  
          She carried an air-conditioning plant.  
  (xxix)  Shower-bath  
          She was fitted with a shower-bath in her control room.  
  (xxx)  Town of Adoption  
  (xxxi)  Badge  


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  (i)  Procedure  
          In order to refuel another U-boat at sea, the "Versorgungsboot" proceeds ahead.  She then casts overboard a wire tow rope, secured to either side of which are a fuel hose and a lubricating oil hose.  The end of the tow rope is supported and marked by two red and white buoys.  About 55 fms. of tow is then veered astern and is picked up by the boat requiring fuel, who secures it to her bow slips and is towed by it.  
          Transfer is generally effected at night and, if possible, in calm weather.  Areas for transfer were least traffic is expected are usually those chosen.  
  (ii)  Position of Connections  
          There are four connections on the upper deck (see Plate 2).  Of these, the two foremost are for fuel oil and the other two for lubricating oil.  
  (iii)  Securing of Oil Hoses  
          The oil hoses are connected in the "Versorgungsboot" during transfer by means of special gear right aft inside the casing.  
  (iv)  Stowage of Oil Hoses  
          The oil hoses are both stowed in a special container aft on the starboard side, between the pressure hull and upper deck (see Plate 2).  
  (v)  Avoidance of Oil Track  
          In order to prevent an oil track being left by the hoses, they are plugged at both ends before stowing.  Prior to stowing, they are blown through with compressed air.  To do this, an air lead is connected to an adaptor in the stopper at one end of the hose, the other end of which is closed except for a smaller corresponding opening.  
  (vi)  Description of Hoses  
          The hoses are each about 328 ft. in length and are made up of nine or ten lengths of 32.8 ft. each.  They are constructed of canvas and rubber.  The fuel hose is slightly larger than that for lubricating oil and has a diameter of about 15 cms. (6 in.).  
  (vii)  Reserve Hoses  
          Several lengths of both fuel and lubricating oil hoses are kept in containers in the casing (see Plate 2).  
  (viii)  Oil Pumps  
          There are two electric centrifugal pumps (Kreisel Pumpen) on either side of the diesel compartment for lubricating oil supply, and two force pumps on either side of the control room for fuel supply.  It was stated that fuel could be supplied at the maximum rate of 18 tons per hour but was generally less.  
  (ix)  Measurement of Fuel Trans-shipped  
          Fuel trans-shipped may be measured either by means of a special central gauge or by the individual fuel gauges on each tank.  The latter is the more usual method.  The central fuel gauge is in the control room and can be switched to any given tank.  A similar gauge for lubricating oil measurement is on the starboard side of the diesel compartment.  
  (i)  "U 459"  
          "U 459" has already been on two patrols and returned safely to a French port; she was stated to have already refuelled U-Boats at sea.  
(ii)  "U 461"
          "U 461" was stated to have had to return to port on account of an oil trace.  
  (iii)  "U 463"  
          "U 463" sailed on her first patrol two or three days after "U 464" returned to Kiel for her final overhaul.  She did her U.A.K. trials in March.  Her armament is the same as that of "U 464."  
          (N.I.D. Note:  "U 464" is known to be one of the 1,600-ton, Type XIV, supply U-Boats of the series beginning with "U 459," of which six, namely "U 459" - "U 464" are known to be commissioned.  There is some evidence that this series may extend from "U 459" to "U 468" and that 14 in all of this type may be either built or building; it is possible however that U-boats from "U 465" onwards may be 500-tonners.)  


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          "U 62."  A prisoner who had served for the last three months of 1939 in "U 62" said that she was then commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Makowski.  He did three short patrols in her in the North Atlantic.  On her second patrol they sank two freighters, but nothing on either of the others.  
          "U 137."  "U 137" was commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Massmann late in 1941, when she was operating off the Norwegian coast.  
          One man said she was being used as a school-boat.  
          "U 149."  A prisoner said that he had done three patrols in "U 149" in the North Sea prior to leaving her in mid-December, 1941, in Kiel.  On the first two patrols they met with reasonable success, but sank nothing on the third.  He did not give the name of her captain.  
          "U 209."  Between February and May, 1942, "U 209," commanded by Kapitänleutnant Brodda, did two patrols in the Arctic.  After the first she returned to Bergen, where her ship's company were decorated by Admiral von Schrader for gallantry in the face of heavy depth-charge attacks.  Whilst on this patrol they attacked one ship, only to find that a torpedo from "U 376," commanded by Kapitänleutnant Marks, sank her before theirs reached her.  
          On reaching Bergen, "U 209" proceeded to Kiel, whence she made another patrol soon afterwards, returning to Kiel in May, 1942.  
          Just before "U 464" left on her sole patrol, Brodda returned from his third patrol.  Brodda is a great friend of Kapitänleutnant Hoschatt, another U-Boat commander.  
          "U 213."  Oberleutnant von Varendorff, in command of "U 213" returned to Lorient from a 42-day patrol in October, 1941.  During this cruise he had sunk 21,000 tons; this consisted of one independently-sailing freighter, a tanker and another freighter, the last two being sunk by him during a wolf-pack attack on a convoy.  
          Prisoners described "U 231" as a mine-laying boat similar to "U 215" and "U 217."  
          "U 376."  "U 376" is commanded by Kapitänleutnant Marks.  She was on patrol with "U 209" in the Arctic between Spitzbergen and Iceland in February/March, 1942, and sank a ship at which "U 209" had aimed a moment previously.  
          "U 451."  The captain of "U 464" confirmed that "U 451" was lost.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  See C.B. 4051 (38).)  
          "U 465."  "U 465" is a 500-ton U-Boat, launched at the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, either at the end of May or the beginning of June, 1942.  
          "U.A."  At the end of March, 1942, "U.A." was in dry-dock No. 4 in the Construction Basin at Kiel.  (See plan 16 of C.B. 1818.)  
          "U.C."  "U.C." is the name given to a new Dutch-built U-Boat.  She has external tanks and is fitted with telemotors and housing hydroplanes.  She is said to have a surface speed of 24 knots and to be now at sea (October, 1942).  
          H.M.S. "Seal"  H.M.S. Seal was in Flensburg in August, 1942.  
          U-boat Commanded by Bahr.  Kapitänleutnant Bahr, of the 1935 term, is now in command of a U-Boat.  He was previously in command of a company at the U-Boat School at Gdynia.  
          U-Boat Commanded by von Gravenhorst.  A 500-ton U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant der Reserve Graf von Gravenhorst, son of a well-known land-owner near Berlin, was mined when leaving Kiel on patrol and was lost.  
          U-Boat Commanded by Hartmann.  Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartmann now has command of a "U-Kreuzer"  (U-Boat cruiser).  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He was C.O. of the A/S school at Gdynia earlier in 1942.)  
          U-Boat Commanded by Hoschatt.  Kapitänleutnant Hoschatt commands a U-Boat.  Prisoners did not know her number.  
          U-Boat Commanded by Ibbeken.  Fregattenkapitän Ibbeken is now in command of a U-Boat.  This is not a supply U-Boat.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  Ibbeken was an instructor at the U-Boat School in Pillau until early in 1942.)  
          U-Boat Commanded by Lueth.  Kapitänleutnant Wolfgang Lueth now commands a 1,200-ton Bremen-built U-Boat.  From intercepted correspondence it was established that Leuth was in Kiel on 20th May, 1942.  
          U-Boat Commanded by Massmann.  Oberleutnant zur See Massmann, who late in 1941 commanded "U 137," is now captain of a newly-built 500-tonner, which worked up with "U 464."  Her badge is two crossed tridents.  
          U-Boat Commanded by Timm.  An officer named Timm commands a U-Boat.  Prisoners did not know her number.  Timm was a midshipman in torpedo-boat "T.190" in 1934.  


