This record was kindly provided by the generous assistance of Tony Cooper.


                                                                                                                 COPY No.
This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer
C.B.  04051 (69)
"U 301,"  "U 439" and "U 659"
Interrogation of Survivors
June, 1943
This Report is not to be considered accurate in all respects, having been prepared before complete information was available.  It is therefore not to be taken as historically correct.



          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  



Attention is called to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
Official Secrets Acts.
C.B.  04051 (69)
"U 301," "U 439" and "U 659"
Interrogation of Survivors
June, 1943
          ADMIRALTY, S.W.1.  
      N.I.D. 03738/43.  


          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  


PART I. "U 301"
  Introductory Remarks
  Details of "U 301"
      (i) Displacement;  (ii) Type;  (iii) Builders;  (iv) Armament;  (v)  Radar;  (vi) German Search Receiver;  (vii) S.B.T.;  (viii) Hydrophones;  (ix) Communications;  (x) Propulsion;  (xi) Adoption;  (xii) Badge.
  Last Patrol of "U-301"
  Sinking of "U 301"
  Surface Ship
  General Remarks
      (i) "Curly" Torpedoes;  (ii) German Search Receiver;  (iii) 29th U-Boat Flotilla;  (iv) Rescue of Survivors.
  U-Boats of the 29th Flotilla
Appendix A
    Early History of "U 301"
Appendix B
    Previous Patrols of "U 301"
Appendix C
    Ship's Company of "U 301" 4
      (i) Captain;  (ii) First Lieutenant;  (iii) Second Lieutenant;  (iv) Engineer Officer;  (v) Midshipmen;  (vii) General  
PART II. "U-439" 5
  Introductory Remarks 6
  Details of "U 439" 6
      (i) Displacement;  (ii) Type;  (iii) Builders;  (iv) Armament;  (v) Propulsion;  (vi) Compressors;  (vii) Diving;  (viii) Construction;  (ix) German Search Receiver;  (x) Radar;  (xi) D/F;  (xii) S.B.T.;  (xiii) Hydrophones;  (xiv) Echo-Sounder;  (xv) "Elektrolote";  (xvi) Communications;  (xvii) Look-out Mast;  (xviii) Air Purification;  (xix) Adoption;  (xx) Badge;  (xxi) Look-outs.  
  Third and Last Patrol of "U 439" 7
    (i)  Departure from Brest;  (ii) Course across Bay of Biscay;  (iii) Receipt of Orders; (iv) Warning against "Coloured" Searchlight;  (v) New Diving Orders from C.-in-C. U-boats;  (vi) H.M.S. "Adventure" Reported;  (vii) Arrival in Station;  (viii) Presence of Convoy Signalled;  (ix) Second Convoy Reported;  (x) German Search Receiver Reading Obtained. 8
  Sinking of "U 439" 8
  Torpedoes 9
    (i) "Curly" Torpedoes;  (ii)  Torpedo Pistols.  
  New U-Boat H/A Armament;  10
    (i)  Additional H/A Armament;  (ii) Anti-Aircraft Escort U-Boats.  
  General Remarks 11
    (i) Tactics in Bay of Biscay;  (ii) Duration of U-Boat Patrols;  (iii) New Type Radar;  (iv)  Aircraft Recognition;  (vii) Special High Tensile Bolts ("Dehnschrauben");  (viii) Air Purification;  (ix) German A/S Tactics;  (x) Norwegian Submarines;  (xi) Italian Teo-Man Submarines.  
  Surface Ships 12
      (i) "Itis" and "Seeadler";  (ii) "R 18," "R 21" and "R 24";  (iii) "M 8";  (iv) "M 9";  (v) "M 10," "M 12," "M 38" and "M 152";  (vi) "M 28";  (vii) Trawler 4403;  (viii) Hanomag E-Boats.  
  "M" Class Sweepers 13
    (i)  Number in Commission;  (ii) Command;  (iii) Duties;  (iv) Details of "M" Class sweepers.  
  Torpedo Boats 13
      (i)  "Iltis" Class (800 tons);  (ii) "Möwe Class (800 tons);  (iii) "T" Class (600 tons);  (iv) Old "T" Class (760 tons);  (vi) Command.  
  Bases 14
      (i) La Pallice;  (ii) Lorient.  
  (C49377)                                                                                                                             B*  


Appendix A
    Early History of "U 439" 15
      (i) Building and Commissioning;  (ii) Acceptance Trials;  (iii) "Agru-Front" at Hel;  (iv) Training Period;  (v)  High Tensile Bolts Fitted;  (vi) Torpedo Firing Trials;  (vii) Tactical Exercises;  (viii) Final Adjustments;  (ix) Silent Running Trials;  (x) Fitting-Out at Kiel-Wik.  
Appendix B
    Previous Patrol os "U 439" 16
      (i)  Departure from Kiel;  (ii) Call at Kristiansand S.;  (iii) Call at Stavanger;  (iv) Passage of "Rosengarten";  (v) Arrival in Station;  (vi) Shadowing East-bound Convoy;  (vii) Shadowing of Second Convoy;  (viii) Arrival at Brest.  
      (i) Departure from Brest;  (ii) Practice Deep Dive;  (iii) Return to Brest;  (iv) Second Departure from Brest;  (v) Arrival in Patrol Line Station;  (vi) Shadowing of Convoy;  (vii) Attack by Aircraft;  (viii) Attempted Attack on "Independent";  (ix) Shadowing of South-bound Convoy;  (x) Shadowing of North-bound Convoy;  (xi) Return to Brest.  
Appendix C
    Ship's Company of "U 439" 18
      (i) General;  (ii) Captain;  (iii) First Lieutenant;  (iv) Second Lieutenant;  (v) Engineer Officer;  (vi) Midshipmen.  
Appendix D
    Nominal Roll of "U 439" 19
      (i) Survivors;  (ii) Casualties;  (iii) Total Crew  
PART III. "U 659" 21
I.   Introductory Remarks 22
II.   Details of "U 659"  
      (i) Displacement;  (ii) Type;  (iii) Builders;  (iv) Armament;  (v) Propulsion;  (vi) Diving;  (vii) Communications; (viii) German Search Receiver;  (ix) Radar;  (x) D/F;  (xi) S.B.T.;  (xii) Hydrophones;  (xiii) Echo-Sounder;  (xiv) "Elektrolote";  (xv) Look-out Mast;  (xvi) Air Purification;  (xvii) Upper Deck Welding Connection;  (xviii) Adoption;  (xix) Badge.  
III.   Fifth and Last Patrol of "U 659" 23
      (i) Departure from Brest;  (ii) Passage of Bay of Biscay;  (iii) Receipt of Orders;  (iv) Arrival in Station;  (v) H.M.S. "Adventure" Reported;  (vi) Convoy Reported;  (vii) Second Convoy Reported.  
IV.   Sinking of "U 659" 24
Appendix A
    Early History of "U 659" 24
      (i)  Commissioning;  (ii) Acceptance Trials;  (iii) Torpedo Firing;  (iv)  Gunnery Trials;  (v) Silent Running Trials;  (vi) "Agru-Front" Trials;  (vii) Tactical Exercises;  (viii) Final Adjustments.  
Appendix B
    Previous Patrols of "U 659"  
      (i) Departure from Kiel;  (ii) Call at Kristiansand S.;  (iii) Call at Bergen;  (iv) Passage into Atlantic;  (v) Patrol Line and Convoy Attack;  (vi) Arrival at Brest.  
      (i) Departure from Brest;  (ii) Sinkings from Convoy;  (iii) Arrival at Brest.  
      (i) Departure from Brest;  (ii) Escort of Blockade-Runner;  (iii) Return to Brest.  
      (i) Departure from Brest;  (ii) Contact with Convoy;  (iii) Attack by Aircraft;  (iv) Return to Brest.  
Appendix C
    Ship's Company of "U 659" 26
      (i) General;  (ii) Captain;  (iii) First Lieutenant;  (iv) Second Lieutenant;  (v) Engineer Officer;  (vi) Midshipman.  
Appendix D
    Nominal Roll of "U 659" 27
      (i) Survivors;  (ii) Casualties;  (iii) Total Crew.  
PART IV. U-Boat Organization 28
PART V. German Flotillas 29


          The reports on the interrogation of survivors from "U 301" (sunk 21st January, 1943), "U 439" and "U 659" (both sunk 4th May, 1943) are incorporated in this volume for economy reasons.  
          The main features of interest are as follows:  
  Current Organization of U-Boat Command (at end of volume).
  List of German Flotillas (at end of volume)
  Details of G.S.R. "Magic Eye" (see "U 301" report).
  Remarks on "Curly" Torpedoes (see "U 301 report).
  New U-Boat H/A Armament (see "U 439 report).
  Further Details pf "Curly" Torpedoes (see "U 439 report).
  Remarks on "Dehnschrauben" (High Tensile Bolts) (see "U 439 report).
  Silent Running Trials in Kiel Canal (see "U 439 report).
  Remarks on "Coloured" Searchlights (see "U 439 report).
  Hanomag Craft (see "U 439 report).
  "M" Class Sweepers and Torpedo Boats (see "U 439 report).
  (C49377)                                                                                                                             B*2  


"U 301"
Sole Survivor
  (C49377)                                                                                                                               B*3  


          "U 301" (Kapitänleutnant Willy-Roderich Körner) was sunk at 0834 zone time on 21st January, 1943, by H.M. Submarine "P. 212" in approximately 41° 27' N., 07° 04' E.  
          There was only one survivor, a midshipman named Fähnrich zur See Wilhelm Rahn, who had only joined the boat a few days before her last patrol.  Rahn's knowledge was necessarily limited, and, though his early security consciousness became less as interrogation proceeded, he was unable to supply much information.  
          The main features of this report are:  
                  (1)  Details of the "Magic Eye" as fitted to G.S.R. (Section VI (ii) ).  
                  (2)  Remarks on "Curly" torpedoes.  (Section VI (i) and C.B. 04051 (64) ).  
          The following are the British equivalents of German Naval ranks used in this report:  
Kapitän zur See
Leutnant zur See
Junior Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich zur See
Senior Midshipman.
Fähnrich zur See
Junior Midshipman.
          The suffix "der Reserve" indicates a Reserve Officer and "Ing." an Engineer Officer.  
  (i)  Displacement  
          500 tons.  
  (ii)  Type  
          VII C.  
  (iii)  Builders  
          Not known.  
  (iv)  Armament  
          Guns.  One 88-mm. (3.46 in.) forward.  One 20 mm. (0.79 in.) on bridge.  Several M.G.s.  
          She had been fitted with two 12.7 mm Breda mountings (see C.B. 04051 (56)    Section II (iv) ).  The Breda guns had originally been mounted, though later landed.  
          Torpedo Tubes.  Four forward.  One aft.  
          Torpedoes.  12 believed carried.  None in upper-deck containers.  Some fitted with "curly" mechanism.  
  (v)  Radar  
  (vi)  German Search Receiver  
          Provisional U-boat type aerial.  Receiver set, Type R.600A.  (See Section VI (ii).)  
  (vii)  S.B.T.  
  (viii)  Hydrophones  
          Multiple Unit (G.H.G.).  
  (ix)  Communications  
          Normal W/T installation.  
  (x)  Propulsion  
          Details unknown.  
  (xi)  Adoption  
          Details unknown.  
  (xii)  Badge  
          A U-boat surmounted by a spread-eagle.  Not painted on boat: only worn on ship's company's caps.  


