This record was kindly provided by the generous assistance of Tony Cooper


U. 454
September, 1943.


  Rubber Dinghy
  Rubber Lifebelts
  New Bridge Structure
  Naval Postal Address
  G.S.R. etc.
      (a)  Electric Torpedoes
      (b)  "Curly" Torpedoes
      (c)  "Curly" Electric Torpedoes
      (d)  "Curly" Electric Torpedoes with Acoustic Steering Mechanism
  U-boat/Aircraft Intercommunication
  Flak U-boat
  U-boat Procedure in Bay of Biscay
  U-boat Losses
  (i)   Cruisers
  (ii)   Destroyers
  (iii)   Minesweeping Flotillas
  (iv)   Patrol Vessel Flotillas (Vorpostenboote)
  (v)   R-boats
  (vi)   E-boats


      (a)  Anti-aircraft Course
      (b)  Meteorological Course
      (c)  Navigation
      (d)  U-boat Training Establishment
  Bases General
      (a)  Denmark
      (b)  France
      (c)  Germany
      (d)  Poland
      (e)  Norway
  (a)  Military
  (b)  Naval
  (c)  Political
APPENDIX "A" - Early History of U.454
APPENDIX "B" - Previous Patrols of U.454
  First Patrol
  Second Patrol
  Third Patrol
  Fourth Patrol
  Fifth Patrol
  Sixth Patrol
  Seventh Patrol
  Eighth, or Penultimate Patrol
APPENDIX "C" - Complement of U.607
  Second Lieutenant
  APPENDIX "D" - Nominal Roll of U.454


        U.454, a 500-ton U-boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Burkhard HACKLÄNDER was sunk at 1642 on 1st August, 1943, in position 450 39'N., 0100 17'W. by Sunderland B of 10 Squadron R.A.A.F.  The Commanding Officer, the Second Lieutenant and twelve ratings were picked up by H.M.S. KITE.  
        Kapitänleutnant HACKLÄNDER is a pleasant type of non-political German naval officer, the ratings appeared to be of definitely less than normal intelligence and inadequately trained for their respective jobs.  This criticism cannot be made of the few hands who had done all the patrols, but the majority of the ship's company had not done more than two.  
        U.454 was noticeably very badly off as regards the modernity of her equipment compared to other recently sunk U-boats, and during the two years which  have elapsed since her commissioning she had only sunk five ships, totaling 18,000 tons, none of which were in convoy.  
        This report does not, therefore, contain any features of special interest.  
        Equivalents of German and Royal Naval ranks used in this report are:  
Kapitän zur See
Oberleutnant zur See
Leutnant zur See
Junior Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich zur See
Senior Midshipman.
Fähnrich zur See
Junior Midshipman.
        The suffix (Ing) after a rank in place of "zur See" denotes Engineer Officer thus, Oberleutnant (Ing) = Sub. Lieutenant (E).  The suffix "der Reserve" denotes a reserve officer.  
(i) Type: VII C (General construction and equipment similar to H.M.S. GRAPH)
(ii) Displacement: 500 tons.
(iii) Builders: Deutsche Werke, Kiel.
(iv) Armament: Guns:  One 88 mm. (3.46") on upper deck forward.
    Four M.G.s on bridge.
    One twin 20 mm. (0.79") gun on bandstand abaft bridge.
    Two 20 mm. guns on lower bandstand.
    Three pressure-tight containers on the bandstand for magazines.
    Torpedoes:  Twelve carried.
    On previous patrols G.7e (electric) had been carried, but on the last. all twelve were G.7a (air) six of them "curlies".  One electric "curly" was expected for the next patrol.
    Torpedo Tubes:  Four bow, one stern.
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(v) Propulsion: Diesels:  G.W. Consumption:  7.1 tons per day at 12 knots (half speed).
    Motors:  Brown, Boveri and Company.
    Switchboards:  Brown, Boveri and Company.
(vi) G.S.R. Carried.  Only one man on board had been trained to operate it.  Southern cross, old type aerial only, fitted port side.  The set was a Metox, with "Magic Eye" visual tuning indicator.  The dial was not graduated in actual wavelengths, but from 0 to 100.  German S.E. from aircraft came up round about the 50 mark.  No oscillograph.
(vii) Radar Carried.
(viii) R.D.B. Carried, considered to be a success.
(ix) S.B.T. Carried.
(x) Rubber Dinghy. One.  Designed to hold five men, stored amidships, not provided with sail.
(xi) Rubber Lifebelts. Designed to support one man, and used as head rests.  These are inflated by pulling a ring which released compressed air into the lifebelt from a small cylinder fitted to the lower part thereof.