- 11 -
          U-Boat Commanded by von Wilamowitz-Moehlendorf.  An officer named von Wilamowitz-Moehlendorf, who was in U-Boats in the last war, now commands a U-Boat.  
          U-Boats commanded by Reserve Officers.  At the end of 1941, the following reserve officers commanded U-Boats based on Pillau and Gdynia:  
                  Lieutenant zur See der Reserve Schnorr (250-tonner).  
                  Lieutenant zur See der Reserve Wernhagen (500-tonner).  
                  Lieutenant zur See der Reserve Sieler (500-tonner).  
                  Lieutenant zur See der Reserve Meyer (250-tonner).  
          Intercepted correspondence has established the following:  
          "U 67."  Kapitänleutnant Günther Mueller returned home on leave on 14th May, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to have commanded "U 67.")  
          "U 82."  "U 82," commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Rollmann, was lost early in 1942.  
          "U 405."  Kapitänleutnant Hopman returned from patrol in May, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to command "U 405")  
          "U 454."  The U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hacklaender entered a Norwegian harbour on 6th July, 1942, and was still there on 13th July.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  Hacklaender is known to command "U 454.")  
          "U 456."  Oberleutnant zur See Teichert visited Northern Norway - possibly Kirkenes - in mid-May, 1942.  There he met five other members of the 1943 term.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to command "U 456."  In May, 1942, he sank H.M.S. "Edinburgh" in the Arctic, according to a German radio announcement.)  
          "U 502."  Kapitänleutnant von Rosensteil is probably missing.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to have commanded "U 502.")  
          "U 562."  Oberleutnant zur See Horst Hamm was married on 6th June, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to command "U 562."  The boat was presumably in port when he was married.)  
          "U 577."  Kapitänleutnant Rolf von Schauenburg was in Flensburg on 29th June, 1942.  A letter from Germany dated 13th September, 1942, reported his death.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to command "U 577.")  
          U-Boat commanded by Bohmann.  Kapitänleutnant Heino Bohmann of the 1934 term, commands a U-Boat.  
          U-Boat commanded by Deetz.  Oberleutnant zur See Deetz, of the 1935 term, now has command of a U-Boat.  
          U-Boat commanded by Engelmann.  Korvettenkapitän Kurt Eduard ("Ede") Engelmann left on patrol in command of a U-Boat on 21st July, 1942, and was still at sea on 5th August.  
          U-Boat commanded by Jacobs.  An officer named Jacobs commanded a U-Boat in July, 1942.  
          U-Boat commanded by Gustav Janssen.  Oberleutnant zur See Gustav Janssen, of the 1936 term, left in command of a U-Boat on a patrol off the American coast prior to 28th June, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He commanded a school U-Boat in September, 1941.)  
          U-Boat commanded by Kuhlmann.  Oberleutnant zur See Hannes Kuhlmann left Hamburg to go on patrol about 27th May and was still at sea on 10th July.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  Kuhlmann formerly commanded "U 580.")  
          U-Boat commanded by Muennich.  Kapitänleutnant Ralph Muennich was present at the period of constructional training of his first U-Boat at the end of May, 1942.  
          U-Boat commanded by Nordheimer.  Oberleutnant zur See Nordheimer, of the 1936 term, had his own U-Boat command in June, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  He is known to be an instructor at the U-Boat school at Gdynia.  The boat is, therefore, presumably a school boat.)  
          U-Boat commanded by Sobe.  Korvettenkapitän Sobe sailed in mid-August, 1942, in "a giant U-Boat."  
          U-Boat commanded by Staats.  Kapitänleutnant Georg Staats, of the 1935 term, left Germany in command of his first U-Boat in April, 1942, and was still at sea on 10th July.  
          U-Boat commanded by Von Trotha.  Kapitänleutnant Klaus von Trotha now commands a U-Boat.   
          (N.I.D. Note:  He was First Lieutenant under Guggenberger when "U 81" sank the "Ark Royal.")  
          Prisoners gave the following information regarding U-Boat personalities:  
          Kapitänleutnant Hardegen, late of "U 123," has been appointed to a training post in Gdynia or Danzig.  
          Korvettenkapitän Ambrosius is senior officer of a U-Boat Flotilla at Gdynia (January, 1941.).  
          Korvettenkapitän Hans Gerrit von Stockhausen has been appointed Senior Officer of a U-Boat Flotilla.  (N.I.D. Note:  Probably at Pillau.)  
          Fregattenkapitän Hartmann has now a shore job.  


