This record was kindly provided by the generous assistance of Tony Cooper

U-BOAT SUNK AT ABOUT 1200 G.M.T. ON 11th MARCH, 1943
          "U 432" (Kapitänleutnant Hermann Eckhardt) was sunk in approximate position 51° 35' N., 28° 30' W. at about 1300 G.M.T. on 11th March, 1943, by F.F.S. "Aconit" escorting Convoy H.X.228.  "Aconit" had 12 hours previously assisted in the sinking of "U 444" (see C.B. 04051 (63) ), from which boat she had also taken prisoners.  
          At about 1100 the same day, "U 432" had torpedoed and sank H.M.S. "Harvester," who had on board one prisoner from "U 444."  Survivors from H.M.S. "Harvester," "U 444" and "U 432" were then transported to Greenock by "Aconit," together with survivors from two ships of H.X.228, torpedoed in the night of 10/11th March, 1943.  
          Main features of this report are:  
                  (1)  Details of new types of torpedo now in use by U-Boats (see Section IX).  
                  (2)  Current W/T routine (see Section VI).  
                  (3)  The great depth reached by "U 432" at the time of her sinking (see Section IV).  
          The following are the British equivalents of German naval ranks used in this report:  
Kapitän zur See Captain.
Fregattenkapitän Senior Commander.
Korvettenkapitän Junior Commander.
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander.
Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich sur See Senior Midshipman.
Fähnrich zur See Junior Midshipman.
          (Ing.) after a rank denotes Engineer Officer, as  
Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Lieutenant-Commander (E).
         "Der Reserve" after a rank denotes a Reserve Officer.                       
          Correction.  In C.B. 04051 (55), Section IV (xi), position of sinking of Greek "Aeas" should read 49 15' N., 67 W., and not as stated.  
  Displacement 500 tons.
  Type VII C.
  Builders F. Schichau, G.m.b.H., Danzig.
  Armament Guns.  One 3.7 cm. (1.46 in.) forward.
               One 20 mm. (.79 in.) on bridge.
               Four Type C.38 M.G.s.
    Torpedoes.  Probably eight air, G.7a, of which six fitted with "Curly" mechanism (see Section IX).  Six electric, G.7e.  Pistols, G.7H.
  Propulsion Diesels.  Two 6-cylinder 4 stroke Diesels.  These had been built in November, 1942.  Manufactured:  Wumag (Waggon und Maschinenfabrik A.G., Goerlitz) under Krupp license.
    Supercharger.  Mechanical.
    Electric Motors.  Siemens.
    Batteries.  Two lead batteries, each of 62 cells.
  German Search Receiver Metox.  Type R.600, fitted.  Wavelength range, 50 to 250 cms.  Condensers burnt out on last patrol and no spares were available.
  D/F Fitted.
  R.D.F. None.
  S.B.T. Fitted.
  Hydrophones G.H.G.
  K.D.B. None.
  (C49002)                                                                                                                    B*2  


  Communication "U 432" carried the following W/T sets:
    (a)  200 watt H/F transmitter (Telefunken).
    (b)  150 watt L/F M/F transmitter (Telefunken)
    (c)  40/70 watt H/F (20-80 metres) (Lorenz) emergency transmitter.
    (d)  H/F (20-80 metres) receiver (Lorenz).
    (e)  L/F (200-800 metres) receiver (Telefunken).
    (f)  All-wave receiver (emergency set).
    (g)  Broadcast radio receiver (Radione).
    (h)  Broadcast radio receiver (Mende).
    R/T.  Fitted, but never used at sea.
    U/T.  Fitted.
  German asdic None.
  Diving depths Depth gauges registered up to 200 metres (656 ft.).  Prisoners said, however, that she had dived to 310 metres (1,017 ft.) just before her sinking.
  Air purification Air purification was by the ordinary method of using potash cartridges.
  Compressors (a)  Junkers.
    (b)  Electric.
  Fuel 130 cubic metres (ca 110 tons).
  Periscope Old type.
  Cover name Jutta
  Badge A polar bear.
  Adoption None.
(All times are German Summer Time.)
  (i)  Departure from La Pallice  
          At 1730 on 14th February, 1943, "U 432" cast off from her berth on the north side of the basin at La Pallice.  
          At 1750 she left the lock at the entrance to the basin.  There were scenes of great enthusiasm as all present waved "goodbye."  She rammed a harbour launch just after negotiating the lock.  On passing the boom "U 432" was escorted by a "Sperrbrecher" and two patrol vessels.  Also sailing with her was another U-Boat with a crocodile badge on her conning-tower.  Survivors could not remember her captain's name.  At 2320 the escort parted company and "U 432" proceeded on her patrol alone and on the surface.  Her course was 270°.  
  (ii)  Passage southwards  
          "U 432" remained on the surface until shortly before 0700 on 15th February, 1943, when she dived for the first time on this patrol.  She did not surface again until 1930 when it was found to be much rougher.  Many of her ship's company were sick.  At 0800 on 16th February, she submerged again, surfacing once more just before dusk.  At 0900 on 17th February, she dived, re-surfacing the same night.  The whole of 18th February was also spent submerged.  Survivors thought that by then they were out of the Bay of Biscay.  
  (iii)  Receipt of Orders  
          About 0100 on 19th February, Eckhardt received a signal ordering him to proceed to join a patrol line named "Wildfang" in a position which he decyphered as a point in the neighbourhood of the Canary Islands.  From this point onwards, "U 432" did not submerge again for some time.  
          At 1545 on 20th February hands went to action stations for exercise and that evening there was a party to celebrate the end of the first week at sea.  There had been no events worthy of note since she left port.  
  (iv)  "U 432"  Alters Course  
          By the evening of 21st February, the First Lieutenant began to wonder why they had proceeded so far southwards.  It was then that Eckhardt, seated in his cabin looking through his signal books realised that he had failed to insert a correction, issued prior to his sailing.  Consequently, the signal received on 19th February giving him his orders, had been wrongly decyphered and he had steered south instead of west since that date.  In its correct form the signal ordered him to a position off Newfoundland.  He immediately gave orders to alter course to 300° and made for the patrol line indicated in the original signal.  