          "U 301" sailed alone on her last patrol from La Spezia about 1600 on 20th January, 1943.  As the weather was misty at the time of her departure, no escort was provided.  
          Soon after leaving La Spezia, she made a practice dive to about 30 metres (98 ft.).  This only lasted a few minutes.  She also dropped a number of hand-grenades to warn off any British submarines.  She then set course to pass around the northern extremity of Corsica, after which she turned south.  
          Apart from her one practice dive outside La Spezia, she proceeded on the surface until the time of her sinking.  She sailed throughout at full speed.  
          About 0200 on 21st January, 1943, she received information from base of an Allied convoy having sailed from Gibraltar in the direction of Algiers and was ordered to intercept it.  Her captain ordered her to increase speed.  Rahn explained that normally it was forbidden to proceed on the surface during daylight hours in the Mediterranean, but his Captain had this time taken the risk, as he felt that he would never be able to contact the convoy otherwise.  
          At 0800 zone time on 21st January, 1943, Rahn came on watch, taking over the port bow lookout sector.  With him were Leutnant zur See Dettmer, a Petty Officer and a seaman.  "U 301" was on course 210°, proceeding at about 15 knots.  It was raining slightly, but the shower soon passed over and visibility then became good.  The sea was slight, described as Force 2 to 3.    
          The next thing that Rahn remembered was a tremendous explosion to starboard, after which he lost consciousness until her was rescued by a British submarine, whose number he later learned was "P. 212."  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0834 zone time on 21st January, 1943, H.M. Submarine "P. 212" hit a U-boat with three torpedoes in 41° 27' N., 07° 04' E.  She then picked up one survivor.)  
          Rahn was not at first aware of his boat having sunk and frequently asked in captivity whether there were other survivors.  He said he had been told on board "P. 212" that three torpedoes had struck his U-boat; on hearing this he presumed that she had certainly sunk and that he was probably the only survivor.  He added that there was another man blown clear of the boat, but that he was later found to be dead.  
          He was mainly relieved that the torpedo which first hit his boat had not struck her in his lookout sector.  
          The cruiser "Nürnberg" was commanded from July, 1941, to January, 1942, by Kapitän zur See von Studnitz, 1915 term.  Rahn, who served in her, stated that during all that period she remained in the Baltic.  
  (i)  "Curly" Torpedoes  
          Rahn said that he was given instruction in the operation of "curly" torpedoes in the torpedo depot at La Spezia between October, 1942, and January, 1943.  
          The firing position, he said, was always astern of the convoy, with the torpedo altering course to port and starboard after completing the initial straight run away from the U-boat.  (See C.B. 04051 (64).)  
  (ii)  German Search Receiver  
          The German Search Receiver Metox R.600A. receiver set fitted in "U 301" differed from the R.600 type in two ways:  
          Firstly, it carried a second oscillator, which, if switched on, had the effect of improving the clarity and volume of the sound harmonics.  
          Secondly, it was fitted with a device known as "The Magic Eye" ("Das Magische Auge").  This consisted of three electrodes giving visual indication on a small indicator placed either top centre or top right centre of the receiving panel.  In size and appearance, this device appeared to be similar to a "Bendix" type visual tuning indicator.  On obtaining a contact, the operator would tune until a ray of light in the indicator exactly fitted into a superimposed pattern in the shape of a Maltese cross; when it fitted perfectly, it could be assumed that tuning was dead on the transmitting beam.   
          (N.I.D. Note.  "The Magic Eye" appears to be in use as a visual indicator and tuning device.  When a perfect Maltese cross is formed it is a visual indication that the receiver is correctly adjusted and that tuning is accurate.)  
  (iii)  29th U-boat Flotilla  
          The badge of the 29th U-boat Flotilla based on La Spezia is a donkey.  This was chosen owing to the number of donkeys seen at Salamis, where the flotilla was formerly based.  
  (iv)  Rescue of Survivors  
          Rahn said that a new order had recently been issued that U-boats should, whenever possible, take prisoners from among survivors of vessels sunk.  
  (C49377)                                                                                                                               B*4  


          Rahn gave the following list of some of the U-boats attached to the 29th Flotilla based on La Spezia in January, 1943:  
"U 77" (ex Kapitänleutnant Schonder) (believed since sunk.)
"U 83" (ex Kapitänleutnant Hans-Werner Kraus and ex Kapitänleutnant Bürgel).
"U 97" (ex Kapitänleutnant Heilmann)
"U 359"  
"U 375" (Kapitänleutnant Könenkamp).
"U 384"  
"U 596" (Kapitänleutnant Günther Jahn).
"U 602" (Kapitänleutnant Philipp Schüler).
"U 605" (Kapitänleutnant Herbert Viktor Schütze).
"U 755" (Kapitänleutnant Göing)
          (The above list should be compared with that given in C.B. 04051 (56), Section V.)  
          The sole survivor knew nothing of the early history of this boat, other than that he had heard she commissioned early in 1942.  
          Rahn stated that "U 301" had done one previous patrol in the Mediterranean, but knew no details of it.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  If the prisoner's information regarding the date of her commissioning be correct, it is improbable that "U 301" did more than one patrol in the Mediterranean before her last and one, or perhaps two, in the Atlantic prior to that.  It is probable that one of the Atlantic patrols may have consisted of her passage from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean.)  
          On her previous Atlantic patrols, she was stated to have sunk six ships aggregating 40,000 tons.  
  (i)  Captain  
          The captain was Kapitänleutnant Willy-Roderich Körner, 1935 term.  He had formerly been a W/T specialist.  He was promoted Oberleutnant zur See on 1st October, 1939, and Kapitänleutnant shortly before his last patrol.  
  (ii)  First Lieutenant  
          The First Lieutenant was Leutnant zur See der Reserve Albers.  This officer had formerly served in the merchant navy.  
  (iii)  Second Lieutenant  
          The Second Lieutenant was Leutnant zur See Dettmer, who had only recently been commissioned after serving as an Oberfähnrich zur See.  
  (iv)  Engineer Officer  
          The Engineer Officer was Leutnant (Ing.) Schultze-Jenisch.  Nothing is known of him except that he came from Berlin.  
  (v)  Midshipman  
          The midshipman and sole survivor was named Fähnrich zur See Wilhelm Rahn.  Aged 19, he had belonged to the Hitler Jugend movement for four years before joining the German Navy on 1st April, 1941, in Stralsund, where he underwent three months' initial training.  He then served in the cruiser "Nürnberg" until 15th January, 1942, when he proceeded for instruction to the Naval College in Berlin, this being followed by an eight-day aircraft recognition course at Flensburg-Mürwik, where he next did a fourteen-day W/T course.  
          After a week's leave, he was ordered in October, 1942, to La Spezia, where he joined the personnel pool.  On 28th December, 1942, he was formally appointed to "U 301," but did not in fact join until a day or two before sailing on 20th January, 1943.  He was due to be promoted Oberfähnrich zur See after this patrol.  
          Rahn was a pleasant type of young German, not interested in any political movement, but fully conscious of his responsibilities as a member of the German armed forces.  
          He was at first extremely security-conscious and it took some time partly to overcome this tendency.  
  (vi)  General  
          "U 301's" complement at the time of her sinking totaled 48.  Rahn expressed himself as pleased with the friendly relations prevailing between officers and men.  He had a high opinion of his officers.  


"U 439"
  (C49377)                                                                                                                               B**  


          "U 439" (Oberleutnant zur See von Tippelskirch) was sunk in collision with "U 659" (Kapitänleutnant Stock) about 0125 German Summer Time on 4th May, 1943.  Both boats were shadowing a south-bound Coastal Forces convoy off Cape Finisterre.  
          Nine survivors from "U 439" were rescued in position 43° 32' N., 13° 30' W. at 0300 G.M.T. on 4th May by M.T.B. 670 and others in her column, who also took on board three survivors from "U 659."  
          "U 439" had made three patrols, but never once fired a torpedo at an enemy target.  
          All "U 439's" prisoners were then taken to Gibraltar en route for the United Kingdom Interrogation Centre, where they arrived on 13th May, 1943.  
          They were mostly more security-conscious than has been the case among recent U-Boat prisoners of war.  
          The main features of interest in this report are:  
                  (1)  New U-Boat H/A armament (see Section VI).  
                  (2)  Further details of "Curly" torpedoes (see Section V).  
                  (3)  Remarks on "Dehnschrauben" (High Tensile Bolts) (see Section VII (ix) ).  
                  (4)  Silent running trials carried out in the Kiel Canal (see Appendix "A" (ix) ).  
                  (5)  Remarks on "coloured" searchlights (see Section VII (i) ).  
                  (6)  Hanomag craft (see Section VIII (vi) ).  
                  (7)  "M"-Class Sweepers and Torpedo-Boats (see Sections IX and X).  
          The following are the British equivalents of German Naval ranks used in this report:  
Commander Junior Grade.
Oberleutnant zur See
Leutnant zur See
          The suffix "der Reserve" denotes a reserve officer and that of "(Ing.)" an Engineer Officer.  
  (i)  Displacement  
          500 tons.  
  (ii)  Type  
          VII C.  
  (iii)  Builders  
          Friedrich Schichau, G.m.b.H., Danzig.  
  (iv)  Armament  
                  One 88 mm, forward.  
                  One 20 mm. on "bandstand."  
                  Two twin M.G.'s on bridge.  The C.34 rifle-sighted type was replaced by the Luftwaffe M.G.15 ring-sighted type after working up.  
          Torpedo Tubes.  Four forward; one aft, fitted with "Curly" gear.  
          Torpedoes.  Fourteen carried; of which two air were in upper deck containers and twelve electric stowed below.  Of the electric, six were fitted with "Curly" mechanism.  At the time of her sinking, her two port bow tubes (Nos. 2 and 4) were loaded with "Curlies."  
          (N.I.D. Note.  "Curly" mechanism in electric torpedoes is not yet established.  It is noted that the above statements were not made by torpedo ratings.  
  (v)  Propulsion  
          Diesels.  Two 6-cylinder Wumag.  
          Superchargers.  Mechanical.  
          Motors.  Siemens.  
          Batteries.  Lead.  
  (vi)  Compressors  
          (1)  Junkers free piston.  
          (2)  Electrically driven.  Makers unknown.  


(vii)  Diving
Maximum Depth Tested 100 metres (328 ft.).
Maximum Depth attained 160 metres (525 ft.).
Crash-diving time About 30 seconds to periscope depth.
Periscope depth 14 metres (46 ft.).
(viii)  Construction
        "U 439's" pressure hull flanges were secured with "Drehnschrauben" (see Section VII (vii) for detailed description).  This is the first U-Boat, from which prisoners of war have been captured, to have these bolts.
(ix)  German Search Receiver
        Fitted.  Normal diamond-shaped provisional aerial.  She also carried a spare aerial for use in emergencies, stowed in Captain's cabin.
        The W/T Officer told the ship's company that, if the German Search Receiver aerial broke down, they still might be able to get a reading by using the extensible W/T aerial and the jumping wire, which were connected in some way with the G.S.R. receiving set.  Prisoners stated that a trial reception was once carried out in this way, but its clarity was much less than when the normal aerial was used.
(x)  Radar
(xi)  D/F
(xii)  S.B.T.
        Fitted.  She carried between six and ten cases of S.B.T. charges, each case containing four charges.  Colours unknown.
(xiii)  Hydrophones
        Multiple unit type (G.H.G.) fitted.  No K.D.B.
(xiv)  Echo-Sounder
(xv)  "Elecktrolote"
(xvi)  Communications
        W/T.  Normal U-Boat equipment, manufactured by Telefunken.  Prisoners did not remember details.
        U/T.  Carried.
        R/T.  Removed at final adjustments.
  (xvii)  Look-Out Mast  
  (xviii)  Air Purification  
          Carried ten cylinders of oxygen for emergency use.  These were never used.  Stowed four on starboard side of Control room; one either side of Diesel compartment; two in bow compartment bilges and two to starboard of motor compartment.  
  (xix)  Adoption  
  (xx)  Badge  
          When commanded by Kapitänleutnant Sporn, her badge was a spurred boot.  When Oberleutnant zur See von Tippelskirch took over, she carried no badge, but it was intended later to adopt von Tippelskirch's family coat-of-arms as such.  
  (xxi)  Look-Outs  
          On her last two patrols, the bridge watch had been increased from four to five men when passing through the Bay of Biscay.  
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          "U 439 sailed from Brest on her third and last patrol about 1600 on 27th April, 1943.  The procedure on sailing was unusual.  Whereas it had been normal to date for U-Boats proceeding to sea to sail in line ahead, preceded by a "Sperrbrecher," "U 439" and another 500-ton U-Boat of the 9th Flotilla on this occasion sailed abreast of each other, preceded by two "Speerbrecher" in line ahead, one of them sweeping with Oropesas.  There were also one or two patrol boats present for "Flak" escort.  
          The distance between the two "Sperrbrecher" was 70-100 yards and that between the second "Sperrbrecher" and the two U-boats about 180 yards.  The two boats were about 50 yards apart.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This procedure is confirmed by recent photographic reconnaissance.  It is believed to be due to the Germans altering their tactics to deal with our mines.)  
  (C49377)                                                                                                                            B**2  


