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C.B.  04051 (72)
"U 202"
Interrogation of Survivors
July, 1943
This Report is not to be considered accurate in all respects, having been prepared before complete information was available.  It is therefore not to be taken as historically correct.



          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  


C.B. 04051 (72)
P L A T E   I



Attention is called to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
Official Secrets Acts.
C.B.  04051 (72)
"U 202"
Interrogation of Survivors
July, 1943
            ADMIRALTY, S.W.1.  
       N.I.D. 04745/43.  


          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  


Frontispiece.  S.B.T. Effect noticed during attack on " U 202 "    
  Introductory Remarks  
  Details of "U 202"  
    (i)  Type;  (ii)  Displacement;  (iii)  Armament;  (iv)  Diesels;  (v)  Diesel Superchargers;  (vi) Total capacity of Fuel Tanks;  (vii)  Electric Motors;  (viii)  Switchboards;  (ix)  Compressors;  (x)  G.S.R.;  (xi)  Radar;  (xii)  S.B.T.;  (xiii)  K.D.B.;  (xiv) Multi-unit Hydrophones;  (xv) German Asdic;  (xvi) W/T Equipment;  (xvii) Rod Aerial;  (xviii) U/T;  (xix) V.H/F;  (xx) Conning-Tower Badge;  (xxi)  Patron Town;  (xxii)  Field Post Number.  
  Ninth and Last Patrol of "U 202"  
      (i) "U 202" sails;  (ii) Encounter with Allied Naval and Air Forces;  (iii) Two Convoys Reported;  (iv) A Third Convoy Reported;  (v) "U 202" joins a Patrol Sweep;  (v) Course of Patrol Sweep Altered;  (vi) Rendezvous with Hungershausen's U-Boat;  (vii) "U 202" attempts a Convoy Attack;  (viii) "U 202" meets a Second U-boat;  (ix) A W/T Signal received.    
  Sinking of "U 202"  
  General Remarks on U-Boats  
"Curly" Torpedoes    
        (a)  Setting Gear;  (b) Speed;  (c) Tactics;  (d) Identification;  (e)  First Delivery  
General Information on Torpedoes  
A/A Boats  
Avoidance of Aircraft Attack  
Tactics in the Bay of Biscay  
Torpedo transfer at Sea  
Oil Transfer at Sea  
Booby Traps and Scuttling Charges  
Escape Apparatus  
CO2 Testing  
Experimental U-Boats  
Wireless Officers  
New Defence Weapons  
Logging and Reporting Attacks  
Gyro Compass Converter  
Merchant Shipping  
Passage of "Rosengarten"  
Mutiny in One U-Boat  
Refuelling Areas  
  Surface Ships  
Destroyer "Paul Jacobi"  
"Sperrbrecher" 15  
Axis Mediterranean Losses  
Shortage of Man-power  
  Bases  - Brest  
    (i) Details of "M"-Class Sweepers;  (ii) 3rd M/S/ Flotilla;  (iii) 8th M.S. Flotilla;  (iv) 2nd M/S Flotilla;  (v) 42nd M/S Flotilla;  (vi) Mine clearance Vessel.  
  Miscellaneous Remarks  
German Control of Italian Submarines  
Defences at Brest  
The "U-Boat" Express  
  (C49596)                                                                                                                             B2  


Appendix "A"  Early History and Trials of "U 202"  
Appendix "B"  Previous Patrols of "U 202"  
First Patrol:  Off South Greenland  
Second Patrol:  To Mid-Atlantic  
Third Patrol:  To Mid-Atlantic  
Fourth Patrol:  Unsuccessful attempt to enter Mediterranean  
Fifth Patrol:  Off Newfoundland  
Sixth Patrol:  "U 202" lands Saboteurs in U.S.A.  
Seventh Patrol:  South to the Azores - Two ships sunk.  
Eighth Patrol (supplemented by Extracts from a Captured Diary belonging to the First Lieutenant):  South of the Azores  

(a)  Departure from Brest;  (b)  "U 202" attacks a Convoy;  (c) "U 202" meets other U-Boats and is refuelled; (d) Lieutenant zur See Schulze is Transferred; "U 202" joins a Patrol Sweep; (e) "U 202" attacks a Second Convoy;  (f) "U 202" is again refuelled;  (g) "U 202" proceeds to the Canary Islands;  (h) "U 202" attacks a third Convoy and sinks Two Ships;  (j) "U 202" Refuels again and Returns home.

Appendix "C"  Ship's Company of "U 202"  
            (i)  Captain;  (ii)  First Lieutenant;  (iii)  Second Lieutenant; (iv)  Engineer Officer;  (v)  Previous Officers serving in "U-202:;  (vi  General.    
Appendix "D"  Captain's Memorandum to his Men  
Appendix "E"  (I) Extracts from Diary of Oberleutnant zur See Dreher  
Appendix "E"  (II) Diary of Matrosengefreiter Karl Hartig  
Appendix "F"  Nominal Roll of "U 202"  
Appendix "G"  Interrogation of Prisoners from "U 66"  


                U-BOAT, SUNK ON 2nd JUNE, 1943, BY THE 2nd SUPPORT
          "U 202" a 500-ton U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günter Poser, was sunk by the 2nd Support Group, consisting of "Kite," "Woodpecker," "Starling" and "Wild Goose," with "Cygnet" in company, whilst on passage to support Convoy H.X.241, at 0050 (Z), on 2nd June, 1943, in position 56° 08'N., 039° 53'W.  "Starling" picked up two officers and 16 ratings and "Wild Goose" two officers and 10 ratings.  
          Kapitänleutnant Poser, who survived, stated that he had lost 15 men.  The total compliment of the U-Boat was 45.  
          This U-Boat had commissioned in March, 1941, and was on her ninth patrol.  She claimed total sinkings of approximately 50,000 tons.  
          Her first Captain, Kapitänleutnant Hans Heinz Linder, had been in command for the first six patrols, but he had been transferred in July, 1942, after returning from a patrol during which he had set a party of four saboteurs ashore on Long Island, N.J.  (N.I.D. Note.  These men were promptly rounded up, together with another party of four saboteurs landed in the U.S.A. by another U-Boat at the same time.  Of these eight men, six were condemned to death and were later sent to the electric chair).  Kapitänleutnant Poser, who relieved Linder, had been in command on all subsequent patrols.  
          Prisoners were not unduly security-conscious and interrogation was materially assisted by captured diaries.  
          Items of particular interest in this report are:  
                  (1)  Further details of "Curly" torpedoes.  (See Section V (1) and (2).)  
                  (2)  Description of armament of A/A U-Boats.  (See Section V (3).)  
                  (3)  Translated diaries giving the history of "U 202's" eighth and ninth patrols.  
          German and Royal Naval Rank equivalents used in this report are:  
Kapitän zur See Captain.
Fregattenkapitän Commander.
Korvettenkapitän Lieutenant-Commander.
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant.
Oberleutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant (Junior).
Oberfähnrich zur See Midshipman (Senior).
Fähnrich zur See Midshipman (Junior).
          The suffix " (Ing) " after a rank denotes Engineer Officer.  The suffix " d.R. " signifies " der Reserve " and is translated as Reserve Officer.  
  Type VIIC.
  Displacement 500 tons.
            Guns One 88-mm (3.46 in.) forward; one 20-mm (0.79 in.) on "bandstand"; two twin M.G.s on bridge.  The latter could only be fired singly.  They could be trained fore and aft.  One tracer bullet was inserted for every 5th or 6th round.
            Torpedoes Fourteen carried.  These were apparently:  two normal air torpedoes in upper deck containers, seven "Curly" air torpedoes, one experimental "Curly" electric torpedo and four normal electric torpedoes.  Two "Curly" air torpedoes were loaded in tubes 2 and 4, and two normal torpedoes in tubes 1 and 3.  Two "Curly" air torpedoes were stored on the floor plates forward, and four "Curly" air torpedoes in the forward bilges.  One electric torpedo was stowed in the stern bilges.  One prisoner stated that the torpedo carried in the stern tube on the last patrol was an experimental "Curly" electric torpedo.  It was never fired.
            Torpedo Pistols All torpedoes carried latterly had been fitted with the new magnetic pistols.  The weight of this pistol was given as 46 kg. (101.4 lbs.).
            Torpedo Tubes Four forward, one aft.
  (C49596)                                                                                                                              B*  


  Diesels G.W. (Germania Werft) revolutions at maximum speed were given as 470 r.p.m. It was said that on the last patrol the Diesels could not be made to exceed 400 r.p.m. even with the use of superchargers.  It was claimed that a speed of 18-1/2 knots was once recorded by stop-watch.
              The following table of Diesel engine performance was found in the First Lieutenant's diary:
Diesel Engines.
  Ahead. Astern.
Dead slow 7 knots - knots
Slow 9 knots 9 knots
Half speed 12 knots 12 knots
2 X half speed 14 knots 14 knots
Three-quarter speed 15 knots 15 knots
Full speed 16 knots 16 knots (emergency full speed astern).
Emergency full speed 18 (?) knots  
  Diesel Superchargers "Kapsel" type (similar to Rootes blower).
  Total capacity of fuel tanks Said to be 137.3 m³. (116 tons, as in "Graph").
  Electric motors A.E.G.
  Switchboards A.E.G.
  Compressors Electric and Junkers free piston compressors.
  G.S.R. Metox Type 600 A carried on recent patrols in addition to a second set, probably by Grandin, the latter for trial purposes only.  Southern Cross type aerial.
  Radar Not fitted.
  S.B.T. Fitted.  During events leading up to the sinking of "U 202" this fear was used 76 times in 14 hours.
  K.D.B. Originally fitted but removed later.
  Multi-Unit Hydrophones Fitted, but became serviceable during final attack.
  German Asdic Apparently fitted for some patrols but use later discontinued.
  W/T Equipment By Telefunken.
  Rod Aerial Fitted.
  U/T Fitted, but seldom used latterly.
  V.H/F Fitted, but removed before start of first patrol.
  Conning Tower Badge Possibly the arms of Innsbruck, or "Innsbruck" in white letters on the conning tower.  At one time, under Linder, thought to have been a white porcupine.
  Patrol Town Innsbruck.
  Field Post Number M.38859.
          (N.I.D. Note.  The following account of this patrol has been supplemented by extracts from a captured diary belonging to an ordinary seaman prisoner.)  
  (i)  "U 202" Sails  
          "U 202" left Brest on 29th April with orders to proceed to an operations area off South Greenland.  She was escorted for four hours by a "Sperrbrecher," stationed ahead, and by two patrol vessels, one on either beam.  For a further four hours, according to one prisoner, practically the entire ship's company were ordered to remain on deck wearing life jackets, because of the danger of mines.  This was denied by other prisoners.  Original course was said to be 253° and speed when surfaced 10 knots.  
          Extracts from the captured diary read:  
26th April Embarked 14 torpedoes.
27th April Embarked provisions.
28th April Final trimming tests.
29th April Left harbor for ninth patrol in ideal weather (i.e., foggy).  Sea moderate (2/3).
30th April Submerged after eight hours on surface.