(xii) New Bridge Structure. Armored bridge fitted at La Pallice after penultimate patrol.  Armored doors were also then provided, leading from the bridge to the bandstand.  The twin 20 mm. was originally on the after bandstand but was later mounted on the forward one.  The reasons for this modification were not known.  (N.I.D. Note:  The upper bandstand is the more usual position for the twin 20 mm. mounting.)
(xiii) Badge. U.454 wore no individual device, but only the badge common to all boats of the 7th Flotilla, i.e. PRIEN's Snorting Bull of Scapa Flow.
(xiv) Naval Postal Address. M. 45537.
(xv) Flotilla. 7th, (Based at St. Nazaire).
          (All times used in this report are C.S.T., identical with D.B.S.T.)  
          U.454 left La Pallice, where she had been a "guest boat", owing to lack of space at St. Nazaire, on 23 July, 1943 in company with U.706.  (N.I.D. Note:  U.706, a 500-ton U-boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant Alexander von ZITZEWITZ, was sunk in 46 43'N., 010 18'W. on 23 August, 1943, see C.B. 04051 (80).  
          At the mouth of the Grionde estuary it was found that U.454's compass was out of order.  Both boats returned to La Pallice on the 24th, where the necessary compass adjustments were carried out.  
          The final departure was made at 1000 on 29th July, again in company with U.706.  Five units proceeded in line ahead, first a Sperrbrecher, then one minesweeper, then a second minesweeper followed by U.454 and last U.706.  The distance between the vessels was just under a cable in each case.  The weather during this last patrol was excellent.  No sinkings nor attacks were effected.  (Owing to having no electric torpedoes, U.454 did not expect to be able to attack by day under any circumstances.)  
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        The customary diving routine was to submerge at dusk and to surface at 0830, then to submerge at 1200 and surface again at 1500.  U.454 lost contact with U.706 on 31st July, but sighted her again on 1st August.  This was due to waiting a day longer than U.706 before deciding to proceed slightly northward of the usual course, "in order to avoid those areas where they would probably be destroyers."  No S.S.T. was employed by U.454 and U.706 for inter-communication at night when submerged.
          (N.I.D. Note:  U.706 was sunk one day after U.454, i.e. on 2nd August.)  
          During the night of 31st July, U.454 remained submerged as usual.  On 1st August at 0830 she surfaced but was forced to dive again at once by the presence of a hostile aircraft.  At 1100 a further attempt was made to come up and recharge the batteries; at about 1145, however, an aircraft was sighted on the horizon, and it was necessary to dive again.  The next effort was made at approximately 1400, but U.454 was forced below again within 5 minutes.  The situation was now serious, the batteries were exhausted and the air was foul.  
          At 1640 on 1st August, 1943, U.454 surfaced for the last time.  The G.S.R. immediately picked up, strength 4 an aircraft.  
          U.454 was proceeding on course 3100 speed about 10 knots when she sighted at 1642 an aircraft bearing red 650, inclination 1600, course 450, height 1700 feet, distant two miles.  (N.I.D. Note:  This was Sunderland B/10 of the R.A.A.F. which sank U.454).     
          The aircraft fired two red stars, which prisoners stated were to attract the attention of surface craft in the vicinity; at the time of surfacing they were not aware of the presence of such craft.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  At 1640 there were five sloops, bearing green 1500 from U.454 distant 5-1/2 miles and green 1300 from the Sunderland distant 6 miles; this force was engaged in a U-boat hunt escorted by a Catalina flying at 700 feet.  Neither the sloops nor the Catalina took any part in the sinking, but on sighting B/10's depth charge explosions, they closed immediately.)  
          The aircraft crossed U.454's bows, and then altered course to starboard, and when about one mile away, turned sharply to port and came in to attack the U-boat from about 600 on the latter's starboard quarter.  Cloud base was approximately 2000 feet, weather fair visibility good, wind due west, and sea fairly heavy.  
          The twin 20 mm. (0.79") gun was manned by a leading hand, and opened fire.  The seaway was such that it was difficult to fire effectively, but one hit was scored when the aircraft was about a quarter of a mile away.  (N.I.D. Note:  The Sunderland's starboard inner engine was hit and her starboard main petrol tank damaged).  
          From approximately 50 feet at 1643 the aircraft dropped six depth charges all aimed with extreme accuracy.  Prisoners thought that three fell just ahead of U.454 and that the other three were hits, above the wardroom, the C.P.O.'s and P.O.'s mess and on the extreme starboard bow respectively; i.e. they straddled the U-boat forward of the conning tower.  (N.I.D. Note:  These depth charges were six torpex Mark 11 with 16 pistol, set 25 feet, spaced 60 feet.)  