- 12 -
          The following is a collation of information provided by prisoners regarding various types of U-Boats:  
  (i)  Two-Man U-Boats ("Zwei-Mann U-Boote")  
          A prisoner from "U 464" (sunk 20.8.42) said he had seen three or four two-man U-Boats doing trials off Kiel-Wik in July, 1942, but did not describe them beyond saying that they still flew the Blohm and Voss house-flag.  
          A prisoner from "U 353" (sunk 16.10.42) said he had seen two-man U-Boats in Kiel.  ("U 353" sailed from Kiel on 22.9.42.)  
          (N.I.D. Note:  Previous interrogation reports (see C.B. 4051 (48), Section X (x) and C.B.4051 (49), Section IX (ii)) have referred to Two-man U-Boats, but there is no other evidence supporting the existence of these boats.)  
  (ii)  Ten-Man U-Boats ("Zehn-Mann U-Boote")  
          A prisoner from "U 464" (sunk 20.8.42) mentioned the existence of 10-man U-Boats.  
  (iii)  250-ton U-Boats  
           Particulars of 250-ton U-Boats (familiarly known as "Nordsee-enten") have been widely published.  None are at present in production.  Those that remain are either used as school-boats in the Baltic, or, according to recent prisoners' statements, are being transported by land to the Black Sea.  
  (iv)  300-ton U-Boats  
          300-ton U-Boats are no longer in production.  
  (v)  500-ton U-Boats  
          Type VII C 500-ton U-Boats have been frequently described by prisoners.  "U 570," captured by the British and know known as H.M.S. "Graph," is a VII C boat.  
          This type is being built in large numbers at most German yards and is considered by the German Navy to be the most satisfactory.  
  (vi)  500-ton Minelaying U-Boats  
          Prisoners from "U 210" (sunk 6.8.42) described a modified type 500-ton U-Boat as a minelayer.  They said she has five or six vertical mineshafts in single line immediately abaft her conning tower, each containing three mines.  Her hull is slightly longer than that of a normal type VII C 500-tonner.   
         Other prisoners have since stated that the series of boats "U 213" to "U 218" are all minelayers of this type, and that they are about 3 m. (10 ft.) longer than the normal 500-ton boat.  
          Prisoners from "U 464" (sunk 20.8.42) said that the 500-ton minelayers are about 80 m. (262 ft.) long.  
          There has been some suggestion that another modified 500-ton U-Boat exists which has two parallel rows of three mineshafts each abaft the conning tower.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  H.M.S. "Graph" (ex "U 570") is a 500-ton type VII C Boat and is 220 ft. long.  The minelaying type described above is more probably 230 ft. in length.  There is no confirmation from other sources that 500-ton minelaying U-Boats exist.)  
  (vii)  740-ton U-Boats (Type IX)  
          A number of 740-ton U-Boats (Type IX) have been sunk and fully described by their survivors.  (See C.Bs. 4051 (23) and 4051 (30) ).  
  (viii)  740-ton Minelaying U-Boats  
          A prisoner from "U 574" (sunk 19.12.41) said that a 740-ton minelaying U-Boat was built in Kiel in June, 1941, and did diving trials with "U 574."  He said she has a double row of about 12 mineshafts abaft her conning tower and eight or ten shafts arranged unevenly on either side amidships, each believed to contain two mines.  Her armament was:  
                  One 10.5 cm (4.1 in.) gun forward.  
                  One 3.7 cm. (1.45 in.) twin mounting aft.  
                  Two C.30 machine-guns on her bridge.  
She carried no torpedo tubes and could remain at sea for three months.
          There has been no further reference to 740-ton minelayers.  
  (ix)  1,200-ton Type XII U-Boats  
          Survivors from "U 464" (sunk 20.8.42) stated that 1,200-ton U-Boats are of two kinds:  
          (a)  Fitted with six torpedo tubes, four forward and two aft, and carrying over 24 torpedoes.  Has four 9-cylinder Diesels.  
          (b)  A minelayer with 18 shafts, each containing three mines.  The shafts are located, six to starboard, six to port and one row of six aft.  She may also have two bow torpedo tubes.  Her armament is described as one 88 mm. (3.46 in.), a twin 3.7 cm. (1.45 in.), and one twin 20 mm.  
          These two types of 1,200-tonners are both stated to be built at the Deschimag yards, Bremen.   
          Prisoners have from time to time stated that 1,200-ton U-Boats are used for supplying U-Boats with torpedoes.  