  (v)  Formation of "Gruppe Wildfang"  
          "Gruppe Wildfang" was a patrol line of 10-12 boats in position about 300 miles west of Newfoundland.  "U 432," owing to the time lost following her mistaken course, did not get into position until 28th February, just before the patrol line was disbanded.  She kept W/T watch on the group's wavelength, however, and was thus aware of their movements.  
           Boats forming "Gruppe Wildfang" are stated to have included some of the following, the remainder operating in other groups in this area simultaneously:  
                  "U 68"  (Korvettenkapitän Mertin).  
                  "U 84"  (Kapitänleutnant Uphoff).  
                  "U 410"  (Korvettenkapitän Sturm).  
                  "U 461"  (Kapitänleutnant Stiebler).  
                  "U 591"  (Kapitänleutnant Zetsche).  
                  "U 600"  (Kapitänleutnant Zurmuchlen).  
                  "U 753"  (Korvettenkapitän Mannardt von Mannstein).  
                  U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Friedrich.  
                  U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hunger.  
                  U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Mengersen.  
                  U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Graef.  
                  U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Mumm.  
                  U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Trojer.  
          Survivors said that the convoy which they were intended to intercept was westbound and was reported by the German radio about 25th February, 1943, as having been severely mauled.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  A colourful account of attacks on Atlantic convoys was issued on the German radio on 24th February, 1943.  Special reference was made to a convoy from which tankers described as the "Eulima" (British) and "Stigstadof" (Norwegian) were sunk.  
          Attacks by U-Boats were made on O.N.166 on 21st February and the following night.  The following were included in the 12 ships torpedoed:  
                  British "Empire Trader," 9,990 gross tons.  
                  Norwegian "N.T. Nielsen Alonso," 9,348 gross tons.  
                  Norwegian "Stigsdad," 5,964 gross tons (a straggler in this convoy).  
                  United States "Chattanooga City," 5,696 gross tons.  
                  Panamanian "Winkler," 6,907 gross tons.  
                  Norwegian "Ingria," 4,391 gross tons.  
          All the above ships were torpedoed between 21st and 24th February, 1943, in 45° N., between 30° and 43° W.)  
  (vi)  Formation of "Gruppe Raubgraf"  
          On 28th February "Gruppe Wildfang" was disbanded, having failed to contact its target.  "U 432" and up to 10 other boats were then ordered to form a patrol line to be known as "Gruppe Raubgraf" located in a more northerly position that "Gruppe Wildfang."  Prisoners from "U 432" described her station as "off Greenland."  
          Some 10 or 12 boats formed the new group.  Prisoners thought that they were drawn from those mentioned in subsection (v) above.  
          Kapitänleutnant Hunger reported contact with a convoy and "U 432" and other boats were ordered to intercept.  Owing, however, to heavy seas, "U 432" herself was never in touch with this convoy.  Survivors said they experienced wind varying up to force 12, coupled with intense cold and very high seas.  This caused considerable discomfort to the whole ship's company.  
          While "Gruppe Raubgraf" was in being, a patrol line known as "Gruppe Westmark" also operated in this area.  Kapitänleutnant Graef's boat took part in it.  
  (vii)  Dispersal of "Gruppe Raubgraf"  
          On 8th March, 1943, "U 432" and several other boats of "Gruppe Raubgraf" were given permission to leave the formation on account of shortage of fuel.  Mengersen's boat was among these.  
          "U 432" was ordered to proceed approximately E.S.E. to a given position in the North Atlantic and there to rendezvous with a supply U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Zech, 1930 term.  The weather abated somewhat in the following days, but the swell remained heavy.  
  (viii)  Meeting with Graef's Boat  
          On her way to refuel, "U 432" happened to met with the boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Graef, who informed Eckhardt that he had been operating in "Gruppe Westmark."  
  (ix)  Sinking of H.M.S. "Harvester"  
          In the forenoon of 11th March, 1943, "U 432" was proceeding on the surface towards her point of rendezvous with the supply U-Boat.  She had no intention of making any convoy attacks.  
          Just before dawn, her ship's company heard a number of explosions and Eckhardt decided to submerge with a view to listening on his hydrophones.  He had reported the presence of a straggler by W/T earlier the same morning and thought his signal might have resulted in her being sunk.  
  (C49002)                                                                                                                    B*3  


          After a short while, "U 432" surfaced again.  At the moment of surfacing there were several tremendous explosions to port, away on the horizon.  A cloud of black smoke, which the First Lieutenant described as coming possibly from a tanker, rose in the sky.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0350 G.M.T. on 11th March, 1943, in position 51° 28' N., 28° 52' W. a U-Boat attack developed against Convoy H.X.228 from the starboard side.  At 0411 M/V No. 125, which was torpedoed in this attack and was burning furiously, blew up and sank.)  While the watch was being changed at dawn, the look-out reported smoke and mastheads ahead.  Realising that he had sighted a convoy and that it was approaching him, Eckhardt dived to periscope depth.  
          About 1200 G.M.T., "U 432" sighted a British destroyer which was stopped.  She circled her several times and, seeing no other ships in the neighbourhood, decided to attack her.  About 1300 G.M.T. she accordingly fired one torpedo, at a range of 600 yards, from one of her forward tubes.  She then put the wheel hard aport and fired a second torpedo from her stern tube at a range of 700 yards.  Both torpedoes were normal electric type, without "Curly" mechanism.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  During the forenoon of 11th March, "Harvester" was lying stopped in position 51° 23' N., 28° 41' W., astern of convoy H.X.228, having been damaged as a result of ramming "U 444."  
          At 1205 "Harvester" was struck by a torpedo and a few minutes later by a second.  The ship then sank and a number of her crew were killed.  
          F.F.S. "Aconit," recalled earlier to screen "Harvester," was at this time on the horizon.)  
          "U 432's" First Lieutenant explained that he fired two torpedoes to sink the destroyer because Eckhardt was not certain whether the first had done its job.  He did not know until he was rescued that the destroyer was "Harvester."  
(All times are G.M.T.)
          Having sunk the destroyer, the First Lieutenant turned to his captain with the remark, "Now we must surface, sir.  There's no doubt about that, we must see what's around."  Eckhardt replied, "No.  Not just yet."  The First Lieutenant then went to fetch his camera so as to make a record of the destroyer sinking.  When he came back, Eckhardt had changed his mind.  "I'm going to submerge," he said, "for dinner.  We'll surface later on and see what's doing."  "That's not the right thing to do. sir," protested the First Lieutenant, "we were always taught to surface after an attack at periscope depth."  Eckhardt, however, remained adamant.  preferring to exercise his inexperienced authority against the experience of his first Lieutenant.  The coxswain also recommended surfacing, but to no avail.  
          "U 432" accordingly submerged to 20 metres (65 ft.) and the officers gathered in the wardroom for a glass of champagne to celebrate their success, later referring to their identification books to identify which destroyer they had just sunk.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1212, five minutes after "Harvester" was sunk, "Aconit" sighted a U-Boat on the surface on the horizon, bearing 160°.)  
          The U-Boat sighted by "Aconit" was not "U 432."  Survivors had no accurate knowledge of which U-Boat this might have been, but suggested that she must have been one of the group attacking this convoy.  (N.I.D. Note.  She was almost certainly one of the 10 boats of the group which "U 444" (see C.B. 04051 (63) ) formed a part.  The hydrophone rating in "U 432" meanwhile paid little attention to his duty.  He was engaged much of this time in washing up the champagne glasses.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1236 "Aconit," in nearest position, commenced an A/S search on course 185°.  At 1243 she started evasive tactics, altering course to 250° and then to 135°.  At 1249 she obtained an A/S contact bearing 180° at a range of 1,300 yards and altered course towards it.  At 1251 she steered 225° and then 180°.)  
          About an hour after submerging, just as the First Lieutenant had gone to his bunk for some sleep, a series of D/C explosions took place which came as a complete surprise to all in "U 432."  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1252 "Aconit" fired a pattern of 10 Mark VII D/Cs with depth-setting 100 and 225 ft.  Nothing was observed as a result of this attack.)  
          Survivors said that they heard the noise of propellers just over their boat a moment before this attack took place.  Eckhardt hurriedly ordered his men to action stations; most of then still had their mouth's full of food.  As a result of this attack the main lighting system failed and the electric motors were put out of action, the main switchboard bursting into flames.  At the same time, "U 432" went down by the stern and lost trim to such an extent that the explosions forced her down to a depth which the First Lieutenant estimated at 310 metres (1.017 ft.).  He said that her angle of dive must have been about 25°.  Apart from a slight leak in the stern glands, there was no water entry.  He said he was quite certain that his boat had reached this depth because he clearly noted the pressure gauge, which was connected with the outside of the boat, register gradually up to just over 30 atmospheres.  One atmosphere was equivalent to a depth of 10 metres.  While the gauge only showed up to 18 atmospheres, there was no cause for alarm, but when it reached 25 there was some tension in the boat.  
          When at about 240 metres (787 ft.) survivors heard the noise of the explosion of a second series of D/Cs which, by comparison with the first series, sounded fairly faint.  (N.I.D. Note.  At 1300 "Aconit" fired a pattern of 10 Mark VII D/Cs, with depth-setting 150 and 385 ft., as a result of which  