  (ii)  Encounter with Allied Naval and Air Forces  
1st May To action stations three times on account of aircraft.  Several underwater detonations were heard.  Pursued by two British vessels, but eluded them; aircraft also appeared.  Continued submerged for the rest of the day and throughout the night.
2nd May 0830 Surfaced.
  1230 Aircraft alarm.
  1630 Exercised damage control stations.
  2000 Surfaced and continued on the surface.
3rd May Forced to submerge twice by aircraft.
  1730 Dived.
  2000 Surfaced and continued on the surface.
4th May 0600 Dived.
  1000 Surfaced.
  1030 Aircraft alarm.
  1500 Dived because detected.
  2030 Boat dived (to exercise diving stations).
5th May 0740 Hands for exercise to diving stations.  100° alteration of course to 353°.
6th May 0745 Submerged; at damage control stations till 0930.  Very cold on deck, 10°C. (50°F).
7th May 0715 Submerged.
  1010 Surfaced.  Bad weather.
8th May 0730 Submerged.
  1000 Surfaced; weather improved; wind 3, sea 2.
  (iii) Two Convoys Reported  
9th May 0730 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.  Later in the day two convoys reported.  Aircraft alarm.  G.S.R. in operation at night.
10th May 0710 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.  Bad weather.  Exercised "Hands below to crash dive."
11th May 0610 Submerged because detected.
  1500 Detected by surface craft.  Bad weather.
12th May 0700 Submerged.
  0900 Surfaced.  Bad weather; thermometer fell 5°F.
  (iv) A Third Convoy Reported.  "U 202" Joins a Patrol Sweep  
13th May 0750 Submerged.
  0919 Surfaced.  Convoy reported.  Sea 3, wind 4.
14th May 0730 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.  Sharp look-out for a convoy kept.
15th May 0000-04.00 Very dark, very cold; waves breaking over conning tower.
  Later No news of convoy.  Sea 7.
  2300 Course altered to 225°.
16th May 0730 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.
  Later Convoy reported.
  21.30 Aircraft alarm; G.S.R. operating.
  (v) Course of Patrol Sweep Altered  
17th May 0745 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.  Course of patrol sweep altered; new course 160°.
  (Presumably by this date "U 202" had joined a patrol sweep.  Some prisoners said that this sweep was known as "Donau II" and consisted of 33 boats.  The patrol was said to have proceeded at about 5 knots.)  
  (v) Rendezvous with Hungershausen's U-Boat  
18th May   Met and exchanged greetings with a U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Heinz Hungerhausen.
  2045 Submerged.
  2100 Surfaced.
  (It is thought that this dive refers to a test of "U 202's" G.S.R.  Poser, noticing that the U-Boat he had met carried Radar, requested her to switch on her set and pick up "U 202."  The P.O. telegraphist manning "U 202's" G.S.R. was not informed, and suddenly reported that they were being detected, strength 5.)  
          Later on the evening of this day a convoy was reported.  
  (C49596)                                                                                                                              B*2  


  (vii) "U 202" Attempts a Convoy Attack  
19th May Submerged ten times on account of aircraft.
    (N.I.D. Note.  The next entry shows that the presence of aircraft effectively prevented "U 202" from attacking the convoy and caused her to lose contact.  This convoy was probably S.C.130.)
  We have been forced away from the convoy.  Good weather for firing torpedoes
  1630 Heard innumerable detonations.  Pursued under water by aircraft.  Nothing seen of the convoy.
20th May 0000 - 0400 Two aircraft alarms during this watch.  A destroyer passed overhead.
  1600 Aircraft alarm.
  1808 Destroyer alarm.
21st May 0010 Destroyer alarm; submerged.
  0100 Surfaced.  Operation against convoy cancelled.
  0125 Aircraft alarm; submerged.
  0900 Surfaced.  Misty; visibility 100 yards.
22nd May 0100 Submerged.  Visibility worse, a bare 50 yards.
  0900 Surfaced, visibility good.  A new convoy sighted; course altered in consequence.
    (N.I.D. Note.  Possibly H.X.239.)
23rd May 0600 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced; two minutes later destroyer alarm.
  1230 Three aircraft alarms since 0830.
  1930 Surfaced.
  2240 Heard several detonations.  Visibility good.
  (viii) "U 202" Meets a Second U-Boat  
24th May 0015 Meeting with a U-Boat commanded by Ferro (?).
    (N.I.D. Note.  This officer has not been identified.)
  1530 Second meeting with Ferro's (?) U-Boat.  Course altered to 320°.
  (ix) A W/T Signal Received  
  2000 - 2400 W/T signal received ordering return to base when surplus fuel expended.
25th May 0730 Submerged. 
  0830 Surfaced.  Sunshine
26th May 0130 Submerged. 
  0750 Surfaced.
27th May 0700 Submerged.
  0830 Surfaced.  Very cold.
28th May 0700 Submerged.
  08.00 Surfaced.
29th May   Submerged as usual.
30th May   Submerged as usual.  Bad weather.
31st May 0700 Submerged.
  1100 Surfaced.
  2030 Submerged again in the evening on account of bad visibility; fog.
  On passage from base to the approximate position of her sinking (56° N., 040° W.), "U 202" suffered at least 29 aircraft and five destroyer alarms in a period of 33 days.  
          In the early morning of 1st June, "U 202" surfaced to make a lengthly signal.  Prisoners said that on that day she had only about 30 tons of fuel remaining and they thought that she was about to put back to Brest.  (N.I.D. Note.  At 0925 (Z) on 1st June, the 2nd Support Group, consisting of "Kite," "Woodpecker," "Starling" and "Wild Goose," with "Cygnet" in company, was on passage to support H.X. 241.  At 0926 a U-Boat was detected making a long naval enigma message on bearing of 311° from "Starling," 321° from "Wild Goose," estimated within 30 miles.)  
          The first intimation in "U 202" that a hunt was on came when a Chief Petty Officer, acting as Officer of the Watch, sighted mastheads of what was taken to be a convoy bearing Green 60°-90°.  "U 202" at once increased to three-quarter speed, approached to what was considered a safe distance and then dived to attack.  Poser had now risen from his bunk, where it was his habit to lie at times of all but the greatest emergencies, and had manned the periscope.  His first remark was:  "Funny!" I can't see any merchant ships, only destroyers!"  Bow caps were opened and tubes flooded, when there was a sudden order to dive deep.  Just as the U-Boat reached a depth of approximately 500 ft., a first series of depth charges exploded around her.  This proved to be the heaviest attack but damage was not substantial.  


          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1015 "Starling" obtained an asdic echo and sighted a swirl in the water, position 56° 12' N., 39° 52' W,  "Starling" attacked at 1020 with a ten-charge pattern and ordered "Kite" and "Wild Goose" to join for a barrage attack.)  
          From the time of this attack onwards to the following morning.  "U 202" was hopelessly trapped and innumerable depth-charges were dropped upon her.  No vital, or even severe, damage was caused to her, however, no doubt owing to the fact that she had dived to a depth of below 800 ft.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The sequence of the attacks was as follows:  
          At 1052 "Starling," "Wild Goose" and "Kite" carried out a barrage attack, dropping a total of 78 charges set at 500 to 550 ft.  
          At 1104 "Starling," attacked by herself with 350- and 550-ft. settings.  
          At 1120 "Starling," "Wild Goose" and "Kite" carried out a second and similar barrage attack.  
          At 1140 "Starling" again attacked the U-Boat which had turned towards and had come comparatively shallow (about 400 ft., according to prisoners).  Depth settings were 100 and 225 ft.  
          Soon afterwards the U-Boat had clearly gone below the reach of 550-ft. depth charges.  For the next few hours "Wild Goose," "Starling" and "Woodpecker" were in contact with each other, mainly by loud hailer, with "Starling" directing all of them.  A series of attacks was then made as follows:  
          1436 by "Woodpecker."  
          1446 by "Woodpecker."  
          1455 by "Woodpecker."  
          1520 by "Wild Goose."  
          1552 by "Wild Goose."  
          1628 by "Wild Goose."  
          1736 by "Woodpecker."  
          1822 by "Woodpecker."  
          1845 by "Wild Goose."  
          All these attacks were carried out with Mark VII pistols, set to 500 ft. fitted to heavy charges, giving a depth of about 700 ft.  Attacking speed was 5 knots in all cases except "Wild Goose's" 1845 attack, which was made at 18 knots.  
          In spite of all this, the U-Boat seemed to be sitting pretty at 820 ft., well out of reach.  But she could be held easily by asdic between 1,200 and 2,000 yards.  S.B.T. bubbles could be clearly recognised.  
          "U 202," in her vain attempts to elude the asdics and escape, had used 76 S.B.T. charges.  The gear had then jammed and become useless.  Other damage had not been considerable, but tanks had been holed and fuel wasted.  In addition, her multi-unit hydrophones had been put out of action in an early attack and the U-Boat was practically "deaf" to all surface noises.  As the hours drew on it became apparent that her batteries and H.P. air would ultimately become exhausted.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1655 "Starling" lost contact for about 10 minutes owing to the U-Boat making a large alteration of course, and this coincided with a temporary breakdown in "Starling's" recorder.  By 1900 "Starling" decided to wait until the U-Boat had exhausted her batteries or H.P. air.  During the first watch the U-Boat made several further futile evasion attempts.)  
          By midnight "U 202" had reached the limit of her submerged endurance and Poser, being unable to hear anything above him, decided that he must risk surfacing.  At this point it was estimated that two tons of water had entered through the stern glands and other connections into the bilges below the electric motors and rather more than two tons into the bilges below the control room, but there was no water in the forward bilges.  The H.P. air pressure was now reduced to about 400 lbs per sq. inch.  
          When "U 202" broke surface she was immediately fired on and Poser, realising that escape was out of the question, ordered his men to abandon ship.  A number of the ship's company were killed by gunfire and by a shallow pattern of depth charges fired by "Starling" when they were swimming in the water.  
          One prisoner said that Poser had seized a revolver with the intention of shooting himself, but the sight of his Engineer Officer and First Lieutenant abandoning ship precipitately before the majority of the ratings so infuriated him that he changed his mind and threw his revolver away, being determined to call his officers to reckoning after the war.  Other prisoners said that Poser himself being silent on the matter, it is known that the ship was scuttled by a Petty Officer and not by the officers.  The Petty Officer said that he found that the scuttling charges had been locked up in the ward room and he merely opened the vents.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The U-Boat surfaced without audible warning at 0022, 2nd June, right ahead of "Starling," who shot her up with every weapon that would bear.  There was certainly a very big hole in the port side of the conning tower.  In position 56° 08' N., 039° 53' W., "Starling" fired a further shallow pattern of depth charges around the U-Boat as she passed close up the starboard side.  "Starling" picked up two officers and 16 ratings, "Wild Goose' two officers and 10 ratings.  
          The U-Boat remained afloat until 0050.  The Senior Officer considered that the boat could have been captured and towed home had the action taken place nearer land.  
  (C49596)                                                                                                                              B*3  