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  (x)  1,600-ton "Versorgungsboote" (Supply Boats) for Fuel and Provisions, Type XIV  
          According to prisoners from "U 464," herself a 1,600-ton fuel and provision "Versorgungsboot," six of these boats have been commissioned, "U 459" to "U 464."  Two of them, of which "U 464" is one, are believed by prisoners to have been sunk.  They are known as Type XIV.  (One man from "U 353" said they are Type XIV D.)  
          They have a very broad beam (prisoners say almost 8 m.) but are roughly the same length as 500-ton, Type VII C boats.  
          They are solely designed to supply fuel and provisions and they have no torpedo tubes.  Their armament consists of two 20 mm. and two 3.7 cm. (1.45 in.) guns, though prisoners thought they may in future be fitted with a 10.5 cm (4.1 in.) gun in addition, or instead of one of the 3.7 cm. guns.  
  (xi)  1,600-ton Minelaying U-Boats  
          Prisoners from "U-210" (sunk 4.8.42) described a 1,600-ton minelaynig U-Boat seen at the Germania yards, Kiel, in June, 1942.  They said she had 18 vertical shafts carrying three mines each, making 54 in all.  She has no forward tubes, but two stern tubes.  There is a double deck for the men's quarters.  
          Prisoners from "U 464" (sunk 20.8.42) said that 1,600-ton minelaying U-Boats are armed with one 88 mm. (3,46 in.), one 3.7 cm. (1.45 in.), and one 30 mm. gun, and have a draught of 6.7 m. (22 ft.).  
  (xii)  "U-Kreuzer" (U-Cruisers)  
          Prisoners from the minelayer "Ulm" (sunk 25.8.42) said that U-cruisers are 2,200-ton boats.  They have a cruiser bow, which is specially strengthened for ramming.  They carry a twin 15 cm. (5.9 in.) turret forward, controlled from the bridge, a twin 3,7 cm. (1.45 in.) mounting on the conning tower and a single 3.7 cm. mounting aft.  The forward turret can be manned through the barbette, the whole turret being watertight.  
          One man said they have a surface speed of up to 30 knots and a submerged speed of 13.  
          Five of these boats were in Kiel in August, 1942.  They are built at the Deutsche Werke.  
          Another prisoner, from "U 464," said that U-cruisers were 1,200-ton boats, armed with one 10.5 cm. forward, one 3.7 cm. aft.  They have a number of torpedo tubes forward and two tubes aft.  They may have mineshafts as well.  
          The prisoner stated that he had seen one such U-Boat in Gdynia during the summer of 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  Regular reconnaissance of Kiel has not indicated U-Boats with twin turrets forward.  It is thought that a speed of 30 knots is exaggerated.  
          The above description of a 1,200-ton U-Boats appears reasonable, but it is thought that the tonnage is larger.)  
(Compiled in collaboration with the Royal Air Force.)
  (i)  Type of Weather Preferred  
          The only weather in which U-Boats feel really safe is fine weather with no clouds.  Under such favorable conditions they can occasionally spot an aircraft at a range of 16-19 miles and have ample time to dive.  A more normal sighting is 4-1/2-5-1/2 miles in the case of a high flying aircraft and 3-4-1/2 miles in the case of a wave-hopping aircraft.  According to U-Boats personnel these distances still leave a reasonable time to crash-dive.  Prisoners said that the aircraft cannot sneak in from the horizon if a good look-out is kept, regardless of what height it flies.  
          The U-Boat crew begins feel themselves in danger on the surface when the cloud base is 3,300 to 3,900 ft. or less.  The captain of "U 464," for instance, congratulated the Catalina which attacked him on the intelligent use of cloud.  He said he failed to notice the particularly dark patch of cloud from which it emerged and was much impressed by its camouflage, which he described as darker than what he had been accustomed to seeing.  Asked whether they would prefer to submerge or remain on the surface at 10/10 visibility with 500 ft. ceiling, prisoners said they would certainly submerge.  
  (ii)  Camouflage  
          Harms said that the white camouflage of the Whitleys was very good and the aircraft could not be spotted at much more than 1,600 yards.  
  (iii)  British Aircraft Patrols  
          Prisoners all admitted that the danger of being spotted by British aircraft patrols had grown greatly since the war began.  The last three crews interrogated have shown progressively greater fear of aircraft attack.  
  (iv)  British Search Gear  
          Prisoners were under the impression that the British had recently introduced some gear for location of U-Boats from aircraft by R.D.F.  
  (v)  Convoy Shadowing  
          A U-Boat's position when shadowing a convoy varies according to the position of the sun.  The captain always tries to remain down sun, so as to lessen the chances of being seen.  
        U-Boats are instructed that the best place from which to attack a convoy is "down sun and on the beam."  If the convoy is known to have air cover, the same rule still applies, but they are then to make an underwater attack.