(ii)  Course across Bay of Biscay
        Early in the forenoon of 28th April, "U 439" parted company with her escort and the other 500-tonner and submerged.  From this point onwards until in the neighbourhood of Cape Finisterre her policy was to proceed submerged by daylight and sail at slow speed on the surface by night.
        She set course approximately 240°.
(iii)  Receipt of Orders
        Shortly afterwards "U 439" was ordered from base to proceed to station in a patrol line of U-Boats extending on an east-west line of bearing along latitude 43° 30' N.  "U 439's" point of station was to be towards the west of this line, in approximately 43° 30' N, 21° W.
(iv)  Warning against "Coloured" Searchlight
        Prisoners recounted how they had been warned while crossing the Bay of Biscay that they must keep a careful watch for possible blue or red-coloured searchlights.
        One man said that, despite their German Search Receiver giving no reading, the captain several times ordered a crash-dive as a result of such searchlights being sighted.
(v)  New Diving Orders from C.-in-C. U-Boats
        One day "U 439" received a W/T signal from the C.-in-C. U-Boats advising her that British aircraft were now fitted with a new type of search gear which produced no reading on the German Search Receiver and that U-Boats were to keep a closer watch then ever on possible aircraft.  The signal added that it might be wiser to proceed on the surface in daylight and submerged at night.
(vi)  H.M.S. "Adventure" Reported
        On 1st May, 1943, when in approximately 46 N, 17 W., "U 439" was advised from base of the presence of the cruiser-minelayer H.M.S. "Adventure" in the neighbourhood on a southerly course.
        It was left to "U 439's" captain whether he was to intercept and continued on his previous course.
        (N.I.D. Note.  Prisoners were transferred in H.M.S. "Adventure" to the United Kingdom and on passage confirmed the above incident.)
(vii)  Arrival in Station
        On 2nd May, 1943, "U 439" arrived in station in approximately 43° 30' N., 21° W. and began the usual patrol line routine.
(viii)  Presence of Convoy Signalled
        Early on 3rd May, while "U 439" was on a westerly leg of her patrol station, she was advised direct by a Focke-Wulf aircraft of a south-bound convoy in approximate position 44° N., 14° W.  Survivors insisted that they were advised direct from the aircraft and not from base.
        (N.I.D. Note.  This was an operational convoy of fifteen Coastal Forces craft escorted by three trawlers, which reported being shadowed by a Focke-Wulf aircraft early on 3rd May.  It is considered doubtful that direct advice was given from the aircraft.)
        "U 439" immediately left her station in the patrol line and hastened to intercept, steering approximately 100°.  She proceeded throughout on the surface at as high a speed as weather permitted.
(ix)  Second Convoy Reported
        Shortly after receiving the report of the first convoy, "U 439" received a signal from base reporting the presence of a second south-bound convoy, stated to consist of about twenty-seven ships, some of them in ballast, with a comparatively weak escort.
        (N.I.D. Note.  This was probably a south-bound convoy L.C. Flight "D", reported west of Oporto in the forenoon of 4th May 1943.  It consisted of twenty-eight L.C. escorted by two trawlers and one minesweeper.)
        Tippelskirch was for a moment undecided as to which convoy he should attack, but finally decided first to intercept the convoy reported earlier by aircraft and then to turn his attentions to the second convoy.
(x)  German Search Receiver Reading Obtained
        About 1200 on 3rd May, while proceeding full speed towards the estimated position of the first convoy, "U 439" obtained a reading on her German Search Receiver and immediately submerged.  She surfaced shortly afterwards and remained surfaced until she sank.
(all times G.S.T. unless otherwise stated.)
          About 2300 on 3rd May, "U 439" sighted the south-bound convoy which she was to attack and took up station astern of it.  The weather was fairly rough and visibility was not good.  
          Later she heard the noise of explosions astern of her.  Prisoners said that these sounded like gunfire, interspersed with D/C and possible torpedo explosions.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Shortly before midnight G.M.T. on 3rd/4th May, 1943, M.G.B. "657" sighted a U-Boat on the surface, which immediately opened fire with two bursts of 20 mm.  M.G.B. "657's" upper deck petrol tank and petrol in tins caught fire, she disengaged, extinguished the fire and rejoined the convoy.)  


        At 0215, "U 439" was ahead of the convoy proceeding at about seven knots on the surface.
        Survivors were not certain regarding the exact sequence of events that then took place, but they thought that Tippelskirch altered course slightly to port.  In so doing he rammed another U-Boat, which survivors afterwards learned was "U 659," on "U 659's" starboard side.
        As a result of the impact, "U 439" stopped and Tippelskirch immediately ordered full astern.  Her two port bow torpedo tubes were found to be leaking seriously and it became necessary to close off the bow compartment.  The immediate effect of going full astern in such heavy weather was that the Diesel exhausts became drowned and the boat filled with fumes.
        The Engineer Officer made an attempt to keep the boat in trim by blowing the forward tanks, but this was ineffective, as they were found to have been damaged by the collision.  He therefore flooded some of the after tanks, but this brought "U 439" dangerously low in the water and it soon became evident that she would have to be abandoned.
         Tippelskirch gave the order for all hands to go on deck except the engine-room personnel and some telegraphists, who made several signals reporting the loss of the boat.  Survivors were uncertain whether these signals were received, as the aerial had been damaged by the heavy seas.
        When hands were mustered on deck, they could see another U-Boat, which they believed to be "U 659," not very far distant, also apparently in a sinking condition.
        In the hope that this boat might nevertheless be able to proceed, Tippelskirch signalled her by Aldis requesting her to take his survivors on board.
        As far as prisoners were aware, "U 659" at first replied that she would do so, but later cancelled this, explaining that she too was sinking.
        Some big waves were by then breaking over "U 439" from astern and it was not long before one particularly large one caused her to sink, carrying most of her engine room personnel and telegraphists with her.  These numbered about twenty-four men.  Those who had been on deck, however, were able to swim about flashing signal lights in the hope that they would thereby attract the attention of other U-Boats or escort craft in the neighbourhood.
        Survivors estimated they were in the water for about three hours before being picked up by what they described as "British R-Boats."
        (N.I.D. Note.  At 0300 G.M.T. on 4th May, M.T.B. "670," in position 43° 32' N., 13° 30' W., leading the starboard column of a Coastal Forces operational convoy, ran into Diesel smoke and fumes and saw people swimming in the water.  This column stopped and rescued twelve U-Boat survivors.  It then proceeded to rejoin the convoy.)
        Some survivors thought that the main responsibility for the sinking was the First Lieutenant's, as he failed to see "U 659" in time, although she was in his look-out sector.  They said that starshell was visible on the port quarter a short while before the collision and the First Lieutenant had from then onwards taken more interest in the port quarter than the port bow sector.  When it was clear that his boat was going to sink, he refused to put on a lifebelt, but gripped the conning-tower to the last and insisted on going down with his ship, overcome with remorse that his should be the blame for the sinking and fearful of the consequences should he have to explain his actions before a German court-martial.
        They also thought that Tippelskirch had paid too little attention to the watch on the night in question.  One of the men selected was without previous experience of watchkeeping in this boat.
        They also thought that their boat might easily have become waterlogged and floated half submerged for some time after they abandoned her.  When the big wave finally broke over and she disappeared, the conning-tower hatch was closed and there were some men still in her.  The latter could not, however, have succeeded in blowing tanks and must eventually have perished.
        (N.I.D. Note.  Shortly before 0300 G.M.T. in 4th May, 1943, H.M.S. "Coverly" steamed down the port side of the convoy without gaining contact.  She then turned up between two port columns and when near the head seemed to strike some "submerged object.")
(i)  "Curly" Torpedoes
        A midshipman, who had done a special course in "curly" torpedoes at Brest, stated that, when a boat intended to fire a "curly," she had first to warn all other boats in the neighbourhood, adding whether she intended to fire one with a "short" or "long" setting.  (See C.B. 04051 (64), Section IX.)  The other boats could then take avoiding action.  Other prisoners confirmed this statement independently.
        Other survivors said that it was possible to fire a "curly" with reasonable chance of finding a target when only the smoke of a convoy could be seen.
        Production of "curlies" is very much less than the demand for them.  Only a few can be spared for each boat.
        "Curly" gear is usually fitted to air torpedoes because of their longer range.
        A "short" setting results in a sharp turn being made between legs and a "long" in a flat curve over a longer distance.  The distance between the beginning of one leg and the end of the next is always the same, whether "short" or "long setting be used.  This distance is usually about half a sea mile.
(C49377)                                                                                                                            B**3


(ii)  Torpedo Pistols
        A midshipman with a good knowledge of torpedoes stated that the abbreviation "Pi1" referred to the ordinary contact pistol, while "Pi2" indicated a magnetic pistol.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Pi2" is believed to be a magnetic non-contact pistol.)
        Other prisoners from "U 439" expressed complete confidence in a later type of magnetic pistol which Germany had adopted.
(See also C.B. 04051(68), Section V (i) )
        U-Boats have recently received orders that, whenever possible, they are to engage aircraft if surprised while surfaced, instead of submerging.  In this context, "surprised" indicates a sighting at a range of up to 3,000 yards.
        In order to facilitate such an engagement:
                (a)  U-Boats are being provided with additional H/A armament;
                (b)  Anti-aircraft escort U-Boats, chiefly for use in the Bay of Biscay, are being placed in commission.
(i)  Additional H/A Armament
        The additional H/A armament being mounted in U-Boats generally takes the form of an extra gun platform abaft the "bandstand," on which is mounted an additional 20 mm. gun.  It is possible, according to statements made, that twin 12.7 Bredas may also be mounted.  (See C.B. 04051 (56), Section II (iv). )
        The additional platform mounted is not popular with commanding officers, who realize that it adds several seconds to the speed of their crash-dive.  The, therefore, oppose its introduction whenever possible and may be deliberately sabotaging the idea by making adverse reports on the performance of their boats when it is fitted.  To date, however, they have been little consulted in this respect, orders to mount the extra platform having come from higher authority without their opinion being asked.  Some of them say that it makes their boats unseaworthy.
(ii)  Anti-Aircraft Escort U-Boats
        Prisoners were unanimous that a limited number of U-Boats are at present being converted for use as anti-aircraft escort U-Boats.  (N.I.D. Note.  Alternative uses for these U-Boats would be to give warning to other U-Boats of the presence of aircraft or to act as "Q" U-Boats with the object of making aircraft wary of attacking any U-Boat in their area.)  They will operate mainly in the Biscay area, but are also capable of operating in more distant waters.
        They will consist of normal 500 or 700-toners (most prisoners thought they would be 500-tonners) converted by the addition of extra armament.  They will retain their normal number of torpedo tubes, but will carry fewer torpedoes.
        One prisoner stated that he had seen a 500-tonner in Brest being converted for use in this manner.  She was due to be ready on 7 May, 1943.
        Survivor's reports of the armament to be carried by these boats varied.  This was probably due to their never having seen a completed U-Boat of this type.
        Suggested armament included the following:
A. Quadruple 20 mm. forward replacing 88 mm.
  Single 20 mm. on "bandstand."
  Quadruple 20 mm. on additional after gun platform.
  Two or four twin M.G.s on bridge.
B. Quadruple 20 mm. replacing 88 mm. forward.
  Twin 37 mm. replacing existing 20 mm. on "bandstand."
  Twin 37 mm. mounted on additional after platform.
C. Quadruple 20 mm. replacing 88 mm. forward.
  Two twin 15 mm. H/A guns in an unspecified position.
  Extra 20 mm. on platform abaft "bandstand."
        The additional after gun platform was said to extend as far aft as the original position of the marking buoy.
        The conning-tower of such U-Boats was said to be raised.  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably for additional protection for the bridge watch.)
        Access to the forward quadruple 20 mm. mounting is via opening to be made in the conning-tower outer plating on the port side level with the forward periscope.  Prisoners believed this opening could be closed with a W/T door.