  she estimated the U-Boat later surfaced.  At 1302-1/2 she fired a pattern of 23 projectiles, one of which misfired.  No explosions were heard.)  At 300 metres (984 ft.) the Stoker Petty Officers hardly dared look at the gauge and no one thought there was any chance of their surviving.  At that stage, the stern of the boat slowly righted itself and "U 432" resumed an even keel.  The Engineer Officer had started to blow his tanks before any great depth had been reached and the effect of this blowing was then evident.  "U 432" rose slowly to the surface.  Other survivors explained that the cause of "U 432" having been forced to such a depth was the explosion of D/Cs above her stern after her electric motors became defective and she was stopped.  The First Lieutenant remarked that this must surely be a record depth for any boat to have achieved this war and that he was sorry he could not inform the Admiral U-Boats who would be sure to be deeply interested.  
          As "U 432" came to the surface Eckhardt gave the order, "On life-jackets.  Prepare to abandon ship!"  He realised that if he submerged again he would probably not have enough H/P air left to surface.  The First Lieutenant, who was standing next to Eckhardt in the control room, said "We must get the Diesels going the moment we surface, sir.  If there is nothing about, we stand a good chance of making a get-away."  
          "U 432" then surfaced.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Aconit observed her to surface on her starboard quarter at 1310.)  The conning-tower hatch was immediately opened and shells started to burst around her.  Survivors said several men were killed by the first salvo and Eckhardt by the second.  They sighted a corvette about 1,000 yards distant and presumed that her reason for firing on them was to prevent them manning their own guns.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Aconit" engaged the enemy immediately she surfaced with her 2 pdr.  She then altered towards and opened fire with her Oerlikons, light machine-guns and 4-in.  She scored hits at 1312 with her third, fourth, fifth and sixth rounds at 1,400 yards closing.  She then ceased fire.)  
          The C.P.O. telegraphist said that he made two signals reporting "U 432's" fate to Admiral U-Boats.  The Engineer Officer remained on board and sank his boat by opening the vents.  Prisoners were not clear how he had met his fate.  
          Twenty survivors from "U 432," including the First Lieutenant, were swimming in the water.  Many of them were in the water up to half an hour before being rescued.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1314 "Aconit" stopped her engines.  She went half astern, it being intended to put her bows athwart the U-Boat and to send a boarding party.  At 1315, slowly under way, "Aconit" rammed the U-Boat amidships and she sank immediately.  A minute later "Aconit" stopped and rescued 20 survivors.)  Survivors said they very much appreciated the efforts made by the corvette in rescuing them.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  All the survivors from "Harvester," who were meanwhile clinging to rafts, were very downhearted when they saw "Aconit" turn away just as they thought she had sighted them.  Shortly afterwards, however, they heard the sound of D/Cs and gunfire from the action described above.  "Aconit" then hoisted the tricolour at her masthead and "Harvester's" survivors realised she had been attacking a submarine.  "Aconit" later picked up "Harvester's" survivors raft by raft).  
          "U 432" claimed to have sunk a total of 120,000 tons of enemy shipping.  
  (i)  Location of 1,200-ton U-Boats  
          Operational 1,200-ton U-Boats are based on Bordeaux, where there is a flotilla.  
  (ii)  H.M.S. "Seal"  
          A captain in the Luftwaffe said that Korvettenkapitän"Teddy" Suhren had told him in Lorient in February, 1942, that H.M.S. "Seal" was to be used as a supply U-Boat.  
  (iii)  Cover Names for U-Boats  
          Every U-Boat is given a cover name for security reasons while in port.  All reference to her is made under cover of such name.  Boats of the 3rd Flotilla at La Pallice are referred to as Anton, Bruno, Caesar, Dora, etc.  
  (iv)  Effects of Bombing of U-Boat Bases  
          Prisoners were not very impressed with the results of Allied bombing of Atlantic coast U-Boat bases.  They admitted, however, that a few boats of other flotillas, notably those stationed at Lorient and St. Nazaire, had recently been ordered to La Pallice.  They thought this might have been a result of the bombing.  
  (v)  U-Boat Command  
          The First Lieutenant stated that there are three S.O. U-Boats operating under the Admiral U-Boats.  These are known as:  
                  Führer der U-Boote Mittlemeer (Konteradmiral Kreisch) (Rome).  
                  Führer der U-Boote West (Korvettenkapitän Rösing (Angers).  
                  Führer der U-Boote Nord (Korvettenkapitän Oesten (?) (Kapitänleutnant Herbert Schultze) (?) (Bergen).  
  (vi)  German Search Receiver  
          U-Boat captains have recently observed that British A.S.V. transmissions are now only given at short intervals and not constantly as before.  Prisoners said that it is easy to ascertain whether a British aircraft is opening or closing a U-Boat, as one transmission will be heard either louder or more softly  
  (C49002)                                                                                                                    B*4  


  than the previous transmission.  They said that, in order to deceive a German Search Receiver operator, it would be advantageous to be able to modulate A.S.V. transmissions when contact had been established.  
  (vii)  U-Boat Captain's Training.  (See also C.B. 04051 (60), Section V (xix).)  
          All officers proceeding to the U-Boat arm are ordered to it.  There is now no such thing as volunteering for this service, but most officers are still content to be so ordered.  Training of future commanding officers for the U-Boat Arm is as follows:  
                  1.  For officers without previous U-Boat experience:  
                          A.  Six weeks at Naval College, Flensburg-Mürwik.  Here they take courses in gunnery, torpedo firing, etc.  
                          B.  Maximum of five months at U-Boats Training Base (U.L.D.) at either Gdynia or Pillau.  The length of time spent here depends on the officer's proficiency.  
                          C.  Torpedo-firing course at Memel.  Duration uncertain, but probably about one month.  
                          D.  Possibly a patrol in a U-Boat as a Commanding Officer under Training ("Kommandantenschüler"), but this is not always considered necessary.  
                  2.  For U-Boat Watchkeeping Officers:  
                          A.  Officers selected for a Commanding Officer's course must be recommended by their Commanding Officers.  This generally follows after three patrols as First Lieutenant.  
                          B.  Torpedo-firing course at Memel.  
                          C.  They are then given their own boat.  
  (viii)  U-Boat Tactics  
          U-Boats operating in the North Atlantic generally feel safe in the neighbourhood of 30° West, where they feel British air patrols cannot normally operate.  
          If fog prevails they often surface to recharge batteries in the neighbourhood of Grand Banks.  
  (ix)  U-Boat Staff Officers  
          The First Lieutenant stated that U-Boat staff officers were appointed for liaison duties with Admirals commanding various areas.  Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Oesten, 1933 term, was formerly on the staff of the Admiral Commanding West Norwegian Coast at Bergen (Admiral Schrader), where he performed good service in co-ordinating the results of air reconnaissance and Y-service with attacks by U-Boats.  Kapitänleutnant Georg Schewe, 1930 term, had formerly also performed the same duties on the naval staff at the Admiralty in Berlin.  
          He added that it was a result of Oesten's representations in Berlin that it was decided to base a U-Boat flotilla on Bergen.  (N.I.D. Note.  The 11th U-Boat Flotilla has been based on Bergen since summer, 1942.)  
  (x)  French Labour in U-Boat Bases  
          U-Boat personnel on guard in U-Boat shelters on the French Atlantic coast are never sure that they may not be shot at by the French at any moment.  
          French dockyard labour is employed there in painting and scraping U-Boats, but is not allowed on board.  
          There has been so much trouble with French labour at La Pallice, that it has been found necessary to introduce a system of "shelter passes" ("boxenausweise"), which have to be shown before a man is allowed to enter the shelters.  
  (xi)  Naval Officers' News-sheets  
          Every German naval term has its own news-sheet, which appears monthly, still printed on best paper.  It is known as "Crew-Zeitung" and contains a number of personal details about members of the term concerned, including obituaries.  
  (xii)  British D/C Settings  
          The First Lieutenant said that British D/Cs were not normally set to over 120 metres (394 ft.), though they had on occasion been set to 130 metres (492 ft.).  
  (xiii)  Possible Submarine Developments  
          A German Army captain (Techuischer Kriegsverwaltungsrat), who was formerly engaged on experimental work for the German Navy, has given the following information.  
          He worked at a naval research station in a Dresden factory up to early 1939 on problems connected with the design of high capacity steam boilers and associated problems.  During this period he helped to install steam turbine units with these boilers in an E-Boat and a 1,500-ton U-Boat at Kiel under the eye of Admiral Dönitz.  He was last in Kiel between the French and Russian campaigns.  The work was done at the Germania Werft, Kiel, and while there in 1939 he had assisted in drawing up machine tool specifications for building 1,500-tonners.  
          He claims to have installed, in a 1,500-ton U-Boat, a 9,000 h.p. unit which had a boiler operating at 180 atmospheres and 620° C., the steam being used in a steam turbine.  Combustion air was supplied at 3-12 atmospheres.  The boiler gases were used between 2,000° C. and 600° C. in the boiler, and then expanded down to 180° C. in a gas turbine which drove the compressor.  The overall efficiency was 29 per cent. and the weight about 9.15 lb/h.p.  The turbine, which ran at 30,000 r.p.m., was coupled by means of Föttinger oil couplings to the propellers.  In a similar installation in an E-Boat normal  