- 14 -
  (vi)  Diving on Sighting Aircraft  
          Harms said that the decision whether to dive or remain on the surface when sighting an aircraft was always left to the discretion of the U-Boat captain.  He himself was always less inclined to dive if the aircraft was flying parallel to the U-Boat.  
          Other prisoners said that, if a U-Boat decided to dive on sighting an aircraft, it usually submerged to 20-30 m. (65-98 ft.), this being considered deep enough to afford protection against aircraft bombs.  If, on the other hand, depth charges are being dropped, she might submerge to anywhere between 80 and 200 m. (260-656 ft.), depending on the caution shown by the captain.  
  (vii)  Air Escort for U-Boats.  
          Prisoners said that German fighter escort for U-Boats is now very much more extensive.  "U 464," for instance, had two Me. 109's escorting her in relays most of the way from Kiel to Kristiansand S.  The only time they missed them was on the passage through the Skagerrak.  Part of the time, the Me. 109s flew only 10-15 m. (33 -49 ft.) above sea level.  
  (viii)  A/S Searchlight Aircraft  
          Many prisoners, including officers, said they had heard of our searchlight Wellingtons.   
          Other prisoners said that it would be normal for a U-Boat sighting an aircraft with its searchlight on to dive immediately.  
  (ix)  Passage of Bay of Biscay  
          It is normal to submerge during daylight in the Bay of Biscay, except for an occasional "breather."  
  (x)  Contact in Rough Seas  
          Harms thought that an aircraft had no hope of picking up a U-Boat in a rough sea unless it flew very low.  He added that if the U-Boat proceeded diagonally across the waves, the probability of its being picked up by an aircraft was much lessened.  
  (i)  Displacement of Supply U-Boats.  
          Prisoners were emphatic that their boat was only just over 67 metres (220 ft.) long (about the same as an ordinary 500-tonner), but that she displaced about 1,600 tons.  The extra displacement, they said, is solely due to the greater beam necessitated by the large external tanks.  
  (ii)  Series of Supply U-Boats Building  
          The only series of "Versorgungsboote" built or building of which prisoners were aware is that from "U 459" to "U 464" at the Deutsche Werke, Kiel.  All were completed when "U 464" left on her sole patrol.  They are all identical in construction.  They may in future be fitted with a 10.5 cm. (4.1 in.) gun, for which the forward mounting was originally designed.  (See N.I.D. Note, Section VIII.)  
  (iii)  Building Period of Supply U-Boats  
          "Versorgungsboote" built at Kiel, take 13 months from the laying of the keel to their commissioning.  They are normally on the slips for nine months.  
  (iv)  Launching of Supply U-Boats  
          There was normally an interval of about two months between the launching of each "Versorgungsboote."  
  (v)  Purpose of Supply U-Boats  
          The purpose of "Vorsorgungsboote" is to supply U-Boats with fuel and lubricating oil and provisions.  One man said they are only intended for supplying 500-ton U-Boats; the 740-tonners carry sufficient fuel and provisions to fulfill their operational function.  A "Versorgungsboote" can supply four torpedoes from its upper-deck containers to other U-Boats in emergency.  
  (vi)  Supply U-Boats and other U-Boats  
          An officer said that it is usual for "Versorgungsboote" to be given their orders for supplying other U-Boats while at sea and not before sailing.  
  (vii)  Reserve Officers as Captains  
          An officer said that in 1941, the practice was introduced of appointing reserve officers and officers promoted from the lower deck to command school boats.  
  (viii)  S-Gear and Stratification  
          According to an officer the German Navy has experienced great difficulty regarding stratification of water ("Schiechtung").  This is particularly noticeable in the Baltic near the entrance to the Skagerrak and Kattegat, where the less salt water of the Baltic meets the more salt water of the North Sea.  
          He said, however, that the navy had gone a long way towards eliminating its harmful effect on "S-Gear," though he gave no details regarding the method employed.  The urgency of overcoming the problem of stratification was very evident to the Germans, since they feel it is just in the waters around the Kattegatt and Skagerrak that they have the most to fear from British submarine attacks.  


- 15 -
          They have accordingly fitted the most modern and sensitive type of "S-Gear" to their surface craft, such as destroyers, torpedo-boats and UJ-Boats.  He admitted, however, that the most modern "S-Gear: was often too sensitive, in that it frequently gave readings against non-sub contacts.  
  (ix) "Ritterkreuz" and "Versorgungsboote"  
          In order that a "Versorgungsboote" commander may eventually earn himself the "Ritterkreuz" it has been ruled that he shall be entitled to a percentage of all enemy tonnage sunk by U-Boats which his boat has supplied.  
  (x)  Leave in French Ports  
          The Admiral U-Boats has ordered that only one-third of a ship's company may go on leave at the same time when in French ports.  
  (xi)  U-Boats for the Black Sea  
          Prisoners stated that 250-ton and 300-ton U-Boats are being sent overland to the Black Sea.  They are prepared for transport in the Deutsche Werke covered dry-dock at Kiel, all exterior fittings such as gun mountings, propellers, conning tower and periscopes being removed before leaving.  
          They were not certain as to the exact method of transporting these boats.  One man said he thought they were sent by barge down the Danube.  Workmen from Kiel were sent to the Black Sea to reassemble.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  This corroborates previous prisoners' statements to the same effect.  See C.B. 4051 (51) Section XIII (iii).)  
  (xii)  Aircraft Detection Device  
          An officer said that British aircraft attacks on U-Boats in the Bay of Biscay in 1941 became so successful that the Germans set about inventing gear for the detection of aircraft by U-Boats at a distance.  Though he was not certain that anything had yet been put into service, he believed that many new boats were now fitted with some gear of this kind.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  It is thought that some U-Boats are experimentally fitted with aircraft detection gear).  
  (xiii)  Long Leave for U-Boat Personnel  
          According to an order given by the Admiral U-Boats dated September, 1941, U-Boat personnel is now only allowed to visit the rest home at Krummhuebel after eight patrols.  
  (xiv)  Diving Angle  
          An officer said that, although he knew the normal diving angle for a 500-tonner to be between 15 and 20 degrees, it was quite possible for a crash-dive to take place at over 50°.  (See Section VI (xxiv) (f).)  
  (xv)  Diesels for Underwater Propulsion  
          There have been frequent references to the possibility of dispensing with electric motors and batteries in U-Boats and employing some form of underwater Diesel.  
          A number of prisoners have mentioned extended exhaust and inlet trunks as fitted in a Dutch submarine, and some "U 464" survivors have stated that 500-ton Germania U-Boats are being similarly experimented with.  
          A few prisoners have described Diesels which obtain their air from bottles and some arrangement for dealing with the exhaust.  The system is said to work with three bottles, a series of bottles per Diesel.  One Petty Officer and one able seaman said they had heard mention of this during their respective motor courses.  The Petty Officer went on to say that it was all very fine on paper but was not up to expectations in practice.  Other have heard that experiments are being carried out with two-cycle Diesels, which are said to be more suitable for this purpose.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  There is no confirmation that the Germans are using on service any type of underwater propulsion except the usual electric motors.  It is known that a Dutch submarine was fitted experimentally with extended trunks enabling her to proceed at slow speed or to charge batteries when submerged.  A report from the Mediterranean indicates that a German boat may possibly be similarly fitted.  
          It is considered that short bursts submerged are possible by the use of air bottles.)  
  (xvi)  R.D.F. Aerials in U-Boats  
          A prisoner saw a 500-ton U-Boat in Kiel in mid-July, 1942, with what he thought was an R.D.F. aerial on the forward end of the bridge.  He said there were two lines of five or six dipoles, each aerial being 15 to 20 cm. (6.7 in.- 7.8 in.) in length.  The gap between the ends of adjacent diploes was about 5 cm. (2 in.) and the lead-in approximately the same length.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  It seems unlikely that the dear described above is a standard fitting, but it may be an experimental set.  Other reports suggest that some U-Boats are fitted with R.D.F.)  
  (xvii)  Cigarettes in U-Boats  
          Sixty cigarettes are issued to each man every ten days.  In addition, each man is permitted to buy himself 120 cigarettes at the canteen three times a month.  
  (xviii)  British Depth Charges  
          Prisoners believed that British depth-charges can now be set to a depth of 129 metres (393 ft.) against 60 and 30 metres (196 and 98 ft.) previously.  