        The whole sinking lasted less than a minute with the result that the only people saved were the Commanding Officer, the Second Lieutenant (Officer of the Watch at the time), the four ratings of the bridge watch, the quartermaster, two men from the conning tower
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and five who escaped from the interior of the boat.  These latter five were ammunition supply numbers who were consequently in the immediate vicinity of the hatch.
          U.454 sank at 1643.  (N.I.D. Note:  U.454 was sunk by Sunderland B.10 R.A.A.F. in position 450 39'N., 0100 17'W.  Two officers and twelve ratings were picked up by H.M.S. KITE.  The aircraft held her course of 1710 for about six miles then made a 1800 turn to port and crashed.  The six members of the crew used the starboard main plane as a raft until they were rescued, some thirty minutes later, by H.M.S. WREN.)  
  (i)    G.S.R. etc.  
          An officer stated that he considered the Metox to be a crude apparatus, and added that an oscillograph was really indispensable.  A leading telegraphist stated that he had seen several U-boats in St. Nazaire having an oscillograph fitted to their G.S.R. since May of this year.  
          Reports have to be rendered to the B.d.U. (German P.O.(S)) on the functioning of the G.S.R.  
          The opinion was expressed that the allied carrier aircraft protecting convoys must have search equipment, as when a line of U-boats operated their G.S.R. in the vicinity of a convoy some would detect aircraft.  
          The prisoner added that aircraft search equipment was usually better than naval but too large relative to the space available, now, however, Phillips, had evolved a new type to occupy less space than hitherto.  
  (ii)    Gunnery.  
          The opinion was expressed that the 20 mm. quadruple anti-aircraft mounting now being fitted to U-boats on the after bandstand does not scare allied aircraft away if the feed is by magazine.  Bolt fed is essential if results are to be achieved.  
          Discussion is at present proceeding amongst German Naval Gunnery experts as to whether twin 20 mm. mountings are more effacious when one gun is mounted above the other, or when they are alongside each other.  U.454 had neither arrangement; her twin 20 mm. mounting had one gun turned through 900 with respect to the other, with the result that one was loaded from above, the other from the side.  This was found to be most inconvenient.  
(iii)    Radar.   
        The old type was thought somewhat superior, having a sector of 3600 and a maximum range of 5 to 6 miles.  (N.I.D. Note:  Prisoners' statements appear to be confused.  The use of the extensible aerial would account for a very short range, but would give almost all round looking; whereas the array on the fore side of the bridge would account for a small 200 sector, but should give a longer range.  It is suggested that an originally surface watching set may have been modified for A/A purposes by using the extensible rod aerial instead of the forward looking array.)
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(iv)    Torpedoes.
          U.454 carried only air torpedoes (of which six were "curlies") but it was thought that boats sailing soon after her would have electric "curlies", and, in fact, U.454 had herself been promised one for her next patrol.  
          New Torpedo Developments.  
          Officers from U.554, U.558, U.607 and U.706 have all recently discussed new torpedo developments.  The following is a summary of their views.  
          (a)  Electric Torpedoes.  
          An electric torpedo is only expected to run about 3800 yards, although hits have been obtained at 5500 yards.  New batteries, thought by one officer to be dry cells, have been developed for them to give a much longer range.  
          (b)  "Curly" Torpedoes.  
          Two of the officers discussed firing "curly" torpedoes at hunting destroyers.  The Germans have noted that hunting destroyers frequently stop to listen at the spot where the U-boat disappeared, and they consider that "curly" torpedoes fired when the boat is entirely submerged, aiming being by means of hydrophones, should be certain of hitting the destroyer.  
          (c)  "Curly" Electric Torpedoes.  
          There have been many mentions of these, and the U-boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant TROJER is said to have carried one; U.454 had also been promised one for her next patrol.  
          (d)  "Curly" Electric Torpedoes with Acoustic Steering Mechanism.  
        One officer discussed an electric torpedo fitted with "curly" gear and guided to its target by propeller noise.  The acoustic mechanism is in the so called "Monbran" head; the pistol is a magnetic contact one.
        (N.I.D. Note:  It seems improbable that all these mechanisms should be included in one torpedo.  Frequent mention, however, has been made of all of them individually in the past).
(v)    U-boat/Aircraft Intercommunication.