(i)  Tactics in Bay of Biscay
        Prisoners made the following statements:
                (1)  Early in April, 1943, it became clear to a number of U-Boat commanding officers that the enemy was operating a type of A.S.V. which produced no reflex action on the German Search Receiver gear.
                This resulted in C.-in-C. U-Boats issuing a special order at end April/beginning of May empowering captains to use their discretion regarding German Search Receiver in the Bay of Biscay.
                The orders to date had been to surface at night and proceed submerged in daylight; these were cancelled and replaced by instructions that captains might, if they wished, proceed surfaced during the daytime if visibility were good and might submerge at night if they so desired.
                (2)  Prisoners were warned in the course of their last patrol that they must keep a specially sharp look-out, as the British were using coloured searchlights at night for U-Boat detection and these were very difficult to see.
                One man said that C.-in-C. U-Boats has ordered boats in future to surface in daytime and submerge at night in the Bay of Biscay for fear of detection by one of these almost invisible searchlights.
                (N.I.D. Note.  It is possible that the two above statements refer to the same thing, though it is difficult to state clearly whether the possible use of very short A.S.V. wavelengths or of "red" searchlights is responsible for the new tactics.)
(ii)  Duration of U-Boat Patrols
        Ship's companies of 500-ton U-Boats are now liable to be ordered to remain at sea for sixteen weeks, provided they can be refuelled while at sea.  (N.I.D. Note.  This is considered extremely improbable.)
(iii)  New Type Radar
        One man said that the existing U-Boat type of Radar fitted to the conning-tower (see also C.B. 04051 (60), Section II (vii) ) had proved unsuitable owing to the small arc sweep permitted without the boat having to alter course.  It would therefore be replaced by a surface craft type aerial.  This would be affixed to some sort of mast, possibly on the extensible W/T aerial, where it could be rotated in all directions in the same manner as the D/F loop.
(iv)  U-Boat Escorts in Coastal Waters
        U-Boats entering or leaving harbour on the French Atlantic coast have recently adopted a new escort policy.  Instead of, as hitherto, proceeding in line ahead following a "Speerbrecher" they sail in line abreast after one or more "Sperrbrecher".
        (N.I.D. Note.  This is confirmed by recent photographic reconnaissance.  The Germans have probably altered their tactics to deal with our mines.)
        Prisoner said the normal escort for one U-Boat now entering or leaving port was two "Speerbrecher" and four patrol boats ahead and two patrol boats astern.

        The "Speerbrecher's" duty is to detonate mines and the patrol boat's  to provide anti-aircraft escort, since the U-Boat cannot dive sufficiently deep while in coastal waters to evade detection from the air to be sure of not detonating a magnetic mine laid on the bottom.

(v)  U-Boat Tracer Ammunition
        Tracer ammunition now in use by U-Boats is of two kinds:
                A.  That which produces a dark red effect.
                B.  Ordinary 20 mm. ammunition and M.G. C.34 type producing a lighter red effect.
(vi)  Aircraft Recognition
        During their training at the Flensburg Naval College, midshipmen are given two hours weekly training in aircraft recognition and sometimes go on special eight-day recognition courses.  No special examination follows these.
(vii)  Special High Tensile Bolts ("Dehnschrauben")
        High tensile bolts of special finish have been fitted to all new U-Boat pressure hull flanges since June, 1942, and old U-Boats are being gradually fitted in the same way.
        They have been introduced as being more likely to withstand the strain imposed by D/C attacks.
        Their main difference from the ordinary bolt is that the thread, instead of running the whole length of the bolt, only runs for a limited extent along the point furthest from the head.  This enables the diameter of the remainder of the bolt to be reduced to equal the minimum diameter at the head.  (N.I.D. Note.  It is well known that bolts so finished are better able to withstand stress than others.)
  (viii)  Air Purification  
          U-Boats carry up to ten oxygen bottles for emergency air purification, but these are rarely used, as boats do not normally submerge for sufficiently long periods.  
          They are usually up to six feet long and have a diameter of about eight inches.  
  (C49377)                                                                                                                            B**4  


(ix)  German A/S Tactics
        A midshipman who had previously served in A/S trawlers said that the normal German A/S tactics for these craft was for two units to hunt together, each listening on her hydrophones.  When either thought she had got a contact, she would signal to the other.  One would then remained stopped and listen on her hydrophones, while the other vessel closed to make a D/C attack.  The listening vessel would guide the attacking ship to the estimated position of the target by means of constant signals.  (This corroborates information in C.B. 4051(49), Section VIII (x).)
(x)  Norwegian Submarines
        Prisoners had seen some ex-Norwegian submarines at Gdynia in 1942.  Some were not in commission; others were in use only for what survivors described as "special" operations.
(xi)  Italian Two-Man Submarines
        A prisoner said he had seen a two-man Italian submarine in La Pallice early in 1942 exercising.  He was certain she was Italian as he had spoken to those who had talked with her ship's company.  When not actually exercising, she lay in the U-Boat Shelters.
(i)  "Iltis" and "Seeadler"
        The 800-ton torpedo boats "Iltis" and "Seeadler" are both said to be lost.
(ii)  "R.18," "R.21" and "R.24"
        The motor minesweepers "R.18," "R.21" and "R.24" were all in use at Gdynia as schoolboats in autumn, 1941.
(iii)  "M.8"
        The 600-ton "M" class sweeper "M.8" was in the 2nd M/S Flotilla based on Lorient from February to September, 1942.
(iv)  "M.9"
        The 600-ton "M" class sweeper ".9 was in the 2nd M/S Flotilla based on Lorient from February to September, 1942.  She was commanded during that time by Oberleutnant zur See Clausen, who was relieved by Oberleutnant zur See Piepenstock.  Her duties were mainly sweeping with Oropesas in deeper Channel waters and escorting coastal convoys, especially to the Channel Islands.
        On 12th February, 1942, she escorted "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" part of their way up Channel.
        In march, 1942, she was engaged by fifteen British Coastal Forces craft off Boulogne, while convoying a 4,000-ton merchantman from Gris Nez to Le Harve.  She was herself not hit, but prisoners believed some of the trawlers which were also with her were damaged.
        (N.I.D. Note.  On 1st/2nd March, 1942, a force of ten M.T.B.s and M.G.B.s attacked a convoy of two tankers escorted by one "M" class minesweeper and several armed trawlers off the French coast and obtained a direct hit on one tanker.)
(v)  "M.10," "M.12," "M.38" and "M.152"
        The "M" class sweepers "M.10," "M.12," "M.38" and "M.152" were all attached to the 2nd M/S Flotilla based on Lorient from February to September, 1942.
(vi)  "M.28"
        The "M" class sweeper "M.28" was attached to the 44th M/S Flotilla based on La Pallice from February to September, 1942, was commanded during that period by Leutnant zur See der Reserve von Schad.
(viii)  Hanomag E-Boats
        A prisoner said he had seen a craft answering to a description of a Hannomag E-Boat exercising off Gdynia in summer, 1942.  All that was visible when surfaced was a small cupola and one plane on either side to prevent too great a wash.
        He had seen this craft submerge like a U-Boat.  He believed that it was driven by H/P air both when surfaced and submerged.  It had a surface speed of 40 knots.
        It carried no armament except two torpedo tubes.  (N.I.D. Note.  Prisoner is believed to be referring to a German version of the human torpedo.  This was the subject of Admiralty message 011919A of 1st April, 1943.  The speed mentioned is probably very much in excess of fact.)
          The same prisoner said that he had seen a floating dock in Hel harbour, said to contain one or more midget craft on which experiments were being carried out.  From time to time, a 3,000-ton freighter would approach the dock.  It was rumoured that she then either embarked or towed these midget craft to sea for trials.  Great secrecy surrounded these experiments.  


          These boats were stated to have a very limited endurance.  They were designed to be carried by larger surface units, such as A.M.C.s, from which they would operate locally.  As far as prisoners were aware, they had never been in action.  
          Prisoners suggested that Hanomag E-Boats and so-called German "Seven-man U-Boats" were in fact one and the same thing.  (N.I.D. Note.  They were probably confusing Hanomag E-Boats and human torpedoes, which are not the same thing.)  
  (i)  Number in Commission  
          There are about 100 "M" class sweepers in commission, probably divided into 10-12 flotillas, each of about eight vessels.  
  (ii)  Command  
          Some are under the command of the Führer der Minensuch West (F.d.M. West) (Commanding Officer M/S Western Area), who in September, 1942, was Konteradmiral Ruge, an officer who combined this function with that of Befehlshaber der Sicherung West (C.-in-C. Western Defences).  His H.Q. were either in Brest or Paris.  
          The remainder are under the command of the Führer der Minensuch Ost (F.d.M. Ost), (Commanding Officer M/S Eastern Area), who in September, 1942, was a Konteradmiral based in Kiel.  
          Both the F.d.M. are directly responsible to the Naval Staff at the German Admiralty.  
  (iii)  Duties  
          "M" class sweepers are chiefly used for providing coastal convoys with anti-aircraft protection.  They sometimes sweep deeper waters.  
  (iv)  Details of "M" Class Sweepers  
          Displacement.  600 tons.  
                          Guns.  One 10.5 cm forward.  
                                     One 10.5 cm aft.  
                                     Two 20 mm. on bridge.  
                                     One 20 mm. aft.  
                                     (Some vessels have had one of their 10.5 cm guns replaced by a 37 mm.)  
          D/C.s.  Up to 30 carried.  
          Maximum Speed.  19 knots.  
          Hydrophones.  K.D.B.  
          Search Gear.  S-gear fitted.  
          Mines.  Can lay mines, but no mine chutes.  
          Radar.  None.  
          G.S.R.  None.  
          Complement.  100, including four officers.  
  (i)  "Iltis" Class (800 tons)  
          Prisoners believed that "Leopard," "Jaguar" and "Tiger" were still in commission.  "Iltis" had been sunk.  (N.I.D. Note.  The present "Leopard" and "Tiger" are believed to be ex-Norwegian torpedo-boats; the original German ones of that name having been sunk.)  
  (ii)  "Möwe" class (800 tons)  
          "Faike" and "Kondor" were stated to be the sole remaining torpedo-boats of this class in commission, all others having been sunk.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Möwe" and "Greif" are also believed to be in commission.)  
  (iii)  "T"-Class (600 tons)  
          These are numbered from T.1 to T.20 and are divided into two flotillas.  
  (iv)  Old "T"-Class (760 tons)  
          There are four boats of the old "T"-Class, built before the last war, which are now used solely for training.  
  (v)  "Elbing" Class (1,200 tons)  
          Since the war, Germany has commissioned several 1,200-ton torpedo-boats resembling small destroyers.  They were all built at the Schichau Yards, Elbing.  They may be numbered T.21 onwards.  A prisoner saw one in Kiel late in 1942, heavily camouflaged with nets.  He said she mounted only single guns, two of which he believed to be 10.5 cm.  
  (C49377)                                                                                                                           B***  


  (vi)  Command  
          All torpedo-boats and E-boats are commanded by the Führer der Torpedoboote (S.O. Torpedo boats).  
          (N.I.D. Note.  In April, 1942, this post was filled by Korvettenkapitän Petersen, whose H.Q. were at the Hague.)  
  (i)  La Pallice  
          The 44th M/S Flotilla was based on La Pallice from February to September, 1942.  It consisted entirely of converted fishing vessels, numbered 4401, 4401, 4403, etc.  The duties of this flotilla were chiefly the escort of ore ships from Franco-Spanish frontier up to La Pallice, St. Nazaire or into the Gironde ports.  Ships entering Bayonne were given no escort.  The 44th M/S Flotilla's Senior Officer was at that time Kapitänleutnant Gemein, 1928 term.  
  (ii)  Lorient  
          The 2nd M/S Flotilla (all M-class sweepers) was based on Lorient from February to September, 1942.  The Senior Officer was Korvettenkapitän Rehm, 1922 term, who was relieved shortly afterwards.  There were eight vessels in the flotilla, including:  M.8, M.9, M.10, M.12, M.38 and M.152.  