  (1) "Curly" Torpedoes.  (See C.B. 04051 (64), page 9)  
          (aSetting gear.  Describing the "Curly" torpedo-setting gear an L.T.O. prisoner stated that the principal mechanism consisted of four plate cams, each having a single lobe.  Then the four cams were correctly fitted together the lobes were uniformly spaced with 90° interval.  At the distance at which the "Curly" gear was set to operate the plates started slowly to revolve, being driven off the propeller shaft, and the torpedo rudders were actuated through lever mechanisms by the cams.  The speed at which the plates revolved determined whether the "legs" were long or short, or the turning circles wide or narrow.  
          The same prisoner said that the setting gear in the tube consisted of a circular round plate enclosing a small aperture.  Under this was a glass plate.  When the "Curly" was being set one might observe red or green sections revolving beneath the glass, each bearing the inscription "right long" or "right short," or "left long" or "left short."  Each section also bore a scale with graduations marked from 10 to 100, about which the prisoner was unable to give any explanation; but a typical order from a U-Boat captain would be, for example:  "70 left long!"  (N.I.D. Note.  A prisoner from "U 432" stated that this scale was in hectometers.  This suggests that the pre-set straight run can be between 1,000 and 10,000 metres.  
          (bSpeed.  It was said that "Curly" torpedoes were only fired with a speed setting of 30 knots if it was desired that the "Curly" apparatus should function.  The torpedo could, however, be fired at 40 knots on a straight course.  It was forbidden to fire the torpedo at 44 knots.  
          (cTactics.  The First Lieutenant stated that when a convoy was approaching from starboard, "Curly" torpedoes were first set to turn to port in order to prevent a fast convoy getting out of the danger zone before the torpedo had started to zigzag.  
          (dIdentification.  "Curly" torpedoes were said to be indicated externally by a yellow head with blue stripes.  The setting aperture was marked with a green ring.  
          (eFirst delivery.  "Curly" torpedoes were first supplied to the Brest base in September, 1942, and again in March, 1943.  
  (2) General Information on Torpedoes  
          The L.T.O. prisoner said that he had heard of only three kinds of torpedo:  G7v, G7e, and G7a.  He had never heard of an electric torpedo fired with a magnetic pistol.  All the torpedoes that he had seen had their warheads screwed on and not fastened by a bayonet joint.  
          He first stated that 17,000 metres was the maximum range setting but he considered 12,000 metres more usual.  He thought there was a very little difference in range between electric and air torpedoes.  (N.I.D. Note.  17,000 metres seems very doubtful for electric torpedoes.)  
          He stated that he had never known electric torpedoes being fitted with "Curly" gear and added that this would mean rebuilding the whole torpedo.  Other prisoners alleged that one experimental electric "Curly" torpedo was carried by "U 202" on her last patrol.  
          It was said that owing to air-raid damage to the torpedo workshop at Brest, U-Boat ratings had recently had to service their own torpedoes.  Air torpedoes were charged with air at a pressure of about 2,900 lbs, per sq. inch, and required 16.5 gallons of fresh water.  
  (3) A/A U-boats  
          There are two A/A/ U-Boats based on Brest.  They are intended to operate as escorts to groups of four U-Boats through the Bay of Biscay.  One prisoner said that he had seen a converted 500-ton U-Boat with armament as follows:  
                  Two quadruple 20-mm (0.79-in.) guns, one group before and one abaft the conning tower.  
                  Two twin 30-mm (1.18-in.) guns  
                  Four machine guns on the conning tower.  
          Another prisoner gave the following alternative armament:  
                  Two quadruple 20-mm (0.79-in.) mounted on small platforms, one on each side at the after end of the conning tower.  
                  A single 20-mm (0-79-in.) gun on a prolonged bandstand.  
                  An 88-mm (3.46-in.) gun on a special platform reached by a gangway in the forward end of the conning tower.  
          It was stated that the whole superstructure of the U-Boat carrying this latter armament was enlarged.  It was said that this special superstructure arrived complete at the base, was hoisted over the U-Boat by a crane and was then bolted down.  
          It was said that such U-Boats carried an additional A/A crew of 12 men.  
          Four torpedoes were loaded in the forward tubes but none in the stern tube.  
          No torpedoes were carried in the bilges or on the floor plates.  
          The A/A U-Boats were not equipped with radar.  
          "U 202" was said to have picked up a signal from an A/A U-Boat on 29th April, 1943, stating that she had been patrolling for three weeks in the Bay of Biscay without sighting aircraft.  Another prisoner stated that no U-Boat of this type had been completed at Brest when "U 202" proceeded on her last patrol.  (N.I.D. Note.  See also C.B. 04051 (69), Part II ("U 439"), and C.B. 04051 (71) ("U 528").)  


  (4) Avoidance of Aircraft Attack  
          All 500-ton U-Boats in Brest are being fitted with a lengthened conning tower and a quadruple 20-mm (0.79-in.) gun before and abaft it.  
          One prisoner claimed that U-Boats had shot down 20 aircraft in the last five months.  
          Only one rating from "U 202" had attended a special A/A course (see C.B. 04051 (68), Section V, and C.B. 04051 (71), Section V).  
          All deck personnel would have done this course at the end of the ninth patrol.  
          One prisoner had heard rumours that trials were being carried out with some new type of defense against aircraft, and that U-Boats might be withdrawn from patrol until this gear was perfected.  He believed these measures to be due to the recent heavy losses.  
  (5) Tactics in the Bay of Biscay  
          On her seventh and eighth patrols, "U 202" proceeded through the Bay of Biscay submerged by day and surfaced by night.  On her ninth and last patrol, however, she only dived on aircraft being reported.  Speeds were 14 knots surfaced and 3 knots submerged.  Average cruising depth in the Bay of Biscay was 130 ft.  
          The escort on sailing, consisting of one Sperrbrecher ahead and four patrol boats, accompanied the U-Boat for four hours.  For a further four hours, according to one prisoner, owing to the danger of mines, the whole ship's company, except those who must remain below, are mustered on deck wearing life-belts.  
          It was said that in future two to three U-Boats will proceed through the Bay of Biscay in company, submerging by night and proceeding surfaced by daylight.  (N.I.D. Note.  Though this may be the intention of the naval staff, U-Boats do not, in fact, appear to adhere rigidly to these orders for the passage of the Bay of Biscay.)  
  (6) Torpedo Transfer at Sea  
          The supply U-Boat and the boat to embark the torpedoes both rig two derricks.  In the supply U-Boat the torpedo is hoisted by the derricks and lowered on to a float.  It consists of three pairs of balloons, or rubber floats.  The weight of the torpedo on the slings causes each pair to meet and lock.  This ensures that while the torpedo is being towed across to the other U-Boat it cannot be detached by heavy seas, or slip should it be tilted.  The other U-Boat hoists the torpedo inboard with her own derricks and places it on the trolley.  The balloons are only carried in supply U-Boats.  
          One prisoner said that he had heard of bundles of 10 life-jackets lashed together being used as floats to provide the necessary buoyancy.  Each life-jacket could support 200 lbs.  He had never taken part in such an operation and the procedure was thought to be a makeshift one for emergencies only.  
          In very calm weather, the U-Boats were said to go alongside one another and pass the torpedoes over by means of derricks and the trolley normally used for transferring upper deck torpedoes inboard.  This procedure took about half an hour and it was usual to exercise with dummies in harbour during working up.  
  (7) Oil Transfer at Sea  
          A prisoner from "U 659" still under interrogation, stated that oil transfer is carried out with an 184-metre (about 600 ft.) hose, kept afloat by buoys.  The U-boat being refuelled proceeds astern of the supply U-Boat.  
          In very bad weather the hose is lead through the conning tower hatch.  (See also C.B. 04051 (60), page 12.)  
  (8) Booby Traps and Scuttling Charges  
          Scuttling charges are sometimes placed as follows:  
                  Starboard electric motor cooling water inlet.  
                  Control room, by the main bilge pump.  
                  Forward, near torpedo tubes.  
  They are not carried in position.  
          In addition, at the time of scuttling, a booby trap is placed inside one of the bow torpedo tubes.  This is so arranged that if the tube is opened to withdraw the torpedo, the charge would explode and with it the torpedo warhead.  (See C.A.F.O. 1477/43.)  
  (9) Escape Apparatus  
          One prisoner claimed that a friend of his had escaped in Davis type apparatus from a depth of 250 ft.  
  (10) CO2 Testing  
          It was stated that the ampoules carried on board for testing the amount of CO2 in the air contained a solution of sodium hydroxide and phenol-phthalein.  
  (C49596)                                                                                                                              B*4  