  fuel oil was used, but for submarines a new liquid fuel proposed by I.G. Farben, looking like water and with a Sp. gr. of .5 to .7 according to grade, was used.  This fuel had a very high calorific value and was of the general formula C2H2O2, so needed little additional oxygen for combustion.  There are therefore no electric motors or batteries.  The speeds claimed for U-Boats driven with this system are 28 knots on the surface and 16-18 knots submerged.  
          A free French source recently reported the construction of U-Boats without electric propulsion and running submerged on their Diesels, using liquid oxygen with a compressor to deal with exhaust gases.  
          An officer from "U 224" had heard his E.R.A. speaking of U-Boats that had been launched driven by turbines and having no electric propulsion.  These boats were supposed to have a speed of 28 knots.  The trials had been proceeding for five years and the boilers had frequently blown up.  (The German Army captain mentioned above remarked the same of his early experiments and described now ignition was redesigned.)  The first boats were small, with a range of 100 miles.  
          An L.T.O. from "U 444" spoke of a friend working on experimental U-Boats running on a new fuel, a sort of low-explosive, looking like glycerine and producing no exhaust.  These boats have no electric propulsion and were tested by the U-Boats Acceptance Command at the German naval yards at Kiel.  A speed of 28 knots had been reached.  
          An E.R.A. from "U 187" admitted knowledge of turbines in U-Boats.  
  (xiv)  Fuel  
          A chief Stoker from "U 432" stated that Diesel oil at present in use is Rumanian No. 7 and, as far as he knew, U-Boats have always used this.  He thought it of excellent quality and had never heard anything against it.  
  (xv)  Scuttling Charges  
          "U 432's" First Lieutenant stated that in his U-Boat the 10 kg. scuttling charges were always in position when they were operating near the coast.  Their positions were:  
                  One on outboard flange of inlet to cooling water pump.  
                  One at the bottom of the periscope shaft.  
                  One in the bow compartment on the outboard flange of diving tank No. 5.  
                  One placed in a torpedo head instead of the pistol.  
(See also C.B. 04051 (60), Section V, Sub-Sections (i)-(x).)
  (i)  W/T Routine at Sea  
          U-Boats sailing on patrol adopt the following W/T routine:  
                  (1)  On sailing, W/T watch is kept on a wavelength know as the "Küstenkurzwelle" (coastal H/F), on which stations at Wilhelmshaven and Paris operate.  In the event of H/F transmitters breaking down, L/F W/T watch is kept.  
                  (2)  On receipt of orders to that effect, generally about five days later, a U-Boat switches from the coastal wavelength to the wavelength applicable to the area in which she then finds herself.  (See list below, Sub-Section (iv).  
                  (3)  Boats remain on this wavelength until passing into a different area of operations, when they normally receive orders to switch to the appropriate wavelength.  
                  (4)  On contacting a convoy or on being ordered to intercept a convoy already contacted, a boat is ordered to switch to the appropriate "convoy wavelength."  She remains on this wavelength for the rest of the attack, only reverting to an area wavelength as she abandons the convoy operation.  
  (ii)  Procedure during Convoy Attack  
          During a convoy shadowing and attack, the boats maintain communication with the Admiral U-Boats by means of H/F W/T transmissions and receptions.  As all boats remain W/T watch on the same wavelength, each can and does intercept all traffic on this wavelength, and is thus kept informed of the Admiral U-Boats' orders, theoretically addressed only to the contact-keeper.  
          In such circumstances, boats never employ R/T of U/T.  
  (iii)  "W/T Coded Conversation"  
          W/T coded conversations between boats are also possible during convoy attacks.  These require the permission of Admiral U-Boats before initiation.  They also sometimes take place between individual boats and Admiral U-Boats.  Survivors said that their speed ia almost their sole advantage over ordinary H/F W/T signals.  
  (iv)  Existing Wavelengths  
          (a)  "Irland"  (Eastern North Atlantic).  
          (b)  "Grönland"  (around Greenland).  
          (c)  "Amerika" (Western North Atlantic).  This replaces "Amerika I" and "Amerika II," on use until January, 1943.  