  (i)  Building and Commissioning  
          During building, "U 439's" future ship's company were accommodated in the Weichsel barracks at Danzig.  
          "U 439" was commissioned on 20th December, 1941, from the yards of Friedrich Schichau, G.m.B.H., in Danzig.  The occasion was marked by a celebration on board the depôt ship "Iberia".  
          "U 439's" original officers were:  
Captain Oberleutnant zur See (later Kapitänleutnant) Sporn, 1934 term.
First Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Gerd Falow.
Second Lieutenant Leutnant zur See der Reserve von Monscke.
Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Adolf Rau.
          Immediately following her commissioning, some of her ship's company were given Christmas leave.  "U 439" was then formerly attached to the 8th Flotilla, based on Danzig.  
  (ii)  Acceptance Trials  
          On 5th January, 1942, she began her acceptance trials with the Danzig branch of the Kiel U-Boats Acceptance Command.  These took place in coastal waters in the Danzig area.  She had only just completed her diving and trimming trials when she was frozen in at Danzig on 15th January.  No leave was given during the frozen-in period.  Divisional exercises took place ashore.  On one occasion the D/F gear was found to have been sabotaged.  
          On 10th April, 1942, the ice had thawed sufficiently for "U 439" to continue her acceptance trials, which were then completed by carrying out the regulation engine trials and testing of torpedo tubes with dummy torpedoes.  
  (iii)  "Agru-Front" at Hel  
          On 15th april, 1942, she proceeded to Hel, where she carried out her "Agru-Front" trials.  Kapitänleutnant (Ing) Gerd Suhren and Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen came on board for part of these.  
  (iv)  Training Period  
          On 3rd May, 1942, she was attached to the 22nd U-Boat Flotilla at Gdynia, where she embarked a number of rating classes and a series of U-Boat Engineer Officers for training in local waters.  While so engaged, she was under the orders of the 2nd U-Boat Training Division (2nd U-Boats Lehr Division).  
  (v)  High Tensile Bolts Fitted  
          On 30th June, she proceeded to Kiel, where she went into dry-dock at the Deutsche Werke and was attached to the 5th Flotilla.  Here she was fitted with a new type of high tensile bolt (see Section VII (vii) ).  Survivors explained that this was done at Kiel owing to all the yards further east being fully occupied.  
  (vi)  Torpedo Firing Trials  
          On 15th August, 1942, she proceeded to Gdynia and was attached to the 25th Flotilla.  She immediately began one week's torpedo-firing trials against two target ships, one of which was the ex-Norwegian "Vega" (7,287 gross tons).  She fired a total of about 50 torpedoes.  
  (vii)  Tactical Exercises  
          On 22nd August, 1942, she underwent 10 day's tactical exercises in the Baltic.  At the end of these it was decided that Sporn had been sighted too frequently during night torpedo attacks and he was ordered to put his boat through a second series of tactical exercises.  These began on 2nd September, 1942, lasted for 10 days and were satisfactorily completed.  Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen came on board one day.  
  (viii)  Final Adjustments  
          On 12th September, 1942, "U 439" returned to Gdynia. proceeded the next day to Danzig to embark her ship's company's gear and on 14th or 15th September, she entered the Deutsche Werke at Kiel for final adjustments.  On passage between Danzig and Kiel. she was preceded by minesweepers, owing to the presence of mines, stated to have been recently laid by aircraft.  Her visit to Ronne for silent running trials was cancelled for this reason.  
          While at the Deutsche Werke for final adjustments, her K.D.B. hydrophones were removed, the S.B.T. gear was fitted, and Type C.34 rifle-sight machine guns were replaced by Luftwaffe Type 15, ring-sighted machine guns.  
  (ix)  Silent Running Trials  
          After about six weeks in the Deutsche Werke, "U 439" proceeded to the Grosser Nordsee Siding in the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal opposite the Flemhuder See (see Admiralty Chart 2469) were she underwent the usual silent running tests that she was to have done at Ronne.  She was accompanied from Kiel by a patrol boat fitted with listening gear for carrying out the trials.  
  (x)  Fitting-Out at Kiel-Wik  
          On completing her silent running trials "U 439" proceeded to Kiel-Wik for fitting-out.  She here embarked provisions and torpedoes for her first operational patrol.  


First Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Kiel  
          "U 439" sailed from Kiel-Wik on her first operational patrol at 0700 on 12th November, 1942.  She was in company with another 500-tonner and one 740-tonner and had an escort of one "Sperrbrecher" and two Flak trawlers.  The convoy proceeded slowly on the surface via the Great Belt towards the Kattegat.  
          On passage, the other 500-onner, in station right astern, was rammed by one of the trawlers.  The convoy stopped and, after a day or two's delay, during which an attempt was made to repair the 500-tonner at sea, the damages boat put back to Kiel and "U 439" and the 740-tonner proceeded at slow speed on the surface to Kristiansand S.  
  (ii)  Call at Kristiansand S.  
          "U 439" made Kristiansand S. at 0400 on 16th November, 1942, and lay at the pier at Sølyst.  Here she topped up with fuel and embarked fresh water provisions.  She sailed from Kristiansand S. at 0800, her captain being anxious to make up for the delay on passage from Kiel.  She was accompanied out of Kristiansand S. by another 500-tonner and the 740-tonner and two sweepers.  The two other U-Boats shortly afterwards parted company, the 500-tonner proceeding to Bergen, where she was to join the 11th Flotilla.  
  (iii)  Call at Stavanger  
          At 1700 on 16th November, 1942, "U 439" and her two sweeper escorts arrived off Stavanger and lay in the roads awaiting dusk.  At 2000 she sailed alone from Stavanger roads and set course direct for the Rosengarten.  On passage between Stavanger and the Rosengarten she never once dived.  Instead she remained throughout closed up to the first degree of readiness, with the 20 mm. manned and the conning-tower M.G.s in position.  
  (iv)  Passage of Rosengarten  
          On 19th November, 1942, "U 439" passed through the Rosengarten and submerged for the first time since leaving Kiel.  Her policy for the next four days was to proceed submerged in daylight and slowly on the surface at night.  She was saving fuel.  
  (v)  Arriving in Station  
          On 25th November, she arrived in station in a patrol line in the western North Atlantic and remained there with no sightings reported for about one week.  
  (vi)  Shadowing East-Bound Convoy  
          On 1st December, 1942, an east-bound convoy was reported and "U 439" was ordered to the attack.  
          On 3rd December, she made contact with a number of other U-Boats shadowing the convoy.  
          During one of the nights immediately following, two destroyers closed on her on the port quarter, fired a starshell and engaged her.  "U 439" crash-dived to 120 metres and survivors counted forty D/C explosions.  Apart from damaging both her forward hydroplanes, "U 439" sustained no injuries.   
          After five hours, she surfaced and the convoy was no longer to be seen.  It was then daylight.  
          She again took up the chase, however, and next night, after having re-established contact, attempted an attack from the convoy's port quarter.  She was again sighted by escort vessels and compelled to crash-dive, through this time there was no D/C attack.  
          After two or three hours, she surfaced and sighted two ships on fire, but otherwise there were no signs of the convoy.  The captain at first intended to sink both burning ships with gunfire or torpedoes, but later changed his mind as it was clear that they were rapidly sinking.  
          The same morning, "U 439" again established contact with the convoy, having detected it by its smoke.  While preparing to attack, she was sighted by an escort vessel and again crash-dived, this time to 80 metres.  There was no D/C attack.  After an hour she came to periscope depth and sighted an escort vessel two miles distant.  Her captain intended at first to attack this vessel, but she moved off and he abandoned the pursuit.  
          In the course of the next day or two, "U 439" made several more unsuccessful attempts to get into firing position, but aircraft cover appeared and it became increasingly difficult to close.  
          She herself was four times attacked by aircraft, on three of which occasions bombs were dropped.  On the last bombing attack she suffered considerable damage.  Four bombs straddled her forward, causing her stern to reappear out of the water while crash-diving and putting all her hydroplanes out of order.  All on board felt very lucky to escape with their lives.  Each time that the aircraft attacked her she crash-dived to 60-70 metres and altered course.  
          Shortly afterwards, "U 439" again returned to the attack and re-established contact with the east-bound convoy.  After another few days, however, she was ordered to abandon the pursuit, as the convoy was by then too far to the east.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Convoy H.X. 217 sailed from New York on 27th November, 1942, and was constantly attacked by U-Boats between 6th and 12th December, 1942.  A number of aircraft attacks were made astern of it.)  
  (vii)  Shadowing of Second Convoy  
          On abandoning the attack against the east-bound convoy, "U 439" altered course to the southwards and contacted a north-bound convoy.  She shadowed it for several days, but was never once able to get into firing position, owing to the large number of escorts.  She abandoned the attempt to attack when in the latitude of Southern Ireland.  


  (viii)  Arrival at Brest  
          On 24th December, 1942, "U 439" entered Brest, where she was attached to the 1st U-Boat Flotilla.  The Flotilla Senior Officer, Kapitänleutnant Werner Winter, made a speech of welcome and "U 439" entered the shelters.  While she was undergoing the usual overhaul. her ship's company were accommodated in the former French Naval College.  Her German Receiver gear was then fitted.  No leave was granted.  
Second Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          At 1600 on 28th January, 1943, "U 439" sailed from Brest on her second patrol.  She was in company with "U 653" (Kapitänleutnant Feiler) and had the usual escort until early the following day, when she dived and parted company with :U 653," who proceeded to the southward.  
          "U 439" policy while in the Bay of Biscay was to proceed submerged throughout daylight hours at two knots and at four knots on the surface at night.  This was done for three days, the object of the slow speeds being to save fuel.  
  (ii)  Practice Deep Dive  
          On 31st January, "U 439" practised a deep dive.  On reaching 65 metres, her Diesel exhaust stove in and water entered it.  This meant that each time the Diesels were started she had to use up valuable H/P air to blow her exhaust lead.  
          Sporn decided this would be too costly a procedure on a lengthy patrol and asked permission to return to base, which was granted.  On the way back to Brest, she dived fourteen times.  
  (iii)  Return to Brest  
          At 0700 on 3rd February, 1943, "U 439" was escorted back into Brest, where she was docked for repairs.  

        Sporn's nerves were all to pieces and he asked to be relieved.  Survivors said he had recently been extremely nervous and irritable on board and they were glad to get rid of him.