  (11) Experimental U-Boats  
          One prisoner had seen a small U-Boat in Danzig during summer, 1942.  He said it was rumoured that she was propelled by a new type of fuel.  She had not yet been taken over by the Navy, and was manned by personnel from the yards.  (Note.  Many prisoners have previously described a new type of small U-Boat seen in the Hel, Danzig and Gdynia areas.  (See C.B. 04051 (68), Section V (xvi), and C.B. 04051 (56), Section VII.)  
  (12) Batteries  
          During her major refit "U 202" was given a new battery.  This had a new device to prevent acid from leaking into the bilges in the event of a cell cracking.  Inside the cell was a soft rubber sack, surrounding the plates.  
          On the eighth patrol it was noticed that the level of the acid in one cell had sunk and, on examination, that the rubber sack had broken.  
  (13) Wireless Officers  
          The German Navy is increasing the category of W/T officers, in particular for service in U-Boats.  "U 202" carried a W/T Cadet, who would later have become Sub-Lieutenant (W/T).  
  (14) New Defence Weapon  
          One prisoner suggested that small magnetic mines could be carried on the decks of U-Boats and released when an escort vessel was believed to be overhead.  He believed that trials were being carried out along these lines, but nothing had yet been developed for operational use.  (N.I.D. Note. There is no confirmation of this report; if true, contact mines seem more probable.)  
  (15) Logging and Reporting Attacks  
          On one occasion, when 60 depth charges were dropped on "U 202," the Captain insisted that only 20 should be logged, and remarked:  "That is enough for C.-in-C. (U-Boats)."  Thus, said "U 202's" coxswain, is C.-in-C. U-Boats kept in the dark.  The inference was that U-Boat Captains had been, or might be, accused of exaggerating to excuse lack of success.  
          The First Lieutenant said that Dönitz was becoming increasingly concerned over what he believed were exaggerated sinking claims.  
  (16) Gyro Compass Converter  
          A new type of rotary converter is now fitted for the gyro compass supply, running at 350 revolutions instead of the former 2,000 r.p.m.  
          It is fitted on the starboard side above the main motor, having previously been on the port side above the switchboard, and was stated to be now much less liable to damage by depth charges.  
  (17) Merchant Shipping  
          A junior naval staff officer, captured in Tunisia, said he had heard that neutral shipping in Axis ports was commandeered and used in preference to Axis shipping.  
          Coal was used much more than oil fuel and he believed that oil ships were being converted to coal burners.  This was on account of the very marked shortage of oil.  
  (18) Passage of "Rosengarten"  
          When submerged "U 202" proceeded at about 40 meters (130 ft.) through the "Rosengarten"; this was in June, 1941.  
  (19) Mutiny in one U-Boat  
          A wireless rating had heard of mutiny on board another U-Boat.  He did not know details.  
  (20) Refuelling Areas  
          It was believed that a favorite area for refuelling by supply U-Boats is that between 31° to 35° N., and from 021° to 026° W.  (N.I.D. Note.  Refuelling area depend on operational areas, which are constantly varying.)  
  (1) "KÖLN"  
          A Chief Stoker from "U 202" had served in the cruiser "Köln from 1934 until 1941.  He stated that the two turbines developed something in the region of 65,000 h.p.  He said that the diesels on board were never used.  (N.I.D. Note.  Designed h.p. of "Köln" is 65,000.)  
  (2) Destroyer "Paul Jacobi"  
          Kapitän zur See Peters was said formerly to have been in command of "Paul Jacobi."  He was, according to one prisoner, due to be appointed "F.d.U. Nord" (Captain (U-Boats) North) in August, 1942.  This officer was believed to have been largely responsible for German torpedo developments, and had at one time been in command of the Torpedo School at Flensburg.  


  (3) "Sperrbrecher" 15  
          One prisoner had served in "Sperrbrecher" 15, of some 8,000 tons.  In June, 1941, and for the year he was on board, this ship was attached to the 1st Flotilla at Hamburg.  
          Her Captain was Kapitänleutnant Beykirch and there were two other executive officers.  A Warrant Officer was in charge of the engine room.  The complement was about 200.  All the officers and most of the crew were elderly and unfit for operational appointments.  
          "Sperrbrecher" 15 was said to have a cruising speed of 10 knots.  Her armament consisted of two 105-mm. (4.14-in.), two 37-mm (1.45-in.), two 20-mm. (0.79-in.), and three or four machine guns.  
          She was equipped with a flame-thrower, which the prisoner had seen tested.  He said it was operated by levers at the foot of the mast, and a jet of flame about 160 ft. long was emitted almost vertically; the flame burnt for about 10 seconds.  There were two containers, resembling oxygen bottles, at the foot of the mast.  (N.I.D. Note.  See C.B. 04051 (58, Section IX, for details of flamethrower fitted to "Sperrbrecher" 178.)  
  (4) Axis Mediterranean Losses  
          A junior officer captured in Tunisia stated that the following ships had been sunk:  K.T. ("Kriegs Transport") 5, 7, 9, and 13.  These were said to be standard freighters of about 5,000 tons each.  
          He added that on about the last day of the North African campaign, five Siebel ferries left for Sicily, only two of which reached their destination.  
  (5) Shortage of Manpower  
          (See C.B. 04051 (70), Interrogations of "U 752" survivors, Section VI.)  
          Prisoners corroborated previous statements regarding the transfer of personnel from Germany's large surface units, including "Prinz Eugen" and "Gneisenau."  Of those withdrawn, all who are fit have joined the U-Boat arm.  
          In addition, it was stated that about 50 per cent of the naval clerical personnel has been replaced by women, the men so replaced being destined for the Russian front.  
          U-Boats leaving Brest sometimes call in at Lorient to top up with fuel.  On three occasions "U 202" was obliged to remain for some time in Lorient, as Brest had been blocked by mines.  
          Occasionally 740-ton U-Boats put into Brest as "guest boats."  
          The shelters at Brest can accommodate 20 or more U-Boats and it is planned to build a new one for the 9th Flotilla.  The original shelters are having further reinforcement to the roof, and the foundations have been underpinned, as they had settled as much as 3-4 inches in some cases, and fissures had appeared in the concrete.  
          The torpedo store at Brest is said to be in a cave and torpedoes are brought to the shelters in barges.  
          The workshops lie some 200 yards from the shelters.  
  (i) Details of "M"-Class Sweepers  
          A prisoner who had served in "N.18" and "M.19," variously attached to the 2nd, 3rd and 8th Minesweeping Flotillas, gave the following details of "M" Class sweepers:  
Armament   Two 105-mm. (4.14-in.) (one forward and one aft), one twin 37-mm. (1.45-in.), and four or five 20-mm. (0.79-in.), sometimes quadruple mountings.  In January, 1941, "M.19" was fitted with a new 105-mm., Type 36, with automatic firing.
Maximum speed   18-20 knots.
Cruising speed   16 knots.
Displacement   500-600 tons.
Sweep   "Otter."
A/S gear   K.D.B. and "S" gear.  The latter always operated by an officer.
Depth charges   Maximum setting 200 meters (approximately 658 ft.).
  (ii) 3rd M/S/ Flotilla  
          In August, 1940, the prisoner was drafted to the 3rd Minesweeping Flotilla, at Cuxhaven.  He joined "M.18" (Kapitänleutnant Koehler).  The flotilla (S.O. Korvettenkapitän Knuth (1922 term)), consisted of "M.15," "M.16," "M.17," "M.18," M.19," "M.22," "M.29" and "M.30."  In September, 1940, the flotilla proceeded to Antwerp for a week, and thence to Norway.  Here it operated from Horten, Oslo, Kristiansand S, Stavanger and other ports as far north as Tromsö.  The prisoner than joined "M.19" (Kapitänleutnant "Jonnie" Zimmermann).  
  (C49596)                                                                                                                              B**  


          During this period "M.19" acted as A/S escort for various transports and for "Admiral Scheer" when she left for her Atlantic raiding patrol.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Admiral Scheer" left Gdynia on 23rd October, 1940, and proceeded to Stavanger, thence north of Iceland, etc.  See C.B. 4051 (22), Section IV.)  
          In January, 1941, all minesweepers of the flotilla underwent repairs in German ports, which were followed by gunnery and other exercises.  The prisoner believed the 3rd Flotilla subsequently operated in the Baltic and had heard, in September, 1942, that it was in the Gulf of Finland.  Knuth was said to have been still in command in July, 1942.  
  (iii) 8th M/S/ Flotilla  
          In mid-May, 1941, the 8th Flotilla proceeded to France, calling at nearly all ports as far south as Royan.  This flotilla was said to be under the command of Korvetenkaptän Gerhard von Kamptz.  (N.I.D. Note.  On 14th April, 1942, the Germans announced the award of the Oak Leaves to the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross to Fregattenkaptän Gerhard von Kamptz.  His minesweeping flotilla was said to have escorted, without loss, ships totalling 398,252 tons.  It claimed the shooting down of five aircraft and the sinking of one M.T.B.  It was added that von Kamptz had been on uninterrupted operational service since he was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross on 6th October, 1940, when in command of a R-Boat flotilla.)  The flotilla acted mostly as convoy escorts, sweeping mines at the same time.  On 12th August, 1941, the flotilla was at Royan; on 22nd September it was at La Rochelle.  Other boats attached to the flotilla were "M.25" and M.32."  
  (iv) 2nd M/S Flotilla  
          The prisoner stated that while attached to the 2nd Flotilla, "M.19" acted as escort to "Scharnhorst," "Gneisenau" and "Prinz Eugen" during the Channel dash of 12th February, 1942.  "M.19" proceeded ahead of the warships and claimed, during this action, to have shot down two aircraft.  The prisoner was wounded during one aircraft attack and was sent to hospital.  
          Other boats attached to the 2nd Flotilla at that time were said to be "M.13" and "M.25."  
          In April, 1942, the prisoner rejoined "M.19" at Rotterdam and proceeded to Cuxhaven in May, 1942, whence he was redrafted.  
  (v) 42nd M/S Flotilla  
          Another prisoner stated that the 42nd Minesweeping Flotilla is based on St. Nazaire.  
  (vi) Mine-Clearance Vessel  
          An Able Seaman from "U 202" had served in a 6,000-ton depôt ship for the minesweeping pinnaces.  She was a converted passenger ship, and was under the command of Kapitän Fiebelkorn, probably ex-Merchant Navy.  The ship was said to carry 16 pinnaces, fitted with simple cable sweeps for moored mines only.  (See C.B. 4051 (48), page 9.)  
          They operated in the Baltic, sweeping the convoy channels.  
          Each pinnace was armed with one M.G.34.  They were manned by a crew of six under a P.O.  Maximum speed was 10 knots.  Each group was under the command of a Sub-Lieutenant. Engine room staff was carried on the depôt ship under a Chief Stoker.  
          The armament of the depôt ship was given as eight 20-mm. (0.79-in.), two 105-mm. (4.14-in.), and four twin 37-mm. (1.45-in.), as well as 16 M.G. C.34 when the pinnaces were hoisted inboard.  Her maximum speed was 20 knots.  
  (1) German Control of Italian Submarines  
          A junior staff officer, captured in Tunisia, stated that on 9th January, 1943, the following order was issued by Grossadmiral Doenitz:  
                  "One German Naval officer and one interpreter to board all Italian submarines as supernumeraries; henceforward all Italian submarines will be under German command.  (Signed) DOENITZ  
          Before being appointed to North Africa this prisoner was to have acted as interpreter on board an Italian submarine, but this appointment was cancelled.  A friend of his, whom he later met in North Africa, had acted in this capacity.  (N.I.D. Note.  There is no confirmation of the above.)  
  (2) Defences at Brest  
          At Brest there are concrete pill-boxes at all cross-roads, each containing three quadruple 20-mm mountings, with 25,000 rounds for each of the 12 barrels.  An officer prisoner thought there would not be enough ammunition in France to go around.  
  (3) The "U-Boat" Express  
          The express train to the French west coast, used chiefly by U-Boat personnel going on or returning from leave, has been shot up so often by the R.A.F., that it now only goes as far as St. Brieuc.  A slower train takes passengers on the the west coast.  