          A Leading Telegraphist stated that Control notifies U-boats the times of operations of Kondors in their areas.  Kondors and U-boats exchange D/F signals.  Some boats have W/T installations for communication with aircraft; the prisoner thought that the type employed for this purpose was "Lorenz 17."  U.454 was not provided with this equipment.  (N.I.D. Note:  The G.A.F. term this apparatus "Pu.G.17".)  
  (vi)    Flak U-boats.  
          Allusion was made to special Flak U-boats which, according to prisoners are to mount one quadruple A.A. 20 mm. (0.79") forward as well as one aft, and have also one twin 37 mm. (1,45") and four Machine-guns on the conning tower.  Eight such boats were stated to be in the 1st Flotilla, based at Brest.  The extra ammunition is stowed in place of one or two torpedoes; the space vacated by one torpedo accommodates 8,000 rounds.  One boat was mentioned as carrying 24,000 rounds in the bow compartment, and 6,000 in the magazine, but that 30,000 rounds was of course not the maximum possible.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  See C.B. 04051 (72), Page 10, where a somewhat different armament was given.  The number of such U-boats appears to have increased).  
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(vii)    U-boat Procedure in Bay of Biscay.
          According to prisoners, U-boats making passage of the Bay are now ordered to remain submerged day and night, surfacing only to recharge batteries.  This routine obtains up to 0180 W.  
          In this zone life jackets are to be worn continually, even when submerged.  When on the surface in the Bay, the G.S.R. registers contacts almost continually.  
  (viii)    U-boat losses.  
          One officer estimated Germany's total losses in U-boats since the start of the war at 250 boats.  He added that there remained only two supply U-boats operational.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  The latter statement is probably correct.)  
  (i)    Cruisers.  
          The Commanding Officer of the LEIPZIG was stated to be LOWISCH.  (N.I.D. Note:  This is presumably the younger brother, Kapitan zur See Wolf LOWISCH, who had been Lieutenant (C) in SCHARNHORST, and previously had served in EMDAN.  The older brother, Konteradmiral Werner LOWISCH, who was German Naval Attache in Rome at the outbreak of the war. would seem to be too high in rank for such a command).  
          A Sub-Lieutenant from the Naval Air Arm stated that he had heard all cruisers were to be paid off.  (The present total of battleships was to remain constant, according to this prisoner, whilst destroyers were to go on building).  The type of construction of the German heavy cruisers was declared ideal, but fuel and materials were lacking to operate such craft.  
  (ii)    Destroyers.  
        SMIDT was a name given as a destroyer Commanding Officer, holding the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cross.  (N.I.D. Note:  This is thought to be Fregattenkapitän Karalus SMIDT, previously Commanding Officer of the destroyer ERICH GIESE, now sunk, who holds the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cross and also the German Cross in gold).
        WACHEMUT was mentioned as lost in the Arctic with his destroyer, the FRIEDRICH ECKOLDT, and her entire ship's company.  The First Lieutenant was stated to be RACHMANN.  (N.I.D. Note:  This latter officer, an Oberleutnant of the 1937 term is thought to be serving in the PAUL JACOBI.)
          The loss of the DIETHER VON ROEDER was described in detail by the Commanding Officer of U.454, who had served in the HERMANN SCHOEMANN based on Trondheim from September, 1941 to February, 1942.  In this destroyer were a number of survivors from the DIETHER VON ROEDER.  The DIETHER VON ROEDER survivors declared that their ship was the first to open fire and the last ship to stop firing.  In the first attack on Narvik, she received five hits, one of which was in the boiler room and one in the after tiller flat.  The necessary repairs were not yet completed when the final action began.  At that time DIETHER VON ROEDER was tied up alongside and landed all hands except the First Lieutenant and the guns' crews of A and B turrets, and the necessary shell room, magazine and ammunition supply personnel, totaling about twenty hands in all.  She had her stern to the pier.  The fire from these two mountings destroyed at a range of two and a half miles a British destroyer which "had run aground" and had returned the fire of the DIETHER VON ROEDER.  
          The latter already had her scuttling charges in position, fuses were prepared, and then the remaining hands took machine-guns and left their ship, taking up positions ashore near the ore quay.  
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At this juncture a British destroyer of the "Tribal" class came right alongside the DIETHER VON ROEDER with the apparent intention of boarding her; the Germans hoped this would succeed, as then both ships would have blown up together.  Fire from German mountain troops however, compelled the British vessel to withdraw and she was about 1-1/2 cables distant from the DIETHER VON ROEDER when the latter blew up.