          After some delay, Oberleutnant zur See von Tippelskirch was appointed to relieve Sporn.  
  (iv)  Second Departure from Brest  
          In the afternoon of 9th February, 1943, "U 439" sailed from Brest again and steered 270° on leaving the minefields.  
          At 1100 on 10th February, she made a trial deep dive, which this time passed off without incident.  Tippelskirch, a bolder commanding officer than his predecessor, was keen to try sailing across the Bay of Biscay at full speed on the surface by day and night, but was dissuaded by his Engineer Officer, who was anxious to save fuel.  She accordingly remained submerged until 1900, when she surfaced and proceeded at full speed.  
          At dawn the next day she again submerged until the following evening, after which she remained on the surface.  
  (v)  Arrival in Patrol Line Station  
          On 16th February, she arrived in station in a patrol line where she joined a number of other U-Boats.  Survivors did not know the position of this line.  
  (vi)  Shadowing of Convoy  
          On 17th February, 1943, she was ordered to leave her patrol line and contact a convoy.  (N.I.D. Note.  This may have been either O.N. 166 or O.N. 167.)  
          The same evening she gained contact, but was unable to get into firing position.  Next day, she assumed the role of contact-keeper for a short while, emitting the usual homing signals.  
          At 0300 on 19th February she was on the convoy port beam, intending to proceed ahead of it to attack, when another boat with similar intentions was sighted and closed by two escort vessels.  "U 439" and the other boat immediately submerged and a heavy D/C attack took place.  Both boats were forced to manoeuvre dangerously close to each other.  Those in "U 439" could hear the pumps at work in the other boat.  This attack lasted for nine hours, after which "U 439" surfaced and intercepted a signal from the other boat reporting what had taken place.  There was no damage to "U 439," but survivors did not know whether the other boat, whose number they did not know, had sustained any.  
          Survivors said that in the above attack they counted 136 D/C explosions.  They attributed their escape largely to skilled tactics at the time of the D/C explosions.  Assuming that the attacking craft could not use their hydrophones until the noise of the explosions had died down, "U 439" put her helm hard over and increased to full speed each time that a D/C exploded, at the time making use of the opportunity to operate her bilge pumps.  
  (vii)  Attack by Aircraft  
          "U 439" re-established contact with this convoy as soon as possible, but was several times attacked by aircraft which forced her to remain at 80 metres for about six hours.  Survivors said that bombs appeared to be dropped regularly every ten minutes, possibly with the object of keeping them submerged for an inconveniently long time.  No damage was caused.  During this attack, prisoners heard a number of lesser noises in between the bomb explosions, which made a "swishing" sound entirely new to them.  They could not understand what these might be.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 2015 on 21st February, 1943, Liberator T/120, escorting Convoy O.N. 166 attacked a U-Boat in 48° 08'N, 29° 37'W. with six D/Cs.  It was reported that there was another U-Boat in company with the target.  There were several other aircraft attacks in this area about this time.)  
          Other boats present were those commanded by Hunger, Bertelsmann, Hasenschar and Leimkühler, all 500-tonners.  
  (viii)  Attempted Attack on Independent  
          A short while later, Tippelskirch sighted an 18,000-ton independent proceeding at an estimated speed of 20 knots.  Owing to her higher speed, she could not be attacked.  
  (ix)  Shadowing of South-Bound Convoy  
          Tippelskirch then received news of an east-bound convoy, but calculated that, by the time he could be in contact with it, he would be too close to the United Kingdom for safety and took no action.  


          He then received orders to attack a south-bound convoy proceeding towards Gibraltar.  He contacted this convoy in approximately 50° N., 15° W., but was unable once to get into firing position, though he followed it for two days.  
          Other boats shadowing this convoy were those commanded by Krech and Strelow.  
  (x)  Shadowing of North-Bound Convoy  
          On abandoning the south-bound convoy, "U 439" immediately contacted a north-bound convoy and shadowed it for a day or two, again without once getting into firing position.  Other boats, however, attacked this convoy, which was reputed to have suffered some losses.  Survivors said they heard later that Bertelsmann had sunk three ships from it in one night.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The following ships of Convoy S.L. 126 were sunk on 29th March in approximately 46° 44' N., 16° 38' W., at the times stated:  
"Umaria" 2145 Z.
"Empire Geraint" 2105 Z.
"Empire Whale" (6,159 gross tons) 2105 Z.
"Ocean Victory" 2105 Z.
"Nagara" (8,791 gross tons) 2105 Z).
  (xi)  Return to Brest  
          "U 439's" fuel then began to run short and she requested a rendezvous with a supply U-Boat.  This was granted, but shortly afterwards cancelled, as the supply U-Boat was herself short of fuel and had been compelled to return to base.  "U 439" therefore returned to Brest, which she made on 28th March, 1943.  Her her "Curly" gear was fitted and leave was granted her whole ship's company.  
  (i)  General  
          "U 439's" ship's company on her last patrol totaled 48, of which four were officers, two midshipmen, three C.P.O.s, 12 P.O.s, and the remainder other ratings.  part from a few men, the survivors were all much more security-conscious than in recent boats from which survivors have been taken.  
  (ii)  Captain  
          Her Captain was Oberleutnant zur See von Tippelskirch, April, 1937, term, who relieved Kapitänleutnant Sporn prior to "U 439's" penultimate patrol.  Tippelskirch was fairly popular with his men, who regarded him as more adventurously-inclined than Sporn.  It was his first U-Boat commend.  He was formerly First Lieutenant in a 740-tonner and found considerable difficulty in handling a 500-tonner.  
  (iii)  First Lieutenant  
          The First Lieutenant was Oberleutnant zur See Gerhard Falow, 1938 term.  He believed himself largely responsible for his boat's sinking and insisted on going down with her.  The men regarded him as lazy and easy going and he was well-liked.  
  (iv)  Second Lieutenant  
          The Second Lieutenant was named Leutnant zur See der Reserve Werner von Monecke.  Little is known about him.  He did not survive.  
  (v)  Engineer Officer  
          The Engineer Officer was Oberleutnant (Ing.) Adolf Rau, who also did not survive.  He was stated to be aged 39 and a keen and energetic officer, very interested in physical fitness.  
  (vi)  Midshipmen  
          Both midshipmen survived.  They were named Fähnrich zur See Hans-Jürgen Zupke and Fähnrich zur See Ulrich Rahn.  
          Fähnrich zur See Zupke was aged 19.  He joined the German Navy on 1st October, 1941, in Stralsund, and after four month's initial training he was drafted to the 44th Flotilla based on Lorient.  In September, 1942, he went to the Naval College at Flensburg-Mürwik and proceeded to Brest in February, 1943, where he joined the personnel pool, being instructed there in "Curly" torpedoes by the Senior Officer of his flotilla.  He was drafted to "U 439," his first U-Boat, a few days before she sailed on her last patrol.  
          Fähnrich zur See Ulrich Rahn, aged 21, joined the German Navy on 1st October, 1941, at Stralsund, and after three months of initial training was drafted to the "M" class Minesweeper "M.9" based on La Pallice.  In September, 1942, he went to the Naval College at Flensburg-Mürwik, and in February, 1943, to the personnel pool at Brest.  It was his first patrol in a U-Boat.  
          These midshipmen had known each other for some time and were good friends.  Unlike most midshipmen U-boat survivors, they were both quite pleasant to meet and lacked any exaggerated security-consciousness.  


          (i)  SURVIVORS:  
English Equivalent.
Rahn, Ulrich Fähnrich zur See Midshipman 11.11.21
Zupke. Hans-Jürgen Fähnrich zur See Midshipman   6.  8.23
Bleyer, Heinz Matrosenobergegreiter Able Seaman 24.  8.21
Kalisch, Heinz Matrosenobergegreiter Able Seaman   5.10.22
Jeglichka, Rudolf Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 31.  1.22
Kaun, Heinrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class   2.  6.22
Benecke, Werner Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class   7.  5.21
Apel, Herbert Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 27.  5.21
Schmeling, Gerhard Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 20.11.20
Officers   2
Chief and Petty Officers ----
Men _7_
          (ii)  CASUALTIES:  
English Equivalent.
von Tippelskirch Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Falow Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
von Monecke, Werner Leutnant zur See der Reserve Sub-Lieutenant (Naval Reserve).
Rau, Adolf Oberleutnant (Ing.) Lieutenant (E.).
Schönau Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class.
Focke, Georg Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Wunderlich, Eberhardt Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Hugo, Johannes Oberbootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate 1st Class.
Kroll Obermaschinenmaat Chief Stoker P.O., 1st Class.
Bromann, Johannes Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Nay, Adolf Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Rodowski, Hans Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Martin, Kurt Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Ruhle, Fritz Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Vogel Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Rohde Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Nacke, Rudolf Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class.
Gruber Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class.
Schneider, Ludwig Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class.
Kesting, Karl Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman.
Sturmheit, Willy Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman.
Kist, Erich Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman.
Koslowski Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman.
Jöckel, Otto Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman.
Kahl, Karl Matrosenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Kopp, Hans Matrosenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Kreuger, Heinz Matrosenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Schaefer, Karl Funkobergefreiter Telegraphist.
Ramme, Willy Funkobergefreiter Telegraphist.
Eckerich, Gottfried Mechanikerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class.
Mathes, Heinz Mechanikerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class.
Busse, Gerhard Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Wagner, Gerd Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Oppermann, Fritz Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Tohm, Rudi Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Hippchen, Karl Heinz Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Neubert, Werner Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Euler, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Eisinger, Hans Matrose Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class.
Officers    4
Chief and Petty Officers  15
Men  20_
          (iii)  TOTAL CREW:  
Officers    6
Chief and Petty Officers  15
Men  27_


"U 659"
  (C49377)                                                                                                                               B**  


          "U 659" (Kapitänleutnant Hans Stock) was sunk in collision with "U 439" (Oberleutnant zur See von Tippelskirch) about 0125 German Summer Time on 4th May, 1943, in approximately 43° 32' N., 13° 30' W.  Both boats were shadowing a south-bound coastal forces convoy.  They had preciously been in the same patrol line and were both based on Brest, though in different flotillas.  
          Three survivors from "U 659" and nine from "U 439" were rescued by M.T.B. 670 and others in her column at 0300 G.M.T. on 4th May, 1943.  
          All were then taken to Gibraltar.  Two survivors from "U 659" have been available for interrogation in the United Kingdom to date.  The third - the Engineer Officer - has at the time of compilation not been sent home from Gibraltar.  
          "U 659" was on her fifth patrol when sunk and had previously accounted for 31,000 tons of shipping.  
          The following are the British equivalents of German Naval ranks used in this report:  
Oberleutnant zur See
Leutnant zur See
Fähnrich zur See
  (i)  Displacement  
          500 tons.  
  (ii)  Type  
          VII C.  
  (iii)  Builders  
          Howaldt Werke, Hamburg.  
  (iv)  Armament  
          Guns.  One 88 mm. forward.  
          One 20 mm. on "bandstand."  
          Two twin Type C.34 M.G.s on bridge.  
          She was due to mount an extra 20 mm. in an additional after platform on conclusion of this patrol.  
          Torpedo tubes.  Four forward; one aft.  
          Torpedoes.  Fourteen carried:  two air torpedoes in upper deck containers; six air torpedoes stowed below, fitted with "Curly" gear; the remainder being electric and not fitted with "Curly" gear.  
  (v)  Propulsion  
          Diesels.  Two 6-cylinder M.A.N.  The starboard Diesel bearings often gave trouble.  
          Motors.  Siemens.  
  (xi)  Diving  
          Tested to 100 metres.  
          Maximum depth attained:  100 metres.  
          Periscope depth:  14 metres.  
          Record crash-diving time to periscope depth:  40 seconds.  
  (vii)  Communications  
          W/T.  Stated to be "normal."  Neither prisoner knew of details.  
          R/T.  None.  
          U/T.  None.  


  (viii)  German Search Receiver  
          Provisional U-Boat type with diamond-shaped aerial.  Receiver fitted with "magic eye."  (See C.B. 04051(69) Part I, Section VI (ii). )  
  (ix)  Radar  
  (x)  D/F  
  (xi)  S.B.T.  
  (xii)  Hydrophones  
          Multiple unit type.  No K.D.B.  
  (xiii)  Echo-Sounder  
  (xiv)  "Elektrolote"  
  (xv)  Look-Out Mast  
  (xvi)  Air Purification  
          By potash cartridges.  She also carried a number of oxygen cylinders.  
  (xvii)  Upper Deck Welding Connection  
          None, but was due to be fitted.  (See C.B. 04051(54), Section VIII (xiv).)  
  (xviii)  Adoption  
  (xix)  Badge  
          Bore the 9th Flotilla badge on both sides of the conning tower.  This was a brightly coloured swordfish, probably painted in blue.  
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          "U 659"  sailed from Brest on her fifth and last patrol at 1700 on Easter Sunday, 25th April. 1943.  She was in company with no other U-Boats, but was escorted by one "Sperrbrecher" and two minesweepers.  
  (ii)  Passage of Bay of Biscay  
          On passing the coastal minefields at dawn on 26th April, she parted company with her escort and submerged.  She set course about 240°.  Her routine for the next few days until clear of the Bay of Biscay was to remain submerged by day and proceed on the surface at night at about 10 knots.  On the night of 27th/28th April, she was sighted by a searchlight aircraft and crash-dived.  
  (iii)  Receipt of Orders  
          Early on 29th April, in approximately 45° N., 15° W., "U 659" was ordered from base to proceed to station in a patrol line of nine boats, stationed on an east-west line of bearing in approximately 43° 30'N., 20° W.  
  (iv)  Arrival in Station  
          "U 659" arrived in station on 1st May and began the routine for keeping station in a patrol line.  