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  (xix)  S-Gear  
          "S-Gear" is being fitted less frequently to U-Boats now than hitherto.  
  (xx)  "U 581" Second Lieutenant's Escape  
          An officer prisoner recounted how Leutnant zur See Walter Sitek, Second Lieutenant of "U 581," sunk on 2nd February, 1942, off the Azores, had succeeded in swimming to land.  The narrator was much struck with the sportsmanship of the British destroyers in having given Sitek a chance to escape.  He said the captain of a British destroyer had written a letter to the Admiral U-Boats telling him that he could easily have caught Sitek, and would be very interested to know whether he made the shore.  
          Sitek was in Gdynia while "U 464" was there and he showed "U 464's" officers a transcript of the British destroyer captain's letter to the Admiral U-Boats which had been presented to him.  The officer relating the story said that Sitek's boat was five miles distant from land when sunk.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  See C.B. 4051 (42).  It will be recalled that Pfeifer, captain of "U 581" made a formal protest at being sunk inside the three-mile limit.)  
  (i)  Bergen  
          Bergen is the base of the 11th U-Boat Flotilla, formed at the end of June, 1942.  The Senior Officer is Korvettenkapitän Cohausz, of the 1926 term.  (N.I.D. Note:  He was formerly Senior Officer of the 1st U-Boat Flotilla at Brest).  The Flotilla Engineer is Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Mueller.  (N.I.D. Note:  This is probably either Freidrich-Walter Mueller of the 1932 term, or Helmut Mueller of the 1934 term).  The number of U-Boats in this flotilla varies greatly.  There have been as many as 15 or as few as three between July and mid-August, 1942.  There are about 200 reserve personnel at the U-Boat base, most of whom are accommodated in the Prien Kaserne.  Many other naval personnel occupy the Weddigen Kaserne under Oberleutnant (Ing.) Henseling of the 1936 term.  Both these barracks are about 10 minutes by car from the center of the town and were recently built by Norwegians.  There is also a barracks named "Luetzow Kaserne," whose whereabouts were not stated.  
          The most successful boat of the 11th Flotilla is "U 209" (Kapitänleutnant Brodda).  Other boats are "U 592" (Kapitänleutnant Borm), "U 377," U 378" and U 457."  
          Five 500-ton U-Boats were being assembled on the slips at Laksevaag in August, 1942.  The parts are shipped from Germany, possibly from the Deutsche Werke, Kiel.  There are also ample facilities for repair work.  
          Prisoners also saw E-boats at Bergen.  
          The mine and depth-charge depot at Bergen is a mile or two to seaward of the main repair yards at Laskevaag.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  This mine and depth charge depot is probably the old Norwegian mine depot at Vallemsvik.  There is no confirmation that U-Boats are being assembled at Bergen.)  
  (ii)  Kirkenes  
          Is a sub-base of the 11th U-Boat Flotilla at Bergen.  
  (iii)  Trondheim  
          Is a sub base of the 11th Flotilla at Bergen.  
  (i)  Eckernfoerde  
          Kapitänleutnant (M. A.) Kröplin commands a company of the 5th Manning Division here.  (Information as at beginning 1940.)  
  (ii)  Ploen  
          Kapitan zur See Schmidt is in command of the U-Boat Training School at Ploen.  (Information as at August, 1941)  The 5th Company of the U-Boat Training School is commanded by Kapitänleutnant Arns.  (Information as at October, 1941.)  
  (iii)  Danzig  
          The 24th U-Boat Flotilla (Training U-Boats) is said to be at Danzig.  
(iv)  Kiel
          The E-Boat harbor is in the Deutsche Werke yards.  
  (v)  Misdroy  
          There is an A/A gunnery school at Misdroy.  (Information as at September, 1941.)  