          (d)  "Afrika" (Eastern Central Atlantic).  
          (e)  "Nordmeer"  (Arctic Ocean).  
          (f)  "Mittelmeer"  (Mediterranean).  (See also C.B. 04051 (56), Section VI (v).)  
          (g)       ??     (South Atlantic).  
          (h)  "Küstenkurrwelle" (coastal H/F).  
          (i)  "Geleitzugswelle: (convoy wavelength).  (See also (v) below.)  
          (N.I.D. Note.  British names for these wavelengths are (a) Series 1,  (b)  Series ?,  (c)  Series ?,  (d)  Series 3,  (e)  Arctic,  (f)  Group H,  (g)  Series 4,  (h)  Local, (i)  Series 7 and Series 8 - See C.B. 4002N (12), Appendix 1.)  
  (v)  "Convoy Wavelengths"  
          The convoy wavelength is divided into the "Diana" and "Hubertus" wavelengths.  Boats shadowing a convoy in the area covered by the "Irland" wavelength are ordered to switch to the so-called "Diana" wavelength; those shadowing in the "Amerika" area are ordered to switch to the "Hubertus."  Prisoners did not know of any names applied to convoy wavelengths in other main areas.  
  (i)  "Strahl"  
          The experimental vessel "Strahl" (1,121 gross tons) was used for W/T trials before the war and later for a short period as an auxiliary A/S vessel.  She was, however, found unsuitable for this purpose and returned to her former duties.  She was commanded by Korvettenkapitän Rath, promoted from the lower deck.  
  (ii)  "Richard Beitzen" ("Z.4")  
          The Maas Class destroyer "Richard Beitzen" (1,625 gross tons) was commanded at the outbreak of war by Korvettenkapitän Schmidt.  
  (iii)  "Donau"  
          The U-Boat auxiliary vessel "Donau" 3,950 gross tons) was en route for Sweden at the outbreak of war, but immediately returned to Germany.  She called on the way back at Meml before proceeding to Kiel and Wilhelmshaven, where she remained until February, 1940, when she returned to Kiel.  
  (iv)  "F.5"  
          The former escort vessel "F.5" (600 gross tons) was being used as a torpedo recovery vessel attached to the 24th U-Boat Flotilla at Memel from April, 1940, to April, 1941.  She was then commanded by Kapitänleutnant Zinke, 1930 term.  (See also C.B. 4051 (50), Section XIV (i).)  
  (v)  "Graf Zeppelin"  
          The First Lieutenant said that the aircraft carrier "Graf Zeppelin" (19,250 gross tons) was shortly to be commissioned.  A "Staffel" of Me.109T fighter aircraft was being drafted to her, as well as a number of Ju.87 bombers.  The letter "T" following the identification number 109 means "Trager" (carrier).  
          (i)  There is a branch of the Kiel U-Boats, Acceptance Command ("U.A.K.") at Danzig.  The commanding officer is a captain.  
          The 8th U-Boat Flotilla is based on Danzig and was commanded in January, 1943, by Korvettenkapitän Eckermann, 1925 term.  His F.E.O. was Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Glatzer, 1931 term.
          (i)  Angers.  Angers is the headquarters of S.O. (U-Boats, West)  (Führer der U-Boote West")  
          (ii)  La Pallice.  Prisoners gave much information regarding La Pallice.  This has been collated with information from other prisoner-of-war sources and is being published in C.B. 04051 (63).  
          (iii)  Paris.  The Hotel Ambassador, 16, Boulevard Haussman, Paris, has been taken over by the German forces.  U-Boat crews based on La Pallice are often accommodated there when on leave.  In November, 1942, Kapitän zur See Godt, 1918 term, was Chief of Staff to Admiral U-Boats in Paris.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Captain Godt was promoted to Rear Admiral on 1st March, 1943.)  
          (i)  Kiel.  The 5th U-Boat Flotilla based on Kiel was still commanded on 12th January, 1943, by Kapitänleutnant Oskar Moehle.  Leutnant zur See Doenitz, Admiral Doenitz's son, was Moehle's adjutant for a short period.  
          (ii)  Pillau.  Korvettenkapitän Erich Topp has been appointed S.O. 21st U-Boat (Training) Flotilla at Pillau.  
          (iii)  Stettin.  In January, 1943, the 4th U-Boat Flotilla based on Stettin was still commanded by Korvettenkapitän Fischer.  


          Rome.  Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee and Kapitänleutnant Georg Schewe are on the staff of S.O. U-Boats (Mediterranean) in Rome.  
          Gdynia.  Korvettenkapitän"Teddy" Suhren has been appointed S.O. 22nd U-Boat (Training) Flotilla at Gdynia.  
          The 14 torpedoes in "U 432" during her last patrol were of three different types:  
                  (i)  "Atos," Type G.7a (air torpedo):  two carried on deck.  
                  (ii)  "Etos," Type G.7e (electric torpedo):  six carried inboard.  
                  (iii)  "Curly" torpedo, modified G.7a with "Curly" mechanism:  six carried inboard.  
  All these torpedoes were fitted with G.7H contact pistols.  
          In addition to the above types, mention was made of two new types that may be expected to appear and a new depth-keeping mechanism.  The following account is compiled from statements made by survivors from "U 187," "U 224," "U 432" and "U 444."  
  (i)  "Atos," Type G.7a (21-in.)  
          The G.7a is a normal air torpedo fitted with normal angling gear giving a turning circle of radius 92 metres.  Its range was stated to be over 8,000 metres at 40 knots and its weight 1,603 kilograms when fitted with G.7H contact pistol.  (N.I.D. Note.  The range of H.M.S. "Graph's" air torpedoes is 8,700 yards at 40 knots and 15,300 yards at 30 knots.  It is possible that these ranges have been increased slightly, but 17,000 yards at 30 knots may be taken as an outside range.)  
  (ii)  "Etos" Type G.7e (21-in.)  
          The G.7e is an electric torpedo fitted with normal angling gear giving a turning radius of 92 metres.  Its range was stated to be 4-5,000 metres at 30 knots, which is less than formerly due to the new type of pistol having greater resistance.  Its weight, when fitted with G.7H pistol is 1,528 kilograms.  (N.I.D. Note.  The G.7e torpedo has only one setting, namely 30 knots to 5,400 yards, and to obtain this performance the batteries must be pre-warmed.)  
  (iii)  "Curly" Torpedo  
          "U 432" carried six G/7a torpedoes, which contained a mechanism causing them to pursue some to-and-fro' course in order to obtain increased chances of hitting.  They were fitted with G.7H contact pistols.  (N.I.D. Note.  The configuration of the track is uncertain and until more knowledge is acquired it is proposed to refer to these torpedoes as "Curly."  The "Curly" mechanism could be fitted in any torpedo, but there are good grounds for belief that only the G.7a on its 30 knots setting can provide the requisite range.)  "Curly" torpedoes were stated to be distinguished by a green circle on the top of the tailpiece.  This marking was previously stated (see C.B. 05051 (55), Section X (viii) ) to be the distinguishing mark for a modified depth-setting gear.  
          The "Curly" mechanism is designed so that after the torpedo has run straight a preset range "A," measured by engine revolutions, the gyroscopic control is disengaged and the torpedo makes a 180° turn of radius 200 metres (estimate by one prisoner); the gyroscopic control then re-engages, and after the torpedo has run a further preset range "B," the gyroscopic control is again disengaged and the torpedo turns through 180° before it re-engages.  This continues until the torpedo, describing a succession of long or short "legs," hits a ship or reaches the end of its run.  The track pursued by the torpedo, given by one prisoner, is shown on the Plate opposite, although other configurations of track are possible.  
          The "Curly" turn can be to port or starboard.  
          The angling must not exceed 90°, according to one officer.  
          The angle ø is preset by means of the normal angling gear, the torpedo starting to turn approximately 9 metres after leaving the tube.  The ranges "A" and "B" and whether the turn is to port or starboard, are preset by means of special additional setting gear on the tube.  The setting gear allows of "A" being up to 15,000 metres and allows the legs "B" to be set either "kurz" (short) or "lang" (long).  ""Kurz" is probably less than 1,000 metres (figures of 1,000 metres and 700 metres have been given) and "lang" is probably between 1,000 and 2,000 metres.  
          The total length of run of the G.7a torpedo with "Curly" mechanism is uncertain.  An officer mentioned 17,000 metres at 30 knots.  
          The speed setting is normally 30 knots, although one prisoner thought that the faster speed settings (40 and 44 knots) could also be used.  
  (iv)  Depth-keeping Mechanism  
          All torpedoes, it was stated, are being fitted with a new and greatly improved depth-keeping mechanism, which keeps the torpedoes far more accurately then heretofore at the set depth, particularly in rough weather.  