  (v)  H.M.S. "Adventure" Reported  
          In the night of 1st/2nd May, she was advised of the presence of the British cruiser-minelayer H.M.S. "Adventure" in the neighbourhood.  It was left open to her whether to intercept or not.  "U 659" decided not to attempt an attack, owing to the cruiser's superior speed.  
  (vi)  Convoy Reported  
          Early on 3rd May, soon after her forenoon exercise dive, "U 659" was advised by a Focke-Wulf Kondor aircraft of the presence os a south-bound British convoy in approximate position 44 N., 14 W. and hastened to intercept.  Survivors said that all nine boats of the group of which "U 659" formed part were ordered to the attack.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This was the same convoy as that attacked by "U 439."  (See Part II of this report.)  
  (vii)  Second Convoy Reported  
          About 1200 on 3rd May, "U 659" learned from base of the presence of a second south-bound convoy, stated to consist of twenty-seven ships.  Stock decided that this was a more desirable target than the first and decided to contact it.  He realized, however, that both convoys would be in much the same position, and that he might easily fall in with one while trying to contact the other.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The second south-bound convoy was probably south-bound convoy L.C. Flight "D", reported west of Oporto in the forenoon of 4th May, 1943.  It consisted of 28 L.C., escorted by two trawlers and one minesweeper.)  
(All times G.S.T.)
          About 2000 on 3rd May, 1943, "U 659" did an exercise dive, surfacing again after a few minutes.  She had been on the surface all day.  
          She then continued her search for the second of two south-bound convoys (N.I.D. Note.  L.C. Flight "D"), at full speed on the surface.  As far as survivors interrogated were aware, she was never in visual contact with it, but her ship's company were later at action stations, and it was admitted that she was very close to it.  
          At 0215 on 4th May, she was proceeding on a southerly course on the surface at full speed.  Stock was on the bridge, together with his First Lieutenant, a seaman P.O. and two seamen.  
          Suddenly there was the shock of something striking the boat amidships to starboard, followed by a water entry in the control room.  Fuel oil poured into the boat.  
          The Engineer Officer informed the captain that she could not be long kept afloat and Stock immediately gave the order to don lifejackets and abandon ship.  Survivors were not clear how many of their shipmates had remained below.  They believed that some of the engine-room personnel remained on duty too late to make their escape, possibly together with some telegraphists.  Some said the Captain and First Lieutenant were also trapped by going below.  
          Before sinking, "U 659" managed to make a signal reporting her loss by ramming in a given position.  
          Barely five minutes elapsed before "U 659" sank.  Those who had managed to make the upper deck then jumped into the water, as a great wave broke over "U 659" and sent her to the bottom.  
          Some while later, British coastal forces arrived on the scene and rescued three survivors.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 0300 on 4th May, M.T.B. 670, in position 43° 32' N., 13° 30' W., leading the starboard column of an operational coastal forces convoy, ran into Diesel smoke and fumes and saw people swimming in the water.  This column stopped and rescued twelve U-Boat survivors.  It then proceeded to rejoin the convoy.)  


  (i)  Commissioning  
          "U 659" commissioned from Howaldt's Yards, Hamburg, about 19th December, 1941.  She then proceeded to Kiel-Wik.  Her original officers were:  
C.O Kapitän Hans Stock.
First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Hans (?) Fischer.
Second Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Krauss.
Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Beitzen.
  (ii)  Acceptance Trials  
          She began her acceptance trials in Kiel about 20th December, while attached to the 5th Flotilla.  
  (iii)  Torpedo Firing  
          On 15th January, 1942, she sailed from Kiel to Danzig, where she was attached to the 8th Flotilla.  Here she was frozen in, with leave granted to all, and was unable to commence her trials until April, 1942.  These lasted for one week.  
  (iv)  Gunnery Trials  
          In May, 1942, she visited Gdynia for gunnery trials.  
  (v)  Silent Running Trials  
          This was immediately followed, about May, by a visit to Rönne for silent running trials.  
  (vi)  Agru-Front Trials  
          In June 1942, she proceeded to Hel for her Agru-Front trials.  
  (vii)  Tactical Exercises  
          In July, 1942, she underwent ten day's tactical exercises in the Baltic, proceeding to sea from Gdynia.  
  (viii)  Final Adjustments  
          In July-August, 1942, she returned to the Howaldt Yards at Hamburg, for final adjustments.  Here her S.B.T. was built in, and her K.D.B. and U/T were removed.  
First Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Kiel  
          In mid-August, 1942, "U 659" sailed from Hamburg to Kiel-Wik for the embarkation of torpedoes and provisions.  
          On 27th August, 1942, she sailed from Kiel-Wik with another 500-tonner on her first operational patrol, escorted by minesweepers.  
  (ii)  Call at Kristiansand S.  
          In the forenoon of 29th August, she made Kristiansand S., where she topped up with fuel.  She sailed the same evening.  
  (iii)  Call at Bergen  
          In the afternoon of 30th August, she made Bergen, where she lay alongside.  She sailed the next evening.  
  (iv)  Passage into the Atlantic  
          "U 659" dived for the first time on this patrol soon after leaving Bergen, on course 300°.  From then onwards, her policy was to submerge in daylight and proceed at three-quarter speed on the surface at night.  She passed through the Rosengarten on 4th September, 1942.  There were several aircraft alarms, on each of which she submerged.  
  (v)  Patrol Line and Convoy Attack  
          She then sailed slowly on the surface to her station in a patrol line in the western North Atlantic.  Here she remained for a few days before being homed on to a convoy, with which she was herself in contact for two days before sinking one 8,000-ton ship and hitting but not sinking a second of an estimated displacement of 4,000-tons with a torpedo from the same salvo.  She then dived deep and received an attack of 25 depth charges, sustaining such severe damage that she was compelled to return to base.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1435 Z on 10th September, 1942, the Norwegian tanker "Sveve" (6,313 gross tons) and the Belgian steamship "Elizabeth Van Belgie" (4,241 gross tons) were torpedoed in approximately 51° 30' N., 28° 30' W.  Both ships were proceeding in Convoy ON. 127.  The tanker sank immediately, but the other vessel was not observed to sink and was later reported "lost, presumably sunk")  
Second Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          In mid-October, 1942, "U 659" sailed from Brest and proceeded to her operational area described as "between Gibraltar and the Canaries."  
  (ii)  Sinkings from Convoy  
          At the end of October, 1942, she contacted a north-bound convoy, which she followed for several days, during which she sank three ships aggregating 23,000 tons, and torpedoed one which was not observed to sink.  She sustained D/C attacks on several occasions.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Convoy S.L. 125 was shadowed by U-Boats on 27th October, when two ships were sunk, 28th October (two ships sunk), 29th October (three ships sunk) and on 30th October, 1942, when four were sunk in approximate position 36° N., 17° W.)  


          Survivors claimed that the total of 23,000 tons was made up of one ship of 6,000, another of 7,000 and a third of 10,000 gross tons.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The 10,000-ton ship may have been the "President Doumer," 11,898 gross tons.)  
  (iii)  Arrival at Brest  
          At the end of November, 1942, "U 659" entered Brest and leave was granted.  Her German Search Receiver was fitted.  
Third Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          "U 659" sailed from Brest on her third patrol on 10th December, 1942, with a minesweeper escort.  She proceeded to an operational area the extent of which survivors were not sure, but to which they vaguely referred as the "North Atlantic"  
  (ii)  Escort of Blockade-Runner  
          "U 659" was detached on a special mission late in December, 1942, to escort a homeward-bound blockade-runner loaded with rubber from the Far East.  She was never in sight of the blockade-runner, her orders being to remain and give distant screening.  
          On 1st January, 1943, "U 659" intercepted a W/T signal from the blockade-runner stating that she had been attacked and was scuttling herself.  She was then supposed to be only a short distance from the point at which she was to be granted an escort of surface craft from Bordeaux.  
          "U 659" immediately closed the position given, but found nothing when she got there.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This was probably the homeward-bound blockade-runner "Rhakotis," 6,753 gross tons, sunk on 1st January, 1943, north-west of Cape Finisterre by H.M.S. "Scylla.")  
  (iii)  Return to Brest  
          After about ten days at sea, "U 659" was forced to return to Brest owing to trouble with her starboard Diesel bearings.  She had not been in contact with any convoys or made any sightings.  
          She entered Brest early in January, 1943, and remained there for three or four weeks while her Diesel was repaired.  
Fourth Patrol
  (i)  Departure from Brest  
          Early in February, 1943, "U 659" sailed from Brest on her fourth patrol.  
  (ii)  Contact with Convoy  
          She later obtained contact with a convoy in what survivors described as the "North Atlantic."  She made no attacks, however, and was herself not attacked.  About three weeks out she again developed engine trouble, which compelled her to ask permission to return to Brest.  
  (iii)  Attack by Aircraft  
          On passage back to Brest she was caught by a searchlight from an aircraft, which dropped four bombs near her as she was submerging, but caused no damage.  
  (iv)  Return to Brest  
          "U 659" arrived back in Brest towards the end of March, 1943.  Leave was granted while the Diesel trouble was repaired.  
          Oberleutnant zur See Fischer left to carry out a U-Boat Commanding Officer's course and Leutnant (Ing.) Beitzen was appointed to another boat.  
          They were relieved by Oberleutnant zur See Hornbostel and Leutnant (Ing.) Foertsch respectively.  
  (i)  General  
          "U 659's" ship's company totalled 45, of which five were officers, three C.P.O.s, 11 P.O.s and 26 other ratings.  The most experienced man on board had done nine patrols, but many had done few or none.  The general atmosphere was very satisfactory, there being few difficulties between officers and men.  
  (ii)  Captain  
          The Captain was Kapitänleutnant Hans Stock, 1935 term.  "U 659" was his first U-Boat command.  He had formerly served as First Lieutenant with Kapitänleutnant Lehmann-Willenbrock in "U 96."  
  (iii)  First Lieutenant  
          The First Lieutenant was Oberleutnant zur See Hornbostel, 1938 term.  He joined "U 659" in Brest immediately prior to her last patrol.  
  (iv)  Second Lieutenant  
          The Second Lieutenant was leutnant zur See Heinz Krauss, who had been in "U 659" since her commissioning.  
  (v)  Engineer Officer  
          The Engineer Officer was Leutnant (Ing.) Foertsch, who had joined "U 659" in Brest just before sailing on her last patrol.  It was his first appointment as Engineer Officer of a U-Boat.  He was the only officer survivor.  
  (vi)  Midshipman  
          "U 659" also bore a midshipman (E), Fähnrich (Ing.) Troester.  Nothing is known about him, except that he was on his first patrol.  