- 17 -
  (vi)  Pillau  
          Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gerden commands the 4th Company of the 2nd Division of the U-Boat school at Pillau.  (Information as at March, 1941.)  Kapitänleutnant Friedrich commands the 5th Company, (Information as at March, 1942.)  Another company is commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wessel.  (Information as at January, 1942.)  The 4th Company is commanded by Korvettenkapitän Schmidt.  (Information as at November, 1941.)  
          In June/July, 1942, there were in all about 70 U-Boats stationed at Pillau.  These consisted of school boats and boats working up.  
          Tactical exercises are carried out off Pillau.  For these, a dummy convoy is usually assembled consisting of one or more large merchantmen - sometimes up to 20,000 tons displacement - and a number of destroyers.  The U-Boats carrying out their tactical training make attacks with dummy torpedoes, while the escorting destroyers drop depth-charges and aircraft provide air protection.  The torpedoes are later recovered by special vessels.  
  (i)  Gdynia  
          Korvettenkapitän Wilhelm Rollmann of the 1926 term is senior officer of the 22nd U-Boat (Training Boat) Flotilla at Gdynia.  The following accommodation ships lie there:  "Hamburg," "Deutschland," "Cap Arcona" and "Milwaukee."  
  (ii)  Hela  

        A 2,000 to 3,000-ton depot ship lies at Hela just outside the mole.  Ships' companies of U-Boats at Hela always visit her and sometimes spend the night on board.

          (N.I.D. Note:  This may be the depot ship "Swakopmund.")  
  (i)  Calais  
          Calais is the headquarters of the Coastal Artillery Inspectorate for that area, under Kapitänleutnant Beyer.  His predecessor was Kapitänleutnant Mirron who was torpedoed by a British M.T.B. while on a cruise of inspection between Calais and Cherbourg.  There are 28 cm. (11 in.) guns on the coast near Calais.  
  (ii)  St. Nazaire  
          The 12th U-Boat Flotilla is based on St. Nazaire.  
The Netherlands
          Oberleutnant (M. A.) Machner of the 1931 term commands the 4th Company of the 6th Manning Division at Wexep.  (Information as at August, 1941.)  
  (i)  "Flottenbegleitboote" (Escort Vessels)  
          In the first year of war there were two flotillas of "Flottenbegleitboote" (Escort vessels); the 1st Flotilla wa numbered F.7 to F.10 and the 2nd Flotilla F.1 to F.6.  
          Fregattenkapitän Pindter, of the 1916 term, was senior officer of the 1st Flotilla and commanded F.9, which was sunk by a British submarine off Heligoland in the summer of 1940.  
          Both Flotillas have now been dissolved and the remaining vessels converted for use as torpedo recovery vessels ("Fangboote"), based on Danzig and Pillau.  They are attached to the U-Boat school flotillas based on these ports.  
  (ii)  "K.R. Boote" and "M.R. Boote"  
          In addition to the ordinary Räumboote, or R-Boats, of 90-100 tons, there are smaller R-Boats of about 50 tons displacement, known as "Klein Räumboote," or K.R. Boote.  The letters K.R., followed by a number, are painted on their bows.  There are only three or four of these in existence; they all lay in Kiel in August, 1942.  
          M.R. Boats are slightly larger than K.R. Boats, are faster and have more armour protection.  
  (iii)  Hannomag E-Boats  
          An officer said that the Hannomag E-Boats have not proved a success and no more are therefore being built.  
          He referred to Hannomag E-Boats as "Underwater E-Boats," which were nevertheless incapable of diving.  (N.I.D. Note:  Hannomag E-Boats have been previously referred to in C.Bs. 4051 (48) and 4051 (49).)  


- 18 -
  (iv)  E-Boat Parent Ship  
          Prisoners said that an E-Boat parent ship which they had seen at the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, before sailing on patrol was fitted with two 15 cm. (5.9 in.) twin turrets forward and two 15 cm. guns aft.  She was capable of 36 knots and carried seaplanes.  (N.I.D. Note:  It is possible that they were referring to the new parent ship said to have been built for Hannomag E-Boats (see C.B. 4051 (51).  It is improbable that it refers to the E-Boat depot ship "Tanga.")  
  (v)  M-Boats (Fleet Sweepers)  
          M-Boats usually sweep at 12 knots.  When not sweeping, they can make 20 knots.  
  (vi)  Destroyer "Z.27"  
          The destroyer Z.27 was hit by bombs in a British air raid on Kiel on the night of 13th/14th March, 1942.  She caught fire, but this was extinguished.  (N.I.D. Note:  It is possible that Z.27 is of the Narvik class of destroyer.  It was not hitherto known that she existed.)  
  (vii)  Torpedo Boat "T.96"  
          Torpedo-boat T.96 is now stationed in Danzig, where she is used as an escort vessel during working up of U-Boats.  
  (viii)  "Stuttgart"  
          The hospital ship "Stuttgart" (13,400 tons) lay in Bergen when "U 464" was there in August, 1942.  
  (ix)  "Bremen"  
         An officer said it was intended to convert the liner "Bremen" (51,700 tons) into an aircraft carrier.  
  (x)  "Erwin Wassner?"  
          The U-Boat depot ship "Werwin Wassner" was in Kiel when "U 464" sailed on patrol.  
  (xi)  "Florianopolis" and "Paranagua"  
          Germany is building merchantmen of about 8,000 tons displacement on Rotterdam.  The first two of a series are called "Florianopolis" and Paranagua."  
  (xii)  "Cap Arcona"  
          The "Cap Arcona" (27,000 tons) is still in Gdynia, where she is being used as an accommodation ship.  
  (xiii)  "Monte Rosa"  
          The "Monte Rosa" (13,800 tons) lies at Stettin, where she is used as an accommodation ship.  
  (xiv)  "General Artigas"  
          The "General Artigas" (11,300 tons) lies in Hamburg, where she is being used as an accommodation ship for U-Boat personnel standing by boats building in the yards.  
  (i)  Marine Hitler Jugend  
          The Marine Hitler Jugend organisation is a branch of the wider Hitler Jugend movement and was formed in 1934 under the leadership of Admiral von Trotha.  Normally, two hours were spent twice a week in reunions of all kinds, and there wa an annual camp of a fortnight's duration.  The subjects discussed at these reunions, according to prisoners, were the same as those taught to sea-scouts in Great Britain and had nothing to do with politics.  The Marine Hitler Jurgend flourished side by side with an organisation known as the "Marien Jungvolk" for boys of less than 14 years.  
          Shortly before the war the Marine Jungvolk wa abolished, its members being gradually transferred to the Marine Hitler Jugend as they reached the age of 14.  
          The senior ranks in the Marine Hitler Jugend have a uniform similar to that worn by a German naval officer, except that they wear shoulder straps instead of gold stripes.  
          From intercepted correspondence it has become known that Paul Anders, recently Führer of the Marine Hitler Jugend, has committed suicide.  
  (ii)  Rank of Fregattenkapitän  
        In the summer of 1941 the German Navy decided to alter the uniform markings of a Fregattenkapitän (Senior Commander) from four to three stripes.  The object of this, according to an officer, was so as gradually to bring German naval ranks more into line with the British.  It was realised that the difference in seniority between Korvettenkapitän and Fregattenkapitän was too slight to warrant another stripe, which gave the same appearance as the markings of a Kapitan zur See.  There are, therefore, now:
                   (i)  Fregattenkapitän alter Art (still wearing four stripes);  
                  (ii)  Fregattenkapitän neuer Art (with only three).  
          It is expected that all "Fregattenkapitän alter Art" will gradually disappear.  
          Korvettenkapitän's greatcoats have one star on their shoulders, while Fregattenkapitän's have two.  