          "U 202" was built by the Germania Yards, Kiel.  She was commissioned on 27th February, 1941.  Kapitänleutnant Hans Heinz Linder being her first captain.  Working up commenced in March and was completed by June, 1941.  
  (1) First Patrol : Off South Greenland  
          "U 202" left Kiel in June, 1941, accompanied by a U-Boat commanded by Reinhard Suhren.  She topped up with fuel at a Norwegian port, but did not stay overnight there.  She proceeded into the North Atlantic to an operational area off the south of Greenland.  It is believed that that she sank 10,000 tons of shipping.  She returned to the 1st Flotilla lase at Brest in July, 1941.  
  (2) Second Patrol : To Mid-Atlantic  
          "U 202" left Brest in August, 1941, to operate in mid-Atlantic.  She sank nothing and returned to Brest after five weeks, in September.  
  (3) Third Patrol : To Mid-Atlantic  
          "U 202" left Brest on October, 1941, for a mid-Atlantic patrol.  It was claimed that she sank two or three ships totalling 10,000 tons.  She returned to Brest in November  
  (4) Fourth Patrol : Unsuccessful Attempt to enter Mediterranean  
          "U 202" left Brest towards the middle of December, 1941, and made an abortive attempt to break through the Straits of Gibraltar.  At 0100 on 17th or 18th December, when about to enter the Straits, she was attacked by an aircraft which dropped four bombs.  These caused little structural damage but the engines were made unserviceable.  For 36 hours "U 202" lay on the bottom in 50 fathoms of water before heading back for Brest.  She arrived back at her base on the last week of December.  (N.I.D. Note.  This report may refer to an aircraft attack (U/812 Squadron) at 2141 on 19th December, 1941, two and a half miles off Cape Spartel.  
  (5) Fifth Patrol : Off Newfoundland  
          Delayed by repairs, "U 202" did not leave Brest again until March, 1942.  She proceeded to an operational area off Newfoundland.  During this patrol she was unsuccessfully depth charged by a destroyer and was later refuelled by a 740-ton U-Boat.  She returned to Brest in May, 1942.  
  (6) Sixth Patrol : "U 202" lands Saboteurs in U.S.A.  
          Before starting on his sixth patrol Kapitänleutnant Linder was summoned to Lorient where he was informed by C.-in-C. U-Boats that "U 202" was required for a special mission involving the landing of a party of four saboteurs on Long Island, N.J.  
          On about 24th May "U 202" heft Brest for Lorient where the sabotage party was embarked.  They came aboard in uniforms of German infantrymen but these they later discarded for civilian clothes.  They had shovels, a considerable amount of explosives and dollars to the value of RM. 60,000.  One of the saboteurs intimated that he had already acted as an agent in the U.S.A. in the first World War.  "U 202" is thought to have left Lorient in the early evening of either 26th or 28th May.  She was escorted by a Sperrbrecher and by patrol vessels.  Prisoners said that they were later told two other U-Boats had left Lorient at approximately the same time, each carrying saboteurs destined for the U.S.A.  
          "U 202" proceeded surfaced for the first night, but submerged at dawn, to surface once more on the following evening. She submerged again for the second day out, after which she continued surfaced except for daily diving exercise.  The passage was made at between 8 and 10 knots, and was uneventful except for the sighting of a Portuguese vessel which was avoided.  
          According to prisoners "U 202" arrived off Amagansett, Long Island, on the night of 12th/13th June and the sabotage party was put ashore at 0030.  A rubber boat manned by three ratings was used.  One prisoner claimed that he himself went ashore for ten minutes.  
  "U 202" Runs Aground  
          In trying to manoeuvre away from the shore "U 202" ran aground and stuck fast on an ebb tide.  Efforts to move her away by going astern on diesels and electric motors, combined, failed.  After nearly all fuel had been pumped overboard without result, Linder became resigned to capture and prepared a signal to the effect that, having completed his mission, he was compelled to surrender his men to imprisonment.  He also made preparations to blow up the U-Boat.  Throughout this time the noises of dogs barking, cocks crowing and automobiles blowing horns could be heard on shore.  To the great good fortune of the Germans a heavy mist lay over the sea as the day dawned.  As the tide turned the U-Boat shifted sightly, and later, with diesels running full speed astern "U 202" floated off.  She at once put out to sea.  
  "U 202" Sinks a Freighter and is Refuelled  
          Prisoners said that on the return passage they sank a 6,000-ton freighter.  (N.I.D. Note.  The Argentinian S.S. "Rio Tercero," 3,342 tons, was sunk on 22nd June in position 39° 15' N., 072° 30' W. by a U-Boat bearing the name "Innsbruck" painted in white letters on the conning tower.  This sinking was probably caused by "U 202" as it occurred only 120 miles south of the point where the saboteurs were set ashore on Long Island.)  
          "U 202" was later refuelled by a 1,600-ton supply U-Boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant Stieber.  
          "U 202" returned to Brest in July, 1942.  After this patrol, Kapitänleutnant Linder relinquished command.  He was relieved by Kapitänleutnant (then Oberleutnant zur See) Günter Poser.  


  (7) Seventh Patrol : South to the Azores - Two Ships Sunk  
          "U 202" left Brest in August, 1942, and proceeded south.  She carried a G.S.R. set for the first time.  Prisoners said that on this patrol "U 202" first hunted in pack formation, but it could not be ascertained to which sweeps or groups she had belonged.  It was claimed that she sank at least two merchant ships totalling about 10,000 tons.  One of these ships was said to be of 4,000 tons.  
          It is believed that she also waited unsuccessfully for a blockade runner near the Azores.  It had been planned that three U-Boats, including "U 202" should escort this vessel into Bordeaux.  Contact was never established, however, and rating prisoners believed that this was because the blockade runner had been intercepted and sunk.  
          "U 202" returned to Brest probably at the end of October, 1942.  She went into dock for a major refit which included extensive repairs to her diesels.  This overhaul was completed by the end of December and trimming tests and torpedo firing exercises were carried out between the 3rd and 5th of January, 1943.  On 6th January "U 202" was fuelled and torpedoes and ammunition were embarked.  The U-Boat was provisioned on 7th January and final trimming tests were carried out on 8th January.  
  (7) Eighth Patrol (supplemented by Extracts from a Captured Diary belonging to the First Lieutenant) : South of the Azores  
          (aDeparture from Brest.  "U 202" left Brest at 1500 on 12th January, 1943 for a patrol south of the Azores.  She proceeded on the surface throughout the night.  The weather was bad and the force of the sea estimated as varying between 5 and 7.  She dived in the early morning of 13th January but surfaced again at 1920.  The procedure of surfacing by night and submerging by day was continued for four days.  Throughout this time seas had remained rough, waves frequently breaking over the bridge.  
          The First Lieutenant's diary shows that on 17th January, "U 202" was proceeding on a south-westerly course, while on 18th January she was approaching the latitude of 40° N.  The seas were still described as force 7.  
          The entry for 19th January runs:  "A few hundred miles from the Azores; after a rough night a somewhat calmer day."  
          At noon on 23rd January a signal was intercepted, estimated to emanate from a position about 45 miles to the south-east.  The diary added:  "At night possible to distinguish the south coast of Terceira (Azores)."  
          The following two entries suggest that "U 202" later reached her operational area:  
          "January 24/30; found new square."  
          "January 26/28; 30° W., 31° N."  
          According to the diary a new Swedish merchantman was sighted at 0134 on 2nd February.  
          The entry for 3rd/4th February reads:  "In square assigned to us"; while on 6th February appears:  "Escort vessel avoided."  
          (b"U 202" Attacks a Convoy.  First news of an approaching convoy appears to have reached "U 202" on 7th February when the diary shows that the U-Boat was proceeding at full speed on a prescribed course.  A further note for this day runs:  "Three freighters, three escort vessels."  
          On February 8th/9th "U 202" caught up with the convoy S.E. of Maderia but was bombed by aircraft and depth-charged, possibly by destroyers.  It is not thought that Poser succeeded in sinking any ships, although he may have fired torpedoes.  The diary states, however, that two merchantmen and one escort vessel were sunk (presumably by other U-Boats).  Prisoners said that when they passed Maderia they were so close to the harbor mouth that they could see ships within.  (N.I.D. Note.  The convoy was probably a small Gibraltar convoy of three merchant ships escorted by H.M.S. "Petunia" and three trawlers, one of which, H.M.S. "Bredon," was torpedoes and sunk at 0732 on 8th March, 1943, in 29° 49'N., 014° 05' W.)  
          A Catalina aircraft was sighted on 9th February, 15 nm away at a height of about 2,500 ft.  
          (c"U 202" meets other U-Boats and is Refuelled.  "U 202's" position on 11th/13th February was given as north-west of the Canaries.  On 11th February she met a U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Schwantke, and later in the day took 25 tons of fuel and provisions from a supply U-Boat commanded by Korvettenkapitän d.R. Wilamowitz-Moellendorf.  A further U-Boat, heading north, was sighted that night.  Leutnant zur See Schulze fell sick the following morning.  
          (dLeutnant zur See Schulze is transferred.  "U 202" joins a Patrol Sweep.  The diary states that on the morning of 14th February "U 202" rendezvous'd with three other U-Boats, including a supply U-Boat, and transferred Leutnant zur See Schulze to the supply U-Boat commanded by Wilamowitz-Moellendorf.  Apparently the four U-Boats now formed part of a patrol sweep.  Zone of patrol was given by the diary as 34° N., 031° W.  
          "U 202" reached position 34° N., 030° W., on 14th February.  The words "Patrol Sweep" appear opposite the diary under the date of 17th February.  
         On 20th February orders were received for "U 202" to put back on a course 120°, and she maintained this course throughout 21st February.  
          (e"U 202" Attacks a Second Convoy.  On 22nd February a convoy was sighted, four freighters, including two of 6,000 tons and one escort vessel being identified.  Between 2217 on 23rd February and 0030 on 24th February, "U 202" attempted a surface attack on the rear of the convoy but failed to achieve anything.  (N.I.D. Note.  Convoy No. U.C.1 which consisted of tankers, was attacked at 31° N., 027° W., on the night of 23rd February.)  
          Position 27° N., 036° W., was given for 24th-26th February.  
          On 26th February, "U 202" was still up with the convoy in spite of the fact that a defect had developed in her port diesel engine.  
          On the night of 26th February, "U 202" again attempted to attack, but she was apparently detected by a destroyer which fired star shell.  After attempting to escape on the surface at utmost speed she dived and was depth-charges, but no material damage was sustained.  (N.I.D. Note.  U.S.S. "Landsdale," escorting U.C.1, made one depth-charge attack at 2156 on 25th February and another at 0017 on 26th February, both in position 29° 12' N., 036° 17' W.  The first attack was with the convoy, the second twenty five miles astern of it.)  
          (f"U 202" is again refuelled.  Pursuit of this convoy had again caused "U 202" to expend most of her fuel and on 28th February she again met the U-Boat commanded by Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, taking over 75 tons of fuel as well as two torpedoes, the latter by the method described in Section V, and also a Metox R. 600 A.G.S.R. set. Survivors understood that "U 202" was the fifth U-Boat to be supplied by Wilamowitz-Moellendorf on this patrol.  
          (g"U 202" proceeds to the Canary Islands.  "U 202 now proceeded east to the Canary Islands off which she remained from 8th to 12th March.  A diary for 11th March runs:  "Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Palma, Gomera, Ferro (Hierro)."  