          An unidentified destroyer under the command of Kapitänleutnant Rudolf LEMKE was also lost at Narvik, the following description of the event being given.  Whilst on patrol she ran on the rocks, and the damage thus caused reduced her speed to nine knots.  The gunnery equipment suffered, yet the ship was ordered to act as a "floating battery".  She took refuge in a sheltered bay off the southern shore, and fired at the British units.  After four salvoes, each of which required about 15 seconds as the fire control system was damaged, the British located the German destroyer and in ten minutes she was out of action.  The British destroyers were given as the MOHAWK, the TARTAR or the PUNJABI and two unidentified.  
          Kapitänleutnant LEMCKE's destroyer was said to have been hit 38 times in all.  30 times by 4.7" destroyer fire and eight times by 15" from a battleship firing from 2-1/2 miles range.  
  (iii)    Minesweeping Flotillas.  
          A flotilla was said to consist initially of about forty vessels, but as units were lost or became unseaworthy, the strength was not made up again.  
          The following identifications were furnished:  
36th Flotilla at Ostend: C.O.: Korvettenkapitän JOSEPHI.
38th      " at Le Harve: C.O.: Kapitänleutnant HAACK (1928 term).
39th      " at Brest: C.O.: Korvettenkapitän PINKEPANK (1932 term).
          (N.I.D. Note:  The first of these officers does not appear to the German Navy List).  
  (iv)    Patrol Vessel Flotillas (Vorpostenboote).  
          The following identifications were furnished:  
13th Flotilla at Flushing (ex Rotterdam).
15th      " at Ostend.    
18th      " at Brest.    
        Fecamp was thought to be a very unsatisfactory harbour to have as a base
        The 13th has suffered the heaviest losses of Channel patrol vessel flotillas.  Four units of this flotilla sank the British submarine N.49 in October or November of 1940, taking one prisoner.
  (v)    R-boats.  
          Information was obtained about the Black Sea R-boat flotilla from a prisoner who had served in it.  He joined the flotilla in Rotterdam in August, 1940 where it remained until February, 1941.  Then the flotilla proceeded to Idnz where it remained until April, going next to Belgrade where it waited while the Danube was swept of mines.  The last halt was near the mouth, just before the left bank is met by the boundary of Moldavia and Besserabia.  A soon as the initial operations of the Russo-German war had cleared Bessarabia of Russian troops, the flotilla entered the Black Sea.  
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        When this prisoner was drafted to a course in Germany, the flotilla was still in the Black Sea; this was in March, 1942.
  (vi)    E-Boats.  
          Five E-boats are built per month at Vegesack.  
          S.31 is commanded by Leutnant zur See Werner RIECKE, who is an escaped internee ex ADMIRAL GRAF SPEE.  
          Win-Gerdt (Jamming from ships or shore stations.)  
          The W.I.M. gear fitted in German merchant ships was highly spoken of as having been of great service in the Mediterranean.  When there was cloud, Allied aircraft would pass quite close to axis convoys without detecting them if the W.I.M. gear was functioning.  Prisoners regretted that the apparatus took up too much space to be fitted in U-boats.  (N.I.D. Note:  W.I.M. is the German service for the study of Radar and other very high frequency transmissions.  It controls the operation of some jammers.  A.S.V. jamming has the operational disadvantage that the jamming transmission can be detected at long ranges and is thus likely to betray position rather than conceal it).  
  (i)    TRAINING.  
          (a)  Anti-aircraft Course.  
          It was stated that U-boat may receive the quadruple anti-aircraft 20 mm. mounting without having any rating who had done a special course in this mounting.  This does not matter unduly as the mechanism is not very complex and, except for the firing rod, does not give rise to trouble.  This latter item, however, is alleged to get out of order quite easily.  
          (b)  Meteorological Course.  
        Petty Officers who have held that rank for two years are admitted and after six weeks' course of combined navigation and meteorology at the Navigationschule, the are qualified as meteorologists.
        (c)  Navigation.
          The following changes were introduced on 1st April, 1943.  Navigation was completely eliminated from the curriculum of the Marineschule.  The Steuermannschule has been renamed Navigationschule.  All persons studying at the Marineschule requiring navigational training, proceed next to the Navigationschule.  The administrative authority controlling the two has been unified.  
          (d)  U-boat Training Establishment.  
          The Köherer Kommander der U-Schulen" (Supreme Commanding Officer of U-boat Schools), at present is Kapitan zur See Albrecht SCHMIDT.  He controls all matters except personnel.  
  (ii)    Bases. General.  
          (a)  DENMARK.  