          (i)  Survivors:  
English Equivalent.
Foertsch Leutnant (Ing.) Sub-Leutnant (E) 14.  4.21
Arendt, Bruno Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class   8.10.19
Link, Erwin Maschinengegefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class   6.  4.22
Officers   1
Chief and Petty Officers   1
Men _1_
          (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Stock, Hans Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander.
Hornbostel Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Krause Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Troester Fähnrich (Ing.) Midshipman (E).
Kersch Stabsobermaschinist Staff Chief E.R.A.
Schultz, Walter Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
Memminger Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class.
Diestel, Hans Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class.
Fricke, Walter Obermaschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 1st Class.
Fiedler, Ernst Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Pohl Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Ehlers, Georg Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Blicke, Karl Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Simon, Fritz Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Janitz, Kurt Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class.
Hunger, Rolf Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class.
Goebel, Rolf Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class.
Zure, Karl Matrosenobergegefreiter Able Seaman.
Grimm Matrosenobergegefreiter Able Seaman.
Hartel Matrosenobergegefreiter Able Seaman.
von Ofen Matrosenobergegefreiter Able Seaman.
Woiwode Matrosenobergegefreiter Able Seaman.
Illgen Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Wittmann Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Kurzer Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Wulfmeyer, Paul Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Haible Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Russeck Maschinenobergegefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Elkin Funkobergefreiter Telegraphist.
Blum Matrosengegefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Loegers Matrosengegefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Massmann, Karl Matrosengegefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Unger Matrosengegefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Kuehnen Matrosengegefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Stark Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Rudat Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Fischer Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Kurchaertz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Stahl Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Britz Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class.
Martens, August Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class.
(?) Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class.
Officers    4
Chief and Petty Officers  13
Men  25_
          (iii)  Total crew:  
Officers    5
Chief and Petty Officers  14
Men  26_


(As at July, 1943)
          The present U-Boat organization is believed to be:  
B.d.U. (C.-in-C. U-Boats) Gross-Admiral Karl Doenitz
    Berlin.                                    (1910 term)
Chef des Stabes des B.d.U. Konter-Admiral Eberhard Godt
        (Chief of Staff to C.-in-C. U-Boats)                                    (1918 term)
        Berlin and Paris  
Kommandierender Admiral der U-Boote (?)  Admiral von Friedeburg
        (Admiral U-Boats)                                    (1914 term)
        (?) Kiel.  
                (At the end of 1942 Admiral von Friedeburg held the post of Zweiter Admiral der U-Boote (Personnel matters).  Recent reports (B.2.) suggest that this post no longer exists.  Friedeburg was promoted Admiral 1st April, 1943.  It is possible that his title is now "Kommandierender Admiral der U-Boote.")
F.d.U. West (S.O. U-Boats (West)) Korvetten Kapitän Hans Roesing
        Angers.                                    (1924 term)
F.d.U. Italien (S.O. U-Boats (Italy)) Konter-Admiral Leo Kreisch
        Rome                                    (1914 term)
F.d.U. Norwegian (S.O. U-Boats Norway Kapitänleutnant Juergen Oesten
        Bergen                                    (1933 term)
F.d.U. Ost (S.O. U-Boats (East)) Unknown.
F.d.U. Ausbildung (S.O. U-Boats (Training)) Unknown.
          The following flotillas are known to exist:  
1.  Brest. 11.  Bergen.
2.  Lorient. 12.  Bordeaux.
3.  La Pallice. 21.  Pillau.
4.  Stettin. 22.  Gdynia.
5.  Kiel. 24.  Memel.
6.  St. Nazaire. 25.  Gdynia.
7.  St. Nazaire. 26.  Pillau.
8.  Danzig. 27.  Pillau.
9.  Brest. 29.  La Spezia.
10.  Lorient. 30.  Constantza.
          There are also auxiliary bases at:  
                  (Graded B.1)  
                          Narvik (Sub-base of 11th Flotilla, Bergen).  
                          Pola (Major repair facilities).  
                          Salamis (Formerly base of 26th Flotilla).  
                          Trondheim (Sub-base of 11th Flotilla, Bergen).  


(Position as at 1st July, 1943)
  A.  U-Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  Flotilla Numbers:  B.1, Bases and S.O.s:  B.2).  
1. Brest S.O. Kapitänleutnant Werner Winter (1930 term).
2. Lorient S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Viktor Schuelte (1925 term).
3. La Pallice S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Richard Zapp (1926 term).
4. Stettin S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Heinz Fischer (1925 term).
5. Kiel S.O. Kapitänleutnant Oskar Moehle (1930 term).
6. St. Nazaire S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Klaus Scholz (1927 term).
7. St. Nazaire S.O. Kapitänleutnant Herbert Sohler (1928 term).
8. Danzig (Torpedo Firing Flotilla) Korvetten Kapitän Hans Eckermann (1925 term).
9. Brest S.O. Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock (1931 term).
10. Lorient S.O. Kapitänleutnant Guenther Kuhnke (1931 term).  (For 740-tonners only.)
11. Bergen S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Hans Cohausz (1926 term).
12. Bordeaux  
21. Pillau S.O. Possibly Korvetten Kapitän Reinhardt ("Teddy") Suhren.  (Training Flotilla) (1935 term).  (Since relieved.)
22. Gdynia S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Erich Topp (1934 term) (Training Flotilla).
24. Memel S.O. Korvetten Kapitän (Ing.) Baumgarten (1926 term) (Training Flotilla for Prospective U-Boat Captains).
25. Gdynia S.O. unknown.  (Probably a Training Flotilla.)
26 Pillau S.O. Ex-Korvetten Kapitän Hans-Gerrit von Stockhausen (1926 term).  (Training Flotilla.)  (Killed in motor smash, autumn, 1942.  Relief unknown.)
27. Pillau S.O. unknown.  (Training Flotilla.)
29. La Spezia S.O. Kapitänleutnant Fritz Frauenheim (1930 term).  (May have recently been disbanded.)
30. Constantza S.O. Kapitänleutnant Helmut Rosenbaum (1932 term).
  B.  E-Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  C.2).  
1. A Black Sea port (June, 1942).  Formerly at Cherbourg.
2. Ymuiden (May. 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Klaus Feldt (1934 term).  (Some boats may have transferred later to Cherbourg.)
3. A Mediterranean Port (June, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Werner Toeniges (1934 term).
4. Rotterdam (February, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Niels Baetge (1931 term).
5. Cherbourg (May, 1943).  S.O. Unknown.
6. Ymuiden (February, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Joseph Obermaier (1933 term).  (May have transferred to Cherbourg, May. 1943.)
7. A Western Mediterranean Port (May. 1943).
8. North Norway (February, 1943).  S.O. Unknown.
22. Kiel (end 1941).  S.O. Unknown.  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably since disbanded or converted to a training Flotilla.)
  E-Boat Flotillas have also been stationed from time to time at the following bases:  
          Bergen.  (N.I.D. Note.  Four or five boats probably based (May, 1943).)  
          Boulogne.  Frequently used for visits (June, 1943).  
          Danzig.  6th Flotilla here February, 1941.  
          Guernsey (St. Peter Port).  Two flotillas here May, 1943.  
          Helsingör.  Base of 6th and possibly other flotillas in summer, 1942.  (N.I.D. Note.  Believed none there now.)  
          Hook of Holland.  (N.I.D. Note.  Frequently used for visits (June, 1943).)  


          Kristiansand S.  Base of 6th Flotilla, April, 1942.  (N.I.D. Note.  Often used by Bergen boats).  
          Ostende.  One or two boats on passage frequently there (June, 1943).  
          Sideville (near Cherbourg).  H.Q. of F.d.S. (Führer der Schnellboote) S.O. E-Boats).  Name unknown.  (N.I.D. Note.  Believed F.d.S. is a relatively new appointment and may operate under orders of the F.d.T. (Führer der Torpedoboote) at The Hague.)  
          Stavanger.  Often used by Bergen boats (June, 1943).  
          Svolvaer (Lofoten Islands).  A flotilla in July, 1942.  
          Swinemuende.  H.Q. of the only E-Boat training flotilla (June, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Hermann Opdenhoff (1934 term) (February, 1943).  
          Trondheim.  Base of a flotilla (end, 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably used occasionally by the flotilla based in North Norway (February, 1943).)  
  C.  R-Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  C.3).  
1. Probably a Baltic Port (February, 1943).
2. Cuxhaven.  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Stanislaus Kowalczyk (May, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably moved to Channel port (April, 1943).)
3. (N.I.D. Note.  A Black Sea Port (May, 1943).)
4. A Channel Port (May, 1943).
5. North Norway (April, 1943).
6. Western Mediterranean (April, 1943).
7. North Norway (April, 1943).
8. A Norwegian Port (Summer, 1942).  (Moved to Channel before March, 1943.)
9. (N.I.D. Note.  North Sea (April, 1943).)
10. Oiustreham (Summer, 1942).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Nau.  (N.I.D. Note.  Moved to Channel, May, 1943.)
12. Ostend (Summer, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably still in Channel (April. 1943).)
          There is also stated to be an R-Boat School at St. Malo (Summer, 1942).  R-Boats also frequently lie at the following ports:  
          Le Harve.  
  D.  "U.J."-Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  B.2).  
1. Tromsoe (August, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  Later disbanded.)
11. Kristiansand S. (Autumn, 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Later to North Norway (April, 1943).)
12. A Norwegian Port (Summer, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  North Norway (April, 1943).)
14. Lorient.  S.O. Korvetten Kapitän Wunderlich (1932 term) (Summer, 1942).
17. A Baltic Port (Summer, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  South-West Norway (April, 1943).)
          (N.I.D. Note.  In addition, there may be some "U.J."-Boats attached to the A/S School at Gdynia.)    
  E.  M/S Flotillas  
          (Grading:  C.2).  
          "M" Class:  
1. Gdynia (Summer, 1941).  (Possibly later to Kiel.)  (N.I.D. Note.  North Sea (April, 1943).)
2. Lorient (April, 1943).
3. Probably a Baltic Port (December, 1942).
4. North Norway (April, 1943).  (Previously at Bayonne.)
5. (N.I.D. Note.  North Norway (April, 1943).)
6. Bayonne (March, 1943).
7. (N.I.D. Note.  North Sea Port (April, 1943).)
8. Cherbourg (August, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  A Biscay Port (April, 1943).)
10. Brest (Mid 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Mat have been since disbanded.)


          Converted Fishing Vessels:  
11. Koenigsberg (End 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Norway, end 1942.)
12. Brest (Mid 1942).
13. Koenigsberg (End 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  North Sea (September, 1942).)
14. Brest (Mid 1942).
15. Koenigsberg (End 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Norway (January, 1943).)
16. Brest (Mid 1941), St. Nazaire.  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Thoma (End 1942).
18. Baltic (May, 1942).
19. (N.I.D. Note.  Kattegat Port (May, 1943).)
  (N.I.D. Note.  "M" Class):  
21. Cuxhaven (April, 1943).
22. Channel Port (January, 1943).
27. Les Sables d'Olonne (April, 1943).
  (N.I.D. Note.  Drifters):  
31. Den Holder (End 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  Baltic Port (January, 1943).)
32. (N.I.D. Note.  Flushing (April, 1943).)
34. Emden (End 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  North Holland (April, 1943).)
36. Dunkirk and Ostend (April, 1943).
38. Le Harve (April, 1943).
40. Brest (January, 1943).
42. St. Nazaire (February/March, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Hoelzerkopf (Early 1941).
44. La Pallice (March, 1943).  S.O. Kapitänleutnant Gemein (September, 1942).
46 (N.I.D. Note.  Channel Islands (March, 1943).)
54. | (N.I.D. Note.  Reported in Norway (March, 1943).)
56. |
  F.  Patrol Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  B.2).  
2. Caen (August, 1942)  (Previously at St. Malo to which returned April, 1943.)
3. (N.I.D. Note.  Baltic Port (December, 1942.)
4. (N.I.D. Note.  Biscay Port (December, 1942)
7. (N.I.D. Note.  Channel Islands (December, 1942)
8. North Sea (December, 1942).
9. (N.I.D. Note.  Skagerrak (December, 1942.)
10. West Baltic (December, 1942).
11. North Sea (December, 1942).
12. North Sea (December, 1942).
13. Cuxhaven (December, 1942).
14. Cuxhaven (May, 1942).  (N.I.D. Note.  Later transferred further South.)
15. (N.I.D. Note.  Channel Port (December, 1942).
16. Bremen (December, 1939).  (N.I.D. Note.  Skagerrak (December, 1942).)
17. (N.I.D. Note.  Kattegat (December, 1942).)
18. Bremen (December, 1939).  (N.I.D. Note.  Skagerrak (December, 1942).)
19. (N.I.D. Note.  Kattegat (December, 1942).)
20. (N.I.D. Note.  North Sea (December, 1942).)
51. Bergen (December, 1942).
53. Bergen (December, 1942).
55. (N.I.D. Note.  Operational, probably Norway (December, 1942).)
57. (N.I.D. Note.  North Norway (December, 1942.)
59. Narvik (End 1941).  (N.I.D. Note.  North Norway (December, 1942).)
  G.  Torpedo-Boat Flotillas  
          (Grading:  C.3).  
2. Bremen (December, 1939).
5. La Pallice (September, 1942).
  H.  Destroyer Flotillas  
          (Grading:  C.3).  
5. Tromsoe (August, 1942).
          (Note.  Torpedo-Boat and Destroyer Flotilla dispositions change frequently and it is impossible to give up-to-date information on this subject.)  
  (C49377)  500  7/43  

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