          (h"U 202" attacks a Third Convoy and Sinks two Ships.  On 12th March "U 202" turned north at full speed, altered to 350 on 14th March and to 270 on 15th March,  "Towards an convoy."  This convoy was contacted on 16th March.  "U 202" shadowed through the day and closing at about 2000, fired a salvo of four torpedoes, two of which struck ships of a combined tonnage estimated at 14,000 tons.  These were observed to sink.  "U 202" was pursued by destroyers and prisoners said they were fired at before they submerged.  They then sustained a heavy depth-charge attack, which caused them to remain submerged for three hours.  During this pursuit they were almost rammed by a U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See der Reserve Johannsen (Captain of "U 569." sunk by aircraft from U.S.S. "Bogue" on 22nd May, 1943), who was also taking part in the attack with a U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Krech and nine other unidentified U-Boats.  Prisoners said that these 12 U-Boats were known as "Group Rochen."  
          "U 202" returned to the attack on 17th March, when she fired a further two torpedoes which it was claimed, both damaged ships.  
          A third attack which was completely abortive, was made on 18th March, and the chase was abandoned owing to the strength of the escort.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This convoy was probably U.G.S.6, from which the following ships were torpedoed:  
          "Wyoming," 8,062 gross tons, at 2000 on 15th March, in position 40° 18' N., 028° 56'W.  
          "Benjamin Harrison," 7,191 gross tons, at 1952 on 16th March, in position 39° 09; N., 024° 15' W.
          "Molly Pitcher,"  7,181 gross tons, on 17th March in position 38° 21' N., 019° 54 W.)  
          (j)  "U 202" Refuels again ans Returns Home.  On 19th March, as fuel was again running low, contact was made with a 740-ton U-Boat which was returning to base owing to heavy damage.  From this U-Boat "U 202" received about 14 tons fuel.  
          "U 202" set course for base on 21st March and reached Brest on 27th March.  
          Shortly after she had rendezvous'd with a "Sperrbrecher" which was to escort her into the base, a mine exploded between the "Sperrbrecher" and "U 202."  A little later, just off Brest, a second mine exploded.  


          The complement of "U 202" totalled 46, of whom four officers, one Engineer Cadet (Kadett (Ing.) ), three Chief Petty Officers, five Petty Officers and 17 other ratings, survived.  
  (i) Captain  
          The Captain, Kapitänleutnant Günter Poser, who was taken prisoner, was 27 years of age.  He joined the Navy in 1936 and served later with the German Air Force.  It is not known in which other U-Boats Poser had previously served.  He relieved Kapitänleutnant Linder as Captain of "U 202" in July or August, 1942.  
          Poser appeared quick-witted and intelligent when interrogated but, according to other prisoners, he had no more than average ability as a U-Boat Captain.  He certainly seemed to have been imperturbable, if not lazy, for it was related that at sea he spent most of his time in his bunk.  
          It can be said of him, however, that he did not abandon his U-Boat lightly and that at the time of the sinking he held on almost to the limit of endurance of his ship and his men.  
          Prisoners alleged that Poser was about to shoot himself as the U-Boat was sinking but changed his mind when he saw the First Lieutenant and Engineer Officer were among the first to leave the U-Boat.  He wished to call these men to account after the war.  (See Appendix "D.")  This story was discounted by other prisoners.  (See Section IV. Sinking of "U 202.")  
  (ii) First Lieutenant  
          Oberleutnant zur See Paul Dreher, the First Lieutenant, 25 years of age, joined the Navy in 1937.  He said that before the war he had served in most types of warships from minesweepers to cruisers.  In October, 1939, he was transferred to the Air Force.  He claimed that throughout his service with the Luftwaffe he was always engaged in special operations, the nature of which he would not disclose.  He saw action on both the western and eastern fronts and in late 1941, or early 1942, he lost a finger during an attack on shipping off the north-east coast of England, in a Ju.88.  Shortly after this mishap he was transferred to the navy and was at once appointed to the U-Boat arm.  He joined "U 202" as First Lieutenant late in 1942 and had taken part in the last two patrols.  
          It did not appear that he had either the ability or nerve to make a good U-Boat officer, but survivors said that he was due to leave "U 202" as First Lieutenant to attend a commanding officer's course.  He was shortly to be married.  
  (iii) Second Lieutenant  
          The name of Leutnant zur See Günter Brackmann, aged 21, does not appear in the 1940 Navy List, but it is thought that he joined the Navy shortly before the outbreak of war.  He had served in minesweepers and, for the latter half of 1941, in another U-Boat.  He has then carried out a Watchkeeping Officers' course at Gdynia, which included instruction in signals, torpedo firing and gunnery.  In mid-1942 he was appointed to a torpedo boat on which he served until the end of January, 1943, when his ship went into a dock for a refit.  He joined "U 202" for her last patrol, relieving Leutnant zur See Schulze, who was taken ill and transferred to another U-Boat on "U 202's" eighth patrol.  
          Brackmann was alert and security-conscious.  He appeared to have been an efficient and popular officer and well-liked by Poser who wished, eventually, to make him his First Lieutenant.  
  (iv) Engineer Officer  
          Leutnant (Ing.) Günter Ehlies, the Engineer Officer, aged 21, was of the 1939 Naval term.  He was a thoroughly unpleasant man and extremely security-conscious.  There is no doubt that he lost his head at the time of the sinking and abandoned ship in a hurry, leaving the duty of scuttling the U-Boat to his stokers.  Because he feared the wrath of his Captain he took the first opportunity, on reaching England, to apply for transfer to hospital.  
          He had made two patrols as Engineer Officer in "U 202" and one as probationary Engineer Officer.  
          Kadett (Ing) Drescher was still in hospital at the time this report was compiled.  
  (v) Previous Officers Serving in "U 202"  
          The following officers are known to have served at some time in "U 202":  
Oberleutnant zur See Rendtel (1936 term) Believed to have been the original First Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Saar (1938 term) Believed to have commissioned "U 202" as Midshipman.  Later to have become Second Lieutenant, and then First Lieutenant.  He was them appointed to a Commanding Officer's course, where he was by far the youngest prospective U-Boat captain.  In spite of this he passed out at the top of the class and was the first to be given his own command.  It was thought that he was later drowned, although his U-boat was not lost.
Oberleutnant zur See Hille (1936 term) Succeeded Sarr as First Lieutenant.  He left "U 202" in December, 1942, to be succeeded by Oberleutnant zur See Dreher.
Leutnant zur See Schulze Took part in 7th and 8th patrols as Second Lieutenant, but fell ill on the 8th and was transferred in mid-ocean to a supply U-Boat commanded by Korvettenkapitän Wilamowitz-Möllendorf.  Chief Petty Officer Fruth became acting Second Lieutenant in his place.
  (vi) General  
          The Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers and other ratings in "U 202" possessed a very fair average U-Boat experience. One Chief Petty Officer had completed as many as 19 operational patrols.  In spite of frequent changes among the complement, necessitated by drafting to promotion courses, morale, discipline and general efficiency appeared to be high.  A number of prisoners remarked that a less experienced ship's company could never have stood up to the 14-hour ordeal which preceded their sinking.  
          The following "order of the day" was written by Kapitänleutnant Poser to his men, on boars H.M.S. "Wild Goose":  
          "To my men:  
                  We have lost this battle because the events of the night decided against us.  I thank you for your loyalty, particularly Brackmann, Unterdörfer, Schröter and Müller.  
                                                                                                     Your Captain."  
          (N.I.D. Note.  It is noted that he thanks neither his First Lieutenant, nor his Engineer Officer, both of whom he considered to have disgraced themselves.)  