                  An attempt was made by Allied aircraft to destroy the Baumeister and Wain U-boat Diesel engine factory on the left-hand side going from Amager into the town, in the neighborhood of the Bourse.  Much damage was caused to buildings all round, but the factory itself as not hit.  (N.I.D. Note:  This is confirmed.)  
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        (b)  FRANCE.
                  La Baule.  
                  Many of the side streets have been closed to traffic.  This town accommodates the ships' companies of such U-boats of the 6th Flotilla as are in port (St. Nazaire).  The victualling for these men, when ashore, is under the general control of the U-boat permanent shore company, who appropriate a considerable quantity of foodstuffs, thus making themselves very unpopular.  This base company is known as the "criminal company" by the U-boat personnel serving afloat.  
                  Real coffee was sold openly in the U-boat officers' mess at 100 R.Mk. per kilo.  (£3. 15. O per pound).  
                  The quarters at La Baule are remarkably good.  
                  C.P.O.s and P.O.s and Leading Hands are two in a room, other ratings four in a room.  
                  Should the U-boat barracks be destroyed, the 5th Flotilla possesses a chateau in the neighborhood which could be used to accommodate its men.  
                  La Baule was popular with U-boat men, because there was no other type of naval personnel there.  The Hotel de l'Etranger is known as Haus Schepke.  The 6th Flotilla has been billeted in the Hotel Majestic before their own barracks had been completed.  
                  St. Nazaire.  
                  (a)  It is desired to transfer the entire 3rd Flotilla from La Pallice to St. Nazaire, and to construct at the latter base the necessary shelters to accommodate the extra boats.  (N.I.D. Note:  This must be an item of long term policy because at present exactly the opposite conditions obtain, viz:  some St. Nazaire boats are accommodated at La Pallice, owing to lack of space in the former base).  
                  Living shelters for U-boat crews at St. Nazaire were very well equipped.  
                The town of St. Nazaire has suffered very heavily indeed from air attack.  The military Kommandantur and Police barracks as well as the "Prienhein" are utterly destroyed and abandoned.  When the offices of the 6th Flotilla were annihilated all the Flotilla's most secret papers etc. were destroyed, and the Paymasters and writers had to proceed to Berlin to procure a further supply.
                  Allusion was made to a new long-wave transmitter in Paris called "Goliath".  The wave length was stated to be 28,500 m. and the station to have been constructed by Siemens.  
                  (b)  Rouen.  
                  A Kapitänleutnant SCHAEFER is Senior Naval Communications Officer in the intelligence centre at Rouen.  This is an interservice intelligence centre.  
          (c) GERMANY.  
                  The present head of the U.A.A. (U-boat Training Division for Leading Hands) is Korvettenkapitän SCHUNEMANN.  
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                  The ratings who are candidates for the status of Reserve Officer in Glücksburg on course, are billeted in the Kriegavereinhaus in the Schwnrukopfstrasse.  
          (d)  POLAND.  
                  At the Navigation School there were 120 regular naval ratings to about thirty reservists studying in September of last year.  
                  The Second Lieutenant of U.454 believed that the torpedo firing trials previously subject to the authority of the Torpedo Trials Command, had now been placed under the control of the Tactical Training.  This view was not shared by another officer prisoner, who ascribed the control over the torpedo firing trials to the Firing Flotilla based on Danzig, the Senior Officer of which, was said to be a certain SASSBACH.  (N.I.D. Note:  No officer of this name is known to exist in the German Navy; the S.C. of the Firing Flotilla at Danzig, the 8th U-boat Flotilla is thought to be Korvettenkapitän Hans ECKERMANN).  
          (e)  NORWAY.  
                  In 1941 there was a large ammunition depot thirty-eight kilometers from Trondheim along the Oslo road.  According to the prisoner, this would have been near a destroyed railway viaduct.  
  (N.I.D. Note:  This has been confirmed from other sources.)  
  (i)    Austria.  
        Germans have caused resentment in Austria by their habit of coming and buying up lorry-loads of all foodstuffs they could lay their hands on; this started immediately after the occupation.
        In Vienna there are already a million German evacuees from bombed areas.  Vienna itself has no air raid shelters yet.
          The commandeering of billets is done in a way calculated to arouse Austrian's anger.  For example, political connections in the Nazi party will get one the best billets of all; amongst the remaining billets Germans get the pick, and Austrians, in their own capital, must take what is left, even if officers of the armed forces.  Further, the Viennese are expected to surrender a portion of their linen and cutlery to these evacuees.  The officials who administer this billeting service are usually Germans who are both young and insolent.  
          The first Gauleiter in Vienna was named Bürckel; he was usually known as 'Bierleiter Gaukel' (i.e. Beer-chief Imposter).  