  (v)  Further New Types  
          An officer stated that, in addition to the "Curly" torpedo, two new types are being developed:  
                  (a)  Acoustic torpedo (Akustisch or Geräusch).  (N.I.D. Note.  Until more definitely established this torpedo is being known as "Taffy.")  
                  (b)  A new electric torpedo, to which the "Curly" was only an intermediate stage.  
          From other prisoners' statements, trials with (a) seem to be well advanced.  This torpedo has acoustic direction control.  
  (vi)  Tactics Using "Curly" Torpedo  
          The U-Boat captain estimates the maximum range of his target and orders the "Curly" mechanism to be set so that, if the torpedo misses, it will run a further few hundred metres before starting to turn.  Salvoes of up to four torpedoes can be fired and in this case torpedoes set alternatively "kurz" and "lang" would be fired.  Attacks are normally made from a beam position, but can also be made from ahead with considerable expectation of success.  
          Before firing "Curly" torpedoes, the U-Boat warns all other U-Boats in the area of her intention, either by U/T or W/T.  All other U-Boats than take avoiding action and may not themselves fire torpedoes.  Immediately after firing "Curly" torpedoes, the captain alters course to port if he has set the torpedoes to turn to starboard, or vice versa, so as to obviate any danger of being hit by his own torpedo.  


  (i)  Building  
          "U 432" was built in the yards of F. Schickau, G.m.b.H., at Danzig in the early months of 1941.  Her ship's company were meanwhile accommodated in the Weischel Barracks, Danzig-Lauenthal, said to be used only for men standing by building at the Schichau yards.  
  (ii)  Commissioning  
          She commissioned on 26th April, 1941.  The occasion was marked by a celebration on board the depôt ship "Iberia" (9,829 gross tons, ex-Hapag liner) at Danzig.  "U 432" together with "U 431" and "U 433," lay alongside "Iberia" at this time.  
  (iii)  Acceptance Trials  
          She ran her acceptance trials with the U-Boat Acceptance Command at Danzig during May and June, 1941.  
  (iv)  Silent Running Tests  
          At the end of June, 1941, "U 432" proceeded to Rönne for two days for her silent running tests.  According to prisoners, this was the only occasion on which she used her U/T gear.  "U 432" was the only boat at Rönne at this time.  
  (v)  Preliminary Torpedo Firing Trials  
          On returning from Rönne, "U 432" underwent her preliminary torpedo-firing tests at Gdynia.  These only lasted two days.  She then returned to Danzig.  
  (vi)  Visit to Kiel  
          "U 432" was then ordered to Kiel.  Prisoners said they did not know the reason for this, but suspected that it might be connected with the imminent outbreak of the Russian war, which started some 10 days after their arrival at Kiel.  While at this port, "U 432" lay in the Germania yards.  
  (vii)  "Agru-Front" at Horten  
          About the second week in July, 1941, following the outbreak of the Russian war, "U 432" was ordered to Horten.  She then made the passage in 24 hours, accompanied by one other U-Boat and escorted by two patrol boats.  She remained there for about one week doing her "Agru-Front" trials.  Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren, in command of the "Agru-Front," came on board.  In the evenings it was usual for those not on watch to go into Oslo for recreation.  
  (viii)  Call at Aalesund  
          From Horten "U 432" proceeded to Aalesund en route to Trondheim.  She spent one night in Aalesund, half of her ship's company remaining on board and half being accommodated in a hotel locally.  
  (ix)  Final Torpedo-firing and Tactical Trials at Trondheim  
          On arrival at Trondheim "U 432" lay for three days at the town quay, after which she proceeded to a neighbouring fjord (N.I.D. Note.  Probably Lo Fjord) and lay alongside the depôt ship "Black Prince" (5,639 gross ton ex-Norwegian) and a torpedo store ship.  Other shipping included the U-Boat depôt ship "Saar" (2,710 gross tons), which prisoners thought was also being used as a target ship.  
          She remained about three weeks in the fjord, during which period she carried out the remaining trials normally performed in the Baltic, consisting of torpedo-firing and tactical exercises with dummy convoys.  
  (x)  Final adjustments  
          So far as prisoners could remember, "U 432" did not dock anywhere for final adjustments.  
  (i)  Departure from Trondheim
          "U 432" sailed from Trondheim on her first patrol in the middle of August, 1941.  Her officers were:  
Captain Oberleutnant zur See Heinz Otto Schultze (1934 term).
First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Poser (1936 term).
Second Lieutenant Obersteuermann der Reserve Düpper.
Engineer Officer Oberleutnant (Ing.) Kujas (1936 term).
  (ii)  Patrol in Atlantic  
          On leaving Trondheim she proceeded via the Rosengarten into the North Atlantic.  One night in September, 1941, she sank five freighters out of a convoy in the neighbourhood of Greenland.  None of these sinkings was followed by a D/C attack.  "U 432" sighted nothing else during this patrol, which lasted about five weeks.  (N.I.D. Note.  The following ships of Convoy S.C.42 were torpedoed and sunk on 10th and 11th September, 1941:  
Date and Time. (G.M.T.)
"Empire Springbok"* 5,591 British 61° 38' N., 40° 40' W. 0200/10.
"Baron Pentland" 3,410 British 61° 15' N., 41° 05' W. 0254/10.
"Sally Maersk" 3,252 British 61° 40' N., 40° 30' W. 0347/10.
"Berury" 4,924 British 62° 40' N., 38° 50' W. 0330/11.
"Thisle Glen" 4,748 British 61° 59' N., 39° 46' W. 1443/10.
"Empire Hudson" 7,465 British 61° 28' N., 40° 51' W. 0804/10.
"Muneric" 5,229 British 61° 38' N., 40° 40' W. 0037/10.
"Empire Crossbill" 5,463 British 63° 14' N., 37° 12' W. 0310/11.
"Stonepool" 4,815 British 63° 05' N., 37° 50' W. 0345/11.
"Gypsum Queen" 3,915 British 63° 05' N., 37° 50' W 0019/10.
"Bulysses" 7,519 British 62° 22' N., 38° 22' W 2357/10.
"Winterswijk" 3,205 Dutch 61° 38' N., 40° 40' W 0510/10.
"Stargard" 1,113 Norwegian 61° 30' N., 40° 30' W 0511/10.
"Garm" 1,231 Swedish 63° 02' N., 37° 51' W 0530/11.
"Scania" 1,629 Swedish 61° 14' N., 37° 12' W 0510/11.
"Tachee" 6,508      -- 61° 00' N., 41° 40' W 0255/10.
*  This ship was a straggler in this convoy.)
  (iii)  Return to Base  
          "U 432" entered Brest in the latter half of September, 1941, and was there attached to the 1st U-Boat Flotilla.  