Extracts from Diary of Oberleutnant z.S. Dreher, "U 202"
          (N.I.D. Note.  This diary is often illegible and there are many abbreviations.  As complete a translation as possible has been given.)  
Name   Dreher,
Profession   Oberleut z.S.
Residence   M.06153 (on Brest).
Street   M.388859
Born   12.IV.18
Height   1 m. 80.
(All other columns blank)
Diary purchased in Freiburg 1/Br.
1st Entry on 12.1.43 (N.I.D. Note.  The commencement of the 8th Patrol.)
12 Jan. 1445.  Secure for sea.  Farewell (? Test trim).  Cast off.  Heavy sea as soon as we are out (5/6 all day).
13 Jan. Proceed on the surface at night.  Sea rough 6/7.  Got completely wet through.  Submerge in the morning.  Surface at 1920.  Remain surfaced at night.  Rain.  Storm
14 Jan. Sea extremely rough.  Absolutely knocked about by it on the bridge.  No aircraft all day long.
15 Jan. At night on the surface.  Heavy sea 6/7. On watch from 0400 to 0930.  On surface all time.  Awful conditions.  Wet.  Beautiful starry sky, Orion visible.
16 Jan. Terrific swell.  Breakers ever so high over the bridge.  In taking out position on a S.W. course we can see Orion opposite us.  Conditions at night indescribable.  Perhaps like the end of the world?
18. Jan. Sleep during the day.  Sea at present 7.  Breaker upon breaker.  Nothing in sight.  Temperature if air 17.  (N.I.D. Note.  62 F.)  We are approaching the 40th parallel of latitude.
19 Jan. A few hundred miles from the Azores.  After a rough night a somewhat calmer day.  Stormy, wintery sky Sea 5.
20/2 Jan. Oh my darling B.  Oh heart of my heart.  One cannot leave thy arms?  Oh God in Heaven.  Love is far too potent.
23 Jan. 1200 Signal 45 sm. away to S.E.  Hail.  Calm sea (3).  At night possible to begin to distinguish S. coast of Terceira (Azores).
24/30 Jan. Found new square.  Very good calm weather.  Sharks, flying fish, dolphins.
26/28 Jan. 30° W. 31° N.
31 Jan. No entry.
1 Feb. One floating box fished up (no luck).  Slight S.W. wind (1/2).  Sea 0/1.
2 Feb. Swedish merchantman at night 0134, fully loaded; a new vessel.  Orion beautiful.  Time here 2130, in Freiburg 2000 (sic).
3/4 Feb. In square assigned to us.
5 Feb. Box with ersatz coffee fished up.
6 Feb. Escort vessel avoided.
7 Feb. Full speed on announced course.  3d. 3 Bew. (3 merchantmen, 3 escort vessels.)
8/9 Feb. S.E. Madeira.  Morning about 0300.  Submerged.  Schulz. . . A/C Submerge.  A bomb; second try.  Suddenly DR to eastwards, 5 D/C's? Ausdruckverteiler von Zudruckl(uft)? (1 D/C on another boat).  2 merchantmen and 1 escort vessel sunk.
9 Feb. Departure.  During my watch (afternoon) suddenly.  Consolidated flying boat (Catalina); 15 miles high, 800 metres away.  (N.I.D. Note.  Presumably "800 meters high, 15 miles away" is meant.)
11/13 Feb. N.W. Canaries.
11 Feb. U-Krech (?) fired a salvo in houour of Klt. Poser's promotion.  Attacked the neutral Swiss vessel "Lugted" (?) (N.I.D. Note. No elucidation of this incident has been obtained from prisoners.)
12/13 Feb. 750 boat.  0800 morning.  Kdt. Schwandtke.  Proceed to place of revictualling.  A German U-Boat sighted at night.  She was on a northerly course.  Wonderful weather.  Took over fuel and food in the course of the day.  Rope in the screw.  Lt Schultze sick.
14 Feb. Ambiguous passage:  1st Rendering: "E.O. really definitely promoted.  Terrific booze at night."  2nd rendering:  "E.O. has now been cleaning etc. for thirteen nights."  Lieut Schluze transferred in the morning.  Sea 2, 3 boats.  1 Supply U-Boat.  Wonderful (two illegible words).  Departure for zone of patrol, 24° N., 31° W.  Terrific feast.
15/16 Feb. Weather overcast.  Sea 3/4.  East wind 4/5.  Long swell.  Air during the daytime 19-1/2 (i.e. 67 F) and at night 17° (i.e. 62° F.)  Water temperature 18 (i.e. 64 F.).  High pressure 1034 , 34° N., 30° W.
17 Feb. Patrol sweep.
18 Feb. Very nice weather.
19 Feb. Dolphins.  Much Sargasso.  Marvelous nights.
20 Feb. Ordered home.  2200 evening everything back.  120°.  Krech Cook.
21 Feb. Course 120°.  Overcast, cold. Whales.
22 Feb. Convoy sighted.
23 Feb. 4 F. and 1 (?) 2 x 6000 T.  2217.  0030 2 Sm. 1 05 + 18° sighted.  Tail attack.
24 Feb. 0200.  4 firmly on (?) S.E. 2 or 3 Sm.  2 to 5 19.5° very good.  Without persecution by destroyers.  Remained on the surface.
24/6 Feb. 36° W., 27° N.
25/6 Feb. Port diesel engine bearing (?), nevertheless hunting of the (?) and destroyer established one day later.
26 Feb. Hard fight with destroyer.  Starshell 2 cm. 1000 m.  Asdic (astern 1/2 Stb.) 3 x AK (utmost speed), then submerged.  D/C(s).
27 Feb. No fuel.  Supply lines broken.  Loading outboard.
28 Feb. Supplied.  Torpedoes taken over at sea.  90 cbm.  Although not after 5 boats.
1 Mar. Swim.
2 Mar. Sharks.
3 Mar. Neun aufgehen (?).  Proceed eastwards.
4 Mar. Calm.
5 Mar. Calm.  Cloudy.
6 Mar. Wind (West wind) force 5.  Sea 4.  Course 90°.
8 Mar. Fuerteventura.
9 Mar. Dead calm sea.  Fitful sun.  Cal,.  Aircraft.


APPENDIX "E" (I) continued
10 Mar. 28° N., 14° W.
11 Mar. Fuerteventura.
  Gran Canaria.
  Ferro (Hierro).
12 Mar. Canary Islands.
13 Mar. Course north, awkward (?).
14 Mar. Course 350°.  Nasty sea.  03 Sm.
15 Mar. Nor' westerly course.  Towards a convoy near the Azores.
16/17 Mar. Gibraltar convoy discovered.  Day attack until 20.00.  Caught by destroyers.  Heavy D/C attack.  Repaired by 0900.  Back to the attack.
18 Mar. Did not manage to fire again.
19 Mar. Shortage of fuel.
21 Mar. Towards home.
24/26 Mar. Biscaya.
27 Mar. Enter harbor, very nice.
29 Mar. x
30 Mar. Deprovision ship.
31 Mar.  
2 Apr. Much work.
5/7 Apr. Base.
11 Apr. Departure for Freiburg.
12/17 Apr. Best leave of my life.
21 Apr. Return to Brest.
26/28 Apr. Enough work.
29 Apr. Leave harbor.
                         (No further entries.)
Diary of Matrosengefreiter Karl Hartig.
"U 202"
Name   Karl Hartig.
Residence   Delmenhorst i. Oldenburg.
Street   Amton-Günter Str. 8.
Weight   78 Kg. (12 st. 4 lbs.)
Height   1 m. 70. (5 ft. 5-1/2 in.).
(All other columns blank)
January 1st/11th, 1943.  No entries.
12 Jan. Leave harbor for eighth operational patrol.
13 Jan./25 Mar.  No entries.
26 Mar. Return from eighth operational patrol, enter Brest.
27 Mar./3 Apr.  No entries.
4 Apr. Went sailing.  Three bottles of cognac and a crate of beer.  Knocked back several bucketfuls when we returned to the base the same evening.  Drunk, ow, ow, ! ! \
5/11 Apr. No entries.
12 Apr. Air raid warning at 1600.  Three aircraft shot down, of which two into the sea, one on land.  Saw two shot down with my own eyes.
14 Apr. A more eventful day then yesterday.  Air raid warning at 0600.  Slight machine gun fire (?).  Left harbor at 1000.  Made the acquaintance of Miss Fanye (sic), a sweet lovable little person.  Greet her cordially.  A mad woman.
15 Apr. A duty seaman rating in the base until midday to-morrow.  Two air raid warnings.  Went to the cinema.  ("Always you and you alone").
16 Apr. Three air raid warnings; went ashore.  (There follows an indecent allusion to sexual excesses.)  Came off 2130, a slightly drunk pair.
17 Apr. Three air raid warnings.  Went to the cinema ("Imperceptible Chaine").  Our own canteen scene of a big debauch.
18 Apr. Appointment with Fayne.  She didn't turn up.  Terrific binge.  Air raid warning during the night.
19 Apr. Ashore on duty.  Super booze.  Lurched out of the canteen drunk as a lord.
20 Apr. The men return from leave.  Put back several pints ashore.  Proceeded to brothel for purely academic purposes.  Danced the Rumba with Josette.  Did not play the bagpipes.  (This is presumably a metaphorical phrase.)
21 Apr. Saw a Japanese film.  Went on a heavy drinking do with Friedel Fentsch (? Jentsch).  To-day had muster of consumable stores (?).
22 Apr. Went to the cinema.  The film was called "Fraulein."  (One illegible word) and canteen.  Chatted with Fanye.  Wrote a letter.  Passed a sleepless night.  Tested trim.
23 Apr. Good drinking bout in the canteen.
24 Apr. Ashore in canteen.  Drank so much as to experience a slight feeling of dehydration.
25 Apr. Forenoon on board.  Two hours all hands for exercises to the various stations in the watch bill.  Afternoon ashore.  Evening stiff drinking with Friedel Jentsch.  (Obscure phrase excised.)
26 Apr. 14 torpedoes taken on board to-day.  Went to the cinema.  Good music in our canteen.
27 Apr. Provisioned ship.  Celebration on board.  Beer and brandy.  Something harmless for me.
28 Apr. Final trimming trials.  Fresh provisions taken on board in the afternoon.  Went to cinema ("Secret Mission," with Gustav Froelich).  Lost my pay book.  To-day last day for sexual deeds.
29 Apr. Leave harbor for tenth operational patrol, good weather for it (i.e., foggy); was on watch as we actually put to sea.  Moderate sea (2/3).
30 Apr. Continued to proceed submerged.  Only eight hours on surface, after which interruption, submerge again.  Found pay-book.
1 May. To action stations three times on account of aircraft.  Heard several detonations under water.  We were chased by two British vessels, but they let us go.  Aircraft appeared also (during chase?).  Continued submerged.  Remained submerged all night.
2 May. 0830  Surfaced.
  1230  Aircraft alarm.
  1630  For exercise to damage control stations.
  2000  Surface and continued to proceed on surface.