          The present Gauleiter, Baldux von Schirach, is less unpopular.  He joined up at the start of the war and became an officer within nine months of enlisting; he also gained the Iron Cross on the field of battle.  He also earned a measure of popularity never attained by Bürckel, by his zeal in developing cultural activities.  
  (ii)    Britain.  
          The B.B.C. is sometimes listened to in German U-boats.  
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(iii)    France.
          One camp for French prisoners of war was filled exclusively with negroes.  The German Commandant is stated to have executed the lot, and then to have declared: "Now my camp can be dissolved".  This was considered to have been a noble action.  
  (iv)    Germany.  
          (a)  Military.  The Commanding Officer of U.454 considers the present leaders of the German Military General Staff to be intelligent men, but not on a par with Moltke or Ludendorff.  
          The title of "military genius" he was ready to accord to the Führer, and perhaps to Field Marshal Rommel.  
          (b)  Naval.  A new branch for officers has been founded in the German Navy.  It is the A.M.D. (Allgemcine Marine Dienst, i.e., General Naval Service).  This is a branch of miscellaneous persons, created by withdrawing from all other branches people who had not done any course, but had to be fitted in somewhere.  Previously most of there had been in the Marine-Artillerie (which corresponded to our Marines).  
          The emblem of this branch is a plain anchor.  
          (N.I.D. Note:  In the German Navy officers do not wear colored cloth between their gold lace to denote the branch to which they belong.  All officers have straight stripes without either curl or colored filling.  Above the uppermost stripe is a small emblem denoting the branch; executive officers also wear a distinguishing emblem, a small five-pointed star.)  
          At a recent naval sports gathering one of the prizes was a photograph of the Führer.  The recipient stated (secretly, of course) that he would have preferred some chocolate or a box of oranges.  
          (c)  Political.  
          A large number of the party members are either not reliable people, or else not genuine believers in the party's theories.  This is held to be the greatest obstacle to the further successful prosecution of the war.  
        Count von Papen was described as "by far" Germany's best diplomat, superior to all, von Ribbentrop included.
        A poor view was taken of Reichsmarshal Goering who had taken up residence on Lake Constance, conveniently near the Swiss Frontier, and of the Führer, while calling his party "the German workers' party", forbidding any evacuees to be settled in or near Berchtesgaden.
          A joke is circulating that the air pressure experienced during the recent air raids on Hamburg was so immense that a week after the last raid, pictures of Hitler, Goering and Goebles were flying out through windows.  
  (v)    Norway.  
          There is said to be nothing left to buy in Norwegian shops.  
  (vi)    Ukraine.  
          The celebrated Forster, who was a Gualeiter of Danzig at the outbreak of war, is now a Gauleiter somewhere in the Ukraine.  
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          U.454 was built by the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, and commissioned in July, 1941, with (then) Oberleutnant zur See Hackländer in command.  
          There is not much information available concerning the previous patrols of U.454, since very few ratings survived who had served in her any length of time.  The information in this appendix should be treated with reserve.  
          U.454 was on her ninth operational patrol when sunk.  
  (i)    First Patrol.  
          U.454 left Kiel in December, 1941 and proceeded to Kirkenes.  Christmas was spent in Kirkenes berthed alongside a merchantman.  At the end of December she left Kirkenes and remained at sea in the Arctic under a month and sank three stragglers from a convoy, totaling about 5,000 tons.  Returned to Kirkenes.  
  (ii)    Second Patrol.  
          Left from and returned to Kirkenes.  Still shorter than the first.  
  (iii)    Third Patrol.  
          Left Kirkenes, patrol area still the Arctic.  Returned to Trondheim.  Entered the floating dock of the Trondheim Mekaniske Verkstad for minor repairs, in April, 1942.  
        Thence to Kiel via Kristiansand S.  Remained about one month in Kiel.  The ship's company were accommodated in a depot ship in Kiel-Wik.
(iv)    Fourth Patrol.
          Left Kiel, proceeded to Kristiansand S., arriving 6th July, 1942.  Left Kristiansand S. 13th July, 1942.  Proceeded to St. Nazaire.  
          From now on the operational area was the North Atlantic instead of the Arctic.  
  (v)    Fifth Patrol.  
          Left and returned to St. Nazaire.  Duration six or seven weeks.  
  (vi)    Sixth Patrol.  
          Left St. Nazaire at the end of September, 1942.  The new Engineer Officer, Leutnant (Ing.) Tamms, joined immediately before sailing.  This patrol lasted ten weeks.  Returned to St. Nazaire 10th December, 1942.  No sinkings.  