  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          "U 432" began her second patrol from Brest early in October, 1941.  
  (ii)  Attack on West-bound Convoy  
          She attacked a west-bound convoy west of Ireland, sinking three ships, consisting of a tanker and two freighters.  She was then herself attacked by destroyers, sustaining little damage.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  H.M.C.S. "Agassia" attacked a U-Boat in position 54° 16' N., 26° 36' W., on 2nd October, 1941, and was assessed insufficient evidence of damage.  Convoy O.N.19 was attacked in the early days of October, 1941, the following ships being sunk:  
"Empire Wave" 7,463 British 59° 08' N., 32° 28' W. 1st October.
"Hatasu" 3,198 British 600 miles east of Cape Race 2nd October.
"San Florentino" tanker 12,842 British 52° 50' N., 34° 40' W. 1st October.
"Tulsa" 4,652 British 54° 16' N., 26° 36' W. 2nd October.)
  (iii)  Attack on Gibraltar Convoy  
          The Admiral U-Boats then ordered "U 432" to attack a convoy homeward bound from Gibraltar.  "U 432" attacked it off Cape Finisterre, scoring three hits but not being able to observe the results.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The following ships of Convoy H.G.75 were sunk on the dates and in positions indicated.  
"Ulea" 1,574 British 41° 17' N., 21° 40' W. 28th October.
"Carsbreck" 3,670" British 35° 50' N., 10° 40' W. 24th October.
"Alhama" 1,352 British 35° 50' N., 10° 40' W. 24th October.
"Ariosto" 2,176 British 35° 30' N., 10° 40' W. 24th October.)
  (iv)  Return to Base  
          "U 432" entered La Pallice early in November, 1941.  She was henceforth based on this port.  
          No survivors were on board "U 432" for her third patrol, but several related how they had heard that on this patrol she attempted the passage of the Straits of Gibraltar.  British A/S methods, however, proved too effective and she was forced to turn back after submerging to 240 metres (787 ft.) to avoid D/Cs.  
          One man said that Schultze had attempted the passage at periscope depth in the wake of a destroyer, hoping that the destroyer's own propeller noises would help him to avoid detection.  
          This patrol was completed by Christmas, 1941.  
  (i)  Departure from La Pallice  
          "U 432" sailed on her fourth patrol from La Pallice towards the end of January, 1942.  Before sailing, she has embarked a new First Lieutenant named Leutnant zur See Kregelin, 1938 term, replacing Leutnant zur See Poser.  
  (ii)  Passage to American Coast  
          She was ordered to proceed independently (Freijagd") and Schultze decided to operate off the North American coast between Galveston and Cape Hatteras.  
  (iii)  Sinking of Five Freighters  
          In the space of ten days she sank five independent merchantmen, one of them a Brazilian, which she sank in daylight with two torpedoes.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The following five independent freighters were sunk about this time in the positions indicated:  
Time and Date.
"Blink" 2,701 Norwegian 35° 00' N., 72° 27' W. 2050/11.2.42.
"Marore" 8,215 U.S. 35° 26' N., 75° 15' W. 1600Z/26.2.42.
"Leif" 1,582 Norwegian 34° 45' N., 69° 20' W. 0600Z/28.2.42.
"China Arrow" 8,403 U.S. Off U.S. Atlantic coast 6.2.43.
"Olinda" 4.053 Brazilian 37° 30' N., 75° 00' W. 1700/18.2.42.
  In the case of the "Olinda," the master and one other officer were ordered on board the U-Boat questioned and released.)  
          As Schutze had heard no distress signal sent on 500 kc/s he ordered her master and W/T operator to come on board.  It was then established that the impact of the first torpedo had carried away her W/T aerial.  The two men were then allowed to leave "U 432."  Prisoners said they had heard an American broadcast a few days afterwards stating that the Brazilians had landed three days later.  
  (iv)  Meeting with another U-Boat  
          "U 432" met another U-Boat on her return passage.  Prisoners could not remember her number.  They said the other boat had been out about ten days.
  (v)  Return to La Pallice  
          She returned to La Pallice in the later half of March, 1942.  During the whole of this patrol she had suffered no D/C attack.  


  (i)  Departure from La Pallice  
          "U 432 sailed on her fifth patrol from La Pallice about 16th April, 1942.  Before sailing, Oberleutnant zur See Hagenau, October, 1937 term, joined her, replacing Obersteuerman der Reserve Düpper as Second Lieutenant Düpper left to take his commission.  
  (ii)  Refuelling from 740-tonner  
          "U 432's" orders were to proceed to the North American coast.  On passage she rendezvous'd with "U 174" (Korvettenkapitän Thilo), which was on her way back to base, and refuelled from her.  The 740-tonner, in turn, took on board mail from "U 432".  
  (iii)  Sinking of Three Freighters  
          Operating off New York, "U 432" claims to have sunk by gunfire three independent freighters and a fourth merchantman from a northbound convoy.  In addition, she sank two 300-400-ton vessels described as "trawlers," off the coast.  (N.I.D. Note.  None of these claimed sinkings can be identified.)  
  (iv)  Refuelling from Supply U-Boat  
          On the return passage, "U 432" rendezvous'd with a supply U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant der Reserve von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf and took 35 tons of fuel, enough to see her safely back to base.  
  (v)  Return to La Pallice  
          "U 432" returned to La Pallice on 4th June, 1942.  Survivors said her patrol had lasted 38 to 60 days.  They estimated the total tonnage sunk on this patrol at 20,000 tons.  
  (i)  Departure from La Pallice  
          "U 432" sailed from La Pallice on her sixth patrol on 14th August, 1942.  She was in company with "U 373" (Oberleutnant zur See Paul-Karl Loeser) and was escorted by a "Sperrbrecher" and two patrol boats.  
          "U 432's" officers on this patrol were:  
Captain Oberleutnant zur See Heinz Otto Schultze.
Commanding Officer under Instruction Oberleutnant zur See Heinz Schomburg (1935 term).
          (N.I.D. Note.  Schomburg now commands a U-Boat of the 29th Flotilla based on Spezia.)
First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Hagenau, her former Second Lieutenant relieving Oberleutnant zur See Kregelin.
Second Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Josef Bröhl, 1938 term, relieving Oberleutnant zur See Hagenau.
  (ii)  Sinking of S.S. "Pennmar"  
          Survivors said that "U 432" was originally ordered to operate with other U-Boats in a convoy attack.  This order was, however, cancelled when it appreciated that the heavy seas made this difficult and she was ordered instead to the neighbourhood of the North American coast to operate independently.  
          In view of the bad weather, "U 432" decided after a short period off the American coast to return to base earlier than she expected.  
          Soon after putting about, she sighted a United States ship, the "Pennmar, sailing independently, and prepared to attack her.  The "Pennmar," however, engaged "U 432" in a gunnery duel and forced her to submerge, with the result that it was not until later that night that "U 432" having meanwhile surfaced, was able to attack her and sink her worth one torpedo.  This was the only torpedo she fired on this patrol.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The United States "Pennmar," 5,868 g.r.t., a straggler from S.C.100, was sunk in position 58° 25' N., 32° 15' W., on 23rd September, 1942, by torpedo.)  
  (iii)  D/C Attack by Corvette  
          After sinking "Pennmar," "U 432" was homed on an eastbound convoy in mid-Atlantic.  After searching for it for some days, she finally came upon it one night while surfaced.  The weather was still very bad.  
          "U 432" was immediately detected by a corvette and submerged to 120 metres (393 ft.) at which depth she received eight D/Cs some of which damaged her Junkers compressor and main bilge pump.  (N.I.D. Note.  H.M.C.S. "Rosthern" and U.S.S. "Campbell" dropped 20 D/Cs in position 58° 42' N, 25° 56' W. at 1343 on 24th September, 1942.  Both vessels were escorting Convoy S.C.100.  Assessments:  Insufficient evidence of damage in both cases.)  
  (iv)  Damage from Heavy Seas  
          "U 432" surfaced some seven hours later and proceeded towards La Pallice.  At the end of September, when the weather was at its worst, a huge following wave nearly washed the bridge watch overboard.  One of them was thrown against the periscope shaft and had an arm broken, while the others suffered extremely from shock.  
          The weather was so bad that Schultze decided to submerge.  "U 432" then went to about 100 metres (328 ft.) while first aid was given to the injured men.  
          It was then discovered that the Diesels were not in proper running order, owing to water from the heavy seas having entered the air-intake, and this was repaired while submerged.  It was also found that "U 432" had shipped too large an amount of water through her conning-tower hatch while proceeding on the surface.  This caused difficulties in surfacing when the tanks were finally blown.  The result was that the boat remained submerged for a much longer period than intended.  
  (v)  Return to Base  
          "U 432" returned to La Pallice on 4th October, 1942.  It was then decided to remove her Diesels and replace them with a new set.  She accordingly went into dry dock, where she remained for over a month.  The ship's company were all given leave.  Leutnant zur See Bröhl taking the opportunity to get married.  
  (i)  Departure from La Pallice  
          "U 432" sailed on 1st December, 1942, from La Pallice on her seventh patrol.  It was originally intended to sail on 29th November, but her departure was delayed two days owing to a defect in her Junkers compressor.  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Beese relieved Leutnant (Ing.) Kujas as Engineer Officer.  