- 19 -
  (iii)  Relations Between Navy and Merchant Marine  
          The officers of "U 464" who had previously served in the German Merchant Marine were very bitter regarding the attitude of the naval officer "de carriere" towards them.  They felt they had only been dragged into the war at the last moment because the Navy required more officers.  Although their uniforms and pay are the same as for all regular naval officers, they felt badly treated in matters of promotion and social esteem.  They said that Germany had made a great mistake in not creating a naval reserve on the British principle before the war and in not making use of their services in the Navy sooner.  Some of them had been unemployed for about 18 months at the beginning of the war.  They said that Germany would probably have to use the services of reserve officers to an ever-increasing degree, especially in the U-Boat arm, before the war came to an end.  
  (iv)  Aircraft Recognition  
          All major units of the German fleet carry an aircraft recognition specialist.  This man is usually a rating, and it is his duty to lecture and instruct the ship's company in aircraft recognition.  The German Navy provides courses for this purpose, the instructors moving from port to port as required.  The initial course is eight weeks, and the refresher course is four.  Attendance is usually 200 to 300 per course.  This organisation is known as the "Flugzeugs Erkennungsdienst."  


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Ship's Company of "U.464"
  (i)  Survivors:  
English Equivalent.
Harms, Otto Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant Commander 22.4.09
Voelz, Erich Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant 26.4.06
Linka, Ernst Marineoberassistenzarzt Surgeon Lieutenant 11.9.16
Rannoch, Herbert Leutnant zur See der Reserve Sub-Lieutenant (Naval Reserve) 10.5.09
Bach, Friedrich Leutnant (Ing.) Sub-Lieutenant (E) 30.4.12
Henrich, Edmund Oberbootsmann Chief Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class 12.3.14
Schmitz, Max Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class 10.4.14
Klose, Willi Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class 8.1.15
Schmidt, Konrad Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class 18.10.13
Lasinski, Emmanuel Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class 11.1.11
Knerr, Helmut Machinist Chief Mechanician, 2nd Class 19.11.21
Friske, Egon Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class 21.12.19
Fink, Georg Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class 17.10.14
Graf, Karl-Heinz Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 19.7.18
Koller, Karl Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 23.3.19
Gutsche, Martin Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 7.9.18
Beier, Reinhard Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 3.1.21
Frohme, Karl Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 9.8.18
Kleint, Helmut Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 6.3.20
Mevers, Rudolf Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 31.12.20
Daberkow, Werner Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 6.5.19
Bobe, Helmut Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 2.6.18
Hollmach, Walter Funkmaat P.O. Tel., 2nd Class 29.3.19
Krüger, Gerhard Friedrich Funkmaat P.O. Tel., 2nd Class 21.3.20
Woelk, Hans Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class 16.1.20
Bodenbender, Erich Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 18.3.23
Thieser, Martin Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 4.11.22
Diedrich, Walter Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 3.6.23
Szymirek, Walter Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 4.8.21
Roezak, Paul Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 28.10.22
Pfaffel, Alois Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 1.12.23
Gillmeister, Horst Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 22.9.24
Grimm, Werner Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 6.4.23
Jochimsen, Hermann Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class 2.12.19
Steinberg, Wilhelm Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 23.2.24
Schmidt, Siegfried Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 16.9.22
Gruner, Helmut Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 5.4.22
Wille, Günter Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 7.12.21
Hinrelner, Rudolf Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 6.9.22
Wimmer, Hans Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 31.1.23
Weber, Rudolf Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 3.10.23
Hofmeister, Willibald Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 4.7.23
Roggow, Erich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 27.4.22
Tandler, Siegmund Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 4.5.20
Siedler, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 18.3.23
Becker, Werner Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 16.1.23
Sumberg, Helmut Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 1.9.22
Sachse, Helmut Funkgefreiter Ord. Tel., 1st Class 4.11.23
Ruffer, Hermann Funkgefreiter Ord. Tel., 1st Class 15.4.22
Noss, Reinhold Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class 4.5.21
Deneke, Heinrich Sanitatsgefretier Sick Berth Attendant 14.6.23
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Thiele, Karl Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.  
Seifert, Kurt Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class  
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
(iii)  Total Crew:
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (C47371) 425  12/42  


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