  (vii)    Seventh Patrol.  
          Left St. Nazaire in late January, 1943.  On the 25th January U.454 was one of eleven U-boats forming Gruppe Hardegen, between Greenland and Newfoundland.  Sank two independently routed merchantmen which prisoners estimate as totaling 13,000 tons.  Returned to St. Nazaire at the end of March, 1943.  
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(viii)    Eighth, or Penultimate Patrol.
          Left St. Nazaire 20th April, 1943.  An attempt was made to attack a convoy, but the escort proved too strong, and U.454 was unable to fire a single torpedo.  Ordered back after four weeks by Control.  Returned as a "guest-boat" to La Pallice, arriving 29th May, 1943.  Seven weeks in dock.  Supplies were still being drawn from St. Nazaire, U.454's proper base.  
          It was not possible to ascertain from survivors a complete list of those on board.  It is thought that the complement was similar to other 500 ton U-boats.  Two officers, two Petty Officers and 12 ratings survived.  
          The complement of officers was altered four times:  
(a) At Commissioning, July, 1941: C.O. HACKLÄNDER.
    1st Lieutenant DAUTER.
    2nd Lieutenant REIMERS.
    Eng. Officer FROMM.
(b) In June, 1942. C.O. HACKLÄNDER.
    1st Lieutenant REIMERS.
    2nd Lieutenant SONNBERG.
    Eng. Officer FROMM.
(c) In March, 1943. C.O. HACKLÄNDER.
    1st Lieutenant LEHMANN.
    2nd Lieutenant SONNEBERG.
    Eng. Officer TAMS.
(d) In July, 1943. C.O. HACKLÄNDER.
    1st Lieutenant SONNBERG.
    2nd Lieutenant BRAUN
    Eng. Officer TAMS.
  (i)    Captain.  
         Kapitänleutnant HACKLÄNDER, the Commanding Officer, wa a relatively pleasant type of German Naval Officer, security-conscious but not very politically minded.  He had served in destroyers at the start of the war, and at the sinking of H.M.S. GLORIOUS his ship had been in company with SCHARNHORST AND GNEISENAU.  
  (ii)    Second Lieutenant.  
          Leutnant zur See BRAUN, the Second Lieutenant, was the only other officer to survive.  He was a reservist, promoted from the lower deck, and had only spent an extremely short time in U-boats.  He represented politically a somewhat rare species, viz: a man who is convinced Germany will lose the war, and yet is a fanatical National Socialist.  
(iii)    General.
        The ratings were either ignorant or security-conscious, frequently both.  There were only a few really experienced men, the majority having joined U.454 during 1943.
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Nominal Roll of U.454.
  (i)    Survivors:  
Name. Rank. English Equivalent. Born.
HACKLÄNDER, Burkhard Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant
BRAUN, Gerhard Leutnant zur See der Reserve Junior Sub-Lieutennant (Naval Reserve)
24. 9.22
VOSS, Ehuard Oberbootsmannsmaat Acting P.O. (Seaman's Branch)
SIEGEL, Erich Obermaschinenmaat Acting Stoker P.O.
22. 9.19
SCHORN, Josef Bootsmannsmaat Leading Seaman
19. 3.19
WAGNER, Helmut Funkmaat Leading Telegraphist
BEELITZ, Günther Mechanikermaat Leading Torpedoman
14. 1.20
HAUENSCHILDT, Fritz Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
13. 9.20
DERSTVENSEK, Engelbert           do.           do.
8. 5.23
ANISCHEWSKI, Paul Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
4. 2.23
BRANDHERM, Franz           do.           do.
SZCZUKA, Herbert Matrosengefreiter Able Seaman
LAURE, Otto Matrose I Ordinary Seaman
MULLER, Rudolf           do.           do.
Chief & Petty Officers:
  (ii)    Officers and ratings stated by prisoners to have been on board when sunk:  
Name. Rank. English Equivalent.
SONNEBERG, Oberleutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant
DAUN (?) Oberleutnant (Ing.) Sub-Lieutenant (E)
KILLIG, Obermaschinenmaat Acting Stoker P.O. & E.R.A. 4th Class
RIEDEL,           do.           do.
FREIDRICKS, Oberfunkmaat Acting P.O. Telegraphist
BECKER, Maschinenmaat Leading Stoker and E.R.A. 5th Class
NORDMANN, Funkgefreiter Telegraphist
BARTSCH,           do.           do.
  N.I.D. Note:  It was not possible to ascertain from survivors a complete list of those on board.  It is thought that the complement was similar to other 500-ton U-boats.  
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