  (ii)  Passage to Casablanca  
          "U 432" proceeded across the Bay of Biscay and then southwards along the Portuguese coast, finally sailing to her operational area off Casablanca.  Her orders were to remain in this area for the majority of her patrol and to report on any shipping movements that took place.  She was also to sink anything which she judged suitable.  
  (iii)  Sinking of Armed Trawler  
          She sighted very little other than neutrals while off Casablanca.  One day she saw a United States destroyer proceeding on a north-westerly course, but did not attack.  She believed that she herself had not been detected.  
          One night about 22nd December, she sighted an armed trawler of about 500 tons displacement, sailing without navigation lights, and promptly torpedoed her.  Prisoners said that the trawler had first opened fire on "U 432."  (N.I.D. Note.  This vessel was almost certainly the French fishing trawler "Poitou," torpedoed at 2015A/17th December, 1942, while at anchor in position 33° 23' N., 08° 30' W.)  
  (iv)  Reconnaissance of Straits of Gibraltar  
          Soon after Christmas "U 432" decided to return to base.  En route, Schutze remained for a day and part of the following night at a point midway between Cape Trafalgar and Cape Spartel to reconnoiter shipping movements in the Straits of Gibraltar.  He sighted nothing all day and was compelled to dive on several occasions as a result of readings on his German Search Receiver, showing that he had been detected by aircraft.  
          The same night he sighted a 6,000-ton tanker and followed her up with the intention of attacking.  She turned out, however, to be Spanish.  Prisoners said that she was very badly illuminated and blamed this for their mistake.  Schultze made several W/T reports on what he saw at this point before leaving for a position off Cadiz and later off Hoelva where the Admiral U-Boats had ordered him to report on British ore-ship traffic.  
  (v)  Return to Base  
          On leaving the neighbourhood of the Straits of Gibraltar, Schultze headed north along the Portuguese coast, passed through the Bay of Biscay and made La Pallice on 5th January, 1943.  
  (i)  Complement  
          "U 432's" complement totalled 46.  This was composed of four officers, three C.P.O.s, 12 P.O.s and 27 other ratings.  Apart from her officers, 16 of her ship's company were seamen, 16 engine room and five W/T personnel.  
  (ii)  Captain  
          Her captain was Kapitänleutnant Hermann Eckhardt, 1936 term.  He was promoted Kapitänleutnant during his last patrol.  In 1938 he was in the 5th Destroyer Flotilla.  He joined the U-Boat arm early in 1941.  In January, 1942, he was at the U-Boat Commanding Officers' Training School at Memel, where he was in command of a school boat.  In April, 1942, he had a shore job at Constanza (Rumania), a position in which he was not happy, and requested to be sent to sea.  Some survivors said he was to have commanded a Rumanian submarine.  He was appointed to "U 432," his first operational command in January, 1943.  Survivors said that he wore a Rumanian submarine decoration.  They had no very high opinion of him as a commanding officer, describing him as over confident and unaware of the latest defence tactics.  They thought that under Schultze, who previously had command of "U 432" they would never have been sunk in such circumstances.  He did not survive.  
  (iii)  First Lieutenant  
          The First Lieutenant was Leutnant zur See Josef Bröhl, 1938 term.  After five and a half months' new entry training as an ordinary seaman at Stralsund, he was drafted to the sailing training ship "Albert Leo Schlageter," in which he remained for four months, then proceeding to the cruiser "Emden," in which he was promoted officer cadet and remained until September, 1939.  He was then promoted midshipman (junior grade) and proceeded to take a number of courses at the Naval College at Flensburg, and in April, 1940, was appointed to the 1st Minesweeping Flotilla, then based on Pillau.  In August, 1940, he was promoted midshipman (senior grade) and was commissioned in April, 1941.  In July, 1941, he transferred to the German Air Force and was employed as a pilot on naval reconnaissance.  He asked to return to the navy and was transferred back in September, 1941, when he joined the U-Boat arm.  He then underwent a U-Boat Watchkeeping Officer's course at Flensburg and proceeded afterwards to Pillau for a short period.  In December, 1941, he was appointed Second Lieutenant in "U 378" (Kapitänleutnant Hoschatt) during her building at the Howalt yards, Kiel.  He remained with her during working-up and was about to sail in her on his first operational patrol early in 1942 when he went sick, his place being taken by Oberleutnant zur See Schrewer, 1935 term.  In April, 1942, he proceeded to Kirkenes to rejoin "U 378," but again went sick, returning to Kiel for an operation.  He joined "U 432" in La Pallice in July or August, 1942.  Bröhl was pleasant to meet and showed no signs of undue political bias or of exaggerated security-consciousness.  
  (iv)  Second Lieutenant  
          The Second Lieutenant was Leutnant zur See der Reserve Klaus Schiller, aged about 30.  He had previously been in minesweepers and then at the Pillau U-Boat School.  This was his first operational U-Boat patrol.  He had worked with the German Foreign Office before joining the Navy.  He did not survive.  
  (v)  Engineer Officer  
          The Engineer Officer was Leutnant (Ing.) "Bruno" Beese, April, 1939, term.  He had previously been Engineer Officer of a school boat and this was his first operational patrol.  He did not survive.  
  (vi)  General
          The survivors of "U 432" were remarkably lacking in security-consciousness.  The petty officers had some U-Boat experience, mostly in earlier patrols with Schultze in this boat, but the standard of experience among the ratings was very low.  There appears to have been a satisfactory esprit de corps in the boat.  The unusually large number of five telegraphists was explained by one of them who was due to be drafted ashore having asked if he could remain for one more patrol.  


(i)  Survivors:
English Equivalent.
Brohl, Josef Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant 31.8.18
Bieder, Fritz Oberbootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class 4.4.17
Bauchrowitz, Gerhard Oberbootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class 22.8.18
Ochs, Johannes Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class 20.12.19
Manz, Wilhelm Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class 6.1.19
Leuschner, Johannes Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class 1.12.17
Philipps, Otto Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class 10.11.19
Gossow, Martin Oberfunkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 1st Class 13.11.14
Eichbaum, Friedrich Oberfunkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 1st Class 8.12.16
Palenga, Ewald Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class 10.4.21
Kaiser, Heinz Julius Karl Maschinenmaat Stoker, P.O., 2nd Class 19.9.19
Bucher, Wilhelm Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class 23.3.20
Stude, Rudolf Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 29.8.23
Verheyden, Peter Mechainkerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class 20.11.23
Schülein, Fritz Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 4.9.23
Manz, Wilhelm Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 7.8.24
Rutsch, Friedrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 30.12.23
Ross, Günter Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class 12.12.23
Röhrle, Otto Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class 5.2.22
Clauss, Hans Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class 24.6.21
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Eckhardt, Hermann Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander.
Schiller, Klaus Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Beese "Bruno" Leutnant (ing.) Sub-Lieutenant (E).
Stellmacher Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Schneider Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Gerecke, Harry Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class.
Schepull Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class.
Severin Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Siemsen Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Sachs Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Schmitz Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Straube Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Weskamp Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Weiser Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Staude Funkobergefreiter Telegraphist.
Ehmke Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Kirsten Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Loy Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Bredekamp Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Körver Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Peck Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Krausenbaum Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Kosicki Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Leist Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Wenderoth Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Jakob Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (iii)  Total Crew:  
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (C49002)   435  8/43  



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