APPENDIX "E" (II) continued
3 May. Forced twice by aircraft to submerge.
  1730 Dived.
  2000  Surfaced and continued to proceed on the surface.
4 May. 0630  Dived.
  1000  Surfaced.
  1030  Aircraft alarm.
  1500  Dived because detected.
  2030  Boat dives (for exercise diving stations).
5 May. 0740  Hand for exercise to action station, 100° alteration of course bringing our course to 353° (northwards).  A marvelous supper; ate a mere six eggs.
6 May. 0745  Submerge.  At damage control stations till 0930.
  1230 till 1600  on watch myself
  2000 till 2400   "       "        "
7 May. 0715  Submerge.  Practice the usual stuff.
  1010  Surface.  Bad weather.  Even though well wrapped up it is bloody cold and I'm wet through.  Perfectly sickening (zum Kotzen).
8 May. 0730  Submerge.
  1000  Surface.  Pea soup for dinner.
  1600 till 1830  On watch myself.  Supper:  tinned ham, cucumber and fried potatoes.  The weather has improved.  Wind 3, sea 2.  Intoxicating gramophone music is played in the bow compartment, during which talked sweet nothings.
9 May. 0730  Submerge.
  0830  Surface.
  0800 till 1230  On watch myself.  Rig of the day, oilskins.  Two convoys reported.  Aircraft alarm.
  2130  Worked on the G.S.R.
10 May. 0710  Submerged.
  0830  Surfaced.  Bad weather,  Practised "all hands below to crash dive."
11 May. 0400 to 0800  On watch.  Submerged because detected.
  15.00  Detected by surface craft.  Bad weather.
12 May. 000 to 0400  My watch.
  0700  Submerged.
  0900  Surfaced.  Bad weather, temperature falls 3° (i.e. 5°F.).
13 May. 0750  Submerged.
  0919  Surface.  Convoy reported.  Sea 3, wind 4.  Dinner.  Lentil soup.  Wrote composition of my own to-day.
14 May. 0730  Submerged.
  0830  Surfaced.  Keeping sharp lookout for convoy.  Dinner, beef and asparagus.
  1600 till 1830  My watch.
15 May 0000 till 0400  My watch.  Very dark, very cold.  Waves coming over the top.  No news of convoy.  Sea 7.
16 May. 0730  Submerged.
  0830  Surfaced.
  0800 till 1230  On watch.  Rig of the day, oilskins.  Convoy reported.
  2130  Aircraft alarm.  Worked on G.S.R.
17 May. 0400 till 1800  On watch myself.
  0745  Submerge.
  0830  Surface.  Worked on G.S.R.  Convoy sweep changed.  New course 160.
18 May. Met U-Hungershausen.  Exchange of greetings.
  2045  Submerge.
  2100  Surface.
  2000 to 2400  Had this watch myself.  Convoy reported.
19 May. Submerged ten times on account of aircraft.  We have been forced away from the convoy.  Good weather for firing.  Bootsmaat Spopper came up during several watches.
  1630  Heard innumerable detonations.  Chased about under water by aircraft.  Nothing seen of the convoy.
20 May. 0000 to 0400  During this watch two aircraft alarms.  A destroyer passed overhead of us.
  1600 to 1830  My watch.
  1600  Aircraft alarm.
  1808  Destroyer alarm.
21 May. 0000 to 0400  Had this watch myself.
  0010  Destroyer alarm.  Submerge.
  0100  Surface again before 0100.  Operation against convoy cancelled.
  0125  Aircraft alarm.  Submerge.
  0900  Surface.  Misty, visibility 100 meters.
22 May. 0100  Submerge.  Visibility worse, a bare 50 metres.
  0900  Surface.  Visibility good.  A new convoy reported.  Course shaped in consequence.
  1230 till 2000  On watch.  Rice pudding for supper.  Didn't eat any.  Belly so empty I couldn't sleep.  Filthy grub rice is.
23 May. 0400 till 0800  On watch myself.
  0600  Submerge.
  0830  Surface.  Two minutes later, alarm destroyer(s).  Between now and 1230 three aircraft alarms.
  1930  Surface.
  2240 till 0400  On watch again.  Good visibility.  Heard several detonations.
24 May. 0640  Submerged.
  0945  Surfaced,  Met "U-Ferro" twice; first at 0015 and then again at 1530.  Course altered to 320°.
  2000 to 2400  My watch.  Received a signal by W/T.  Use up fuel and then back to base.
25 May. 0730  Submerged.
  0830  Surfaced.  Rig of the day, leather jacket.  Blazing sunshine (as from) 1100.  Afternoon, Berlin pancakes.  Played skat for a bit.
26 May. 0130  Submerged.
  0750  Surfaced.  Rig of the day, oilskins.
  0400 till 0800  My watch.
  1600 till 1830  My watch.  G.S.R. secured.  Got 100 cigarettes from the canteen.
27 May.  0700  Submerged.
  0830  Surfaced.
  1230 till 1600  On watch.  Chicken and rice for dinner.  On watch again from 2000 till 24000 wearing leather jacket.  Damnably cold.  Fourth week at sea.
28 May. 0700  Submerged.
  0800  Surfaced.
  0800 till 1230  On watch.  Dinner - noodle soup, potato croquettes, veal, bean salad, pudding.  Smidt's birthday.
29 May. Submerged as usual.  Bad weather.  Rig of the day, oilskins.
  0400 to 1800  On watch.  Duty again as messman to the C.P.O.s.
30 May. Submerged as usual.  Bad weather.  Rig of the day,oilskins.  Sea 5.
  2000 till 2100  On watch.
31 May. 0700  Submerged.
  1100  Surfaced.
  0800 till 1230  On watch.
  2030  Submerged again in evening on account of bad visibility.  Fog.
  (No further entries)


Nominal Roll of "U 202"
          (i)  Survivors:  
English Equivalent.
Poser, Günter Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant 23. 9.16
Dreher, Paul Oberleutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant (Senior) 12. 4.18
Brackmann, Günter Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant (Junior) 31. 3.22
Ehlies, Günter Leutnant (Ing.) Sub-Lieutenant (E) (Junior)   5. 9.20
Pinzler, Kurt Kar Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.  7.10.14
Unterdörfer, Gerhard Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A. 16. 7.15
Fruth, Walter Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class 22. 2.18
Peters, Josef Johann Karl Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class 13. 9.20
Giersiepen, Karl Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class   1. 1.21
Eiling, Gerhard Fritz Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class   2.11.18
Schröder, Hermann Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class 20.  9.19
Lüssenheide, Hermann Karl, Wilhelm Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class 28. 2.19
Mindt, Heinz Gerhard Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 8.12.22
Sinzig, Alois Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman   7. 6.20
May, Herbert Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 15. 6.20
Szienicki, Adam Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 16. 3.22
Horsch, Herbert Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class   7. 9.21
Mettner, Werner Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class   3. 2.23
Lehnert, Rudolf Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class   6. 9.19
Buchleitner, Robert Mechanikerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class 10 .5.22
Drescher, Hans Friedrich Wilhelm Kadett Cadet   3. 4.23
Janetzky, Werner Kadett Cadet   5. 5.22
Hartig, Karl Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 27 .7.21
Markefka, Josef Paul Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class   4. 3.22
Wachter, Ernst Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 21.10.22
Müller, Otto Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 17.11.23
Gestreich, Alfred Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 24. 1.23
Portugall, Alfons Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 21. 5.22
Neumeister, Kurt Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 18. 1.23
Rätzke, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class   9.12.21
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
          (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Hoh, Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Schuhmacher, Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Klemm, Maschinenmaat Stoker P.O., 2nd Class.
Hartmann, Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class.
Stopper, Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class.
Veith, Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class.
Böhme, Obermaschinenmaat Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class.
Berger, Funkhauptgefreiter Leading Telegraphist.
Grebner, Funkhauptgefreiter Leading Telegraphist.
Kaiser, Matrosenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Poch, Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Neubach, Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Maier, Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class.
Zimmermann, Mechanikerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class.
Jaschiniski, Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Schneider, Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class.
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
          (iii)  Total Crew:  
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .


        The following information on "U 66" was obtained from two ratings ex "U 66" Erich Wagner, Bootsmaat and Helmut Daschkey, Matrosenobergefreiter.  These ratings were assigned to put a saboteur ashore on the west coast of Africa.  Their rubber dinghy overturned and their return to the U-Boat was cut off.  The gave themselves up to the French authorities at Port Etienne, and eventually arrived in the U.K. for interrogation.
  Builders and Type:  
      Deschimag, Bremen Type IXC.  740 tons.
      Guns One 105-mm. (4.1-in.) gun forward.
    One 37-mm. (1.46-in.) gun aft.
    Two 20-mm. (.79-in.) guns:
        (a)  One 20-mm gun on bandstand.
        (b)  One 20-mm. gun on second gun platform abaft and below bandstand.  This platform described as about the same size as bandstand with railing about 2-1/2 ft. lower than bandstand.  After part of bandstand railing cut away to furnish access.  No other changes to C/T.
        (c)  One reserve 20-mm. gun.  The three 20-mm. guns rotated in position.
      Ammunition stowage 20-mm. ammunition stowed below bandstand.
    37-mm. ammunition stowed below new gun platform.
      Torpedo Tubes Four bow, two stern.
      Torpedoes 21 or 23, depending on operational area.
    21 carried om 8th patrol.
    4 electric in forward tubes; two in after tubes.
    6 electric in forward torpedo compartment.
    3 electric in after torpedo compartment.
    6 air in containers (eight carried on deck for operations in Caribbean).
    No "curly" torpedoes carried.
  Diesels M.A.N.
  G.S.R. Fitted in October, 1942.  "U 66" stated to have been one of the very first boats to get G.S.R., which was of the early type.  Diamond shaped wooden aerial on starboard side of conning tower, unshipped for diving, turned by hand, two ordinary pencils held parallel in front of it to ascertain bearing.
  S.B.T. Fitted.  Never used.
  Flotilla 2nd Flotilla, Lorient.
  Bridge Watch One officer and four ratings.
  Coning tower badge Lion's head.
  Adoption ("Patenregiment") Flak battery in Lorient.
  Field Post Number M 21181.
  "Baubelekrung" At Deschimag, Bremen, November and December, 1940.
  Commissioning About 1st January, 1941.
  Departure from Bremen 3rd or 4th January, 1941.
  Trials and working up January-March, 1941.
    (N.I.D. Note.  C.O. of "U 66" reported in Danzig 24th February, 1941.)
  "Restarbeiten" Oberwerke, Stettin, late March to late April, 1941.
  Stettin to Kiel Late April, 1941
    (N.I.D. Note. "U 66" reported in Kiel on 28th April, 1941.)
  Repairs at Kiel As "U 66" was preparing to sail on her first patrol it was discovered that she was leaving oil traces; repairs had to be made and trial runs were made in Kiel harbour.
IV.  1st PATROL OF "U 66"
1.   Officers:  
    C.O. Korvettenkapitän Zapp.
    First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Achilles.
    Second Officer Oberleutnant zur See Makowski (1936 term).
    Engineer Officer Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gahl (1934 term).
    Fähnrich zur See Berbick (Now 1st Lieutenant of another boat.)
    Fähnrich zur See Halfbach,  
2.   Sailing from Kiel Late May, 1941.  No stop in Norway.


APPENDIX "G" continued
  Operational area North-west approaches.
  Duration About four weeks.
  Sinkings None.
  Defects in construction Shortly after "U 66" reached her operational area the bow torpedo tube caps broke and came off.  Water entry into the boat resulted.  Zapp was reluctant to break off patrol, but was finally convinced that he could not carry out an attack and put into Lorient.  At arrival there even the "arms" of the torpedo-tube caps were gone.
  Aircraft attack In vicinity of Rosengarten.  New untrained look-out failed to see aircraft.  Two depth-charges; no damage.
  Arrival Lorient Late June, 1941.  About three weeks at base.  Damage to tubes repaired.
V.  2nd PATROL OF "U 66"
  Operational area The same as for 1st patrol.
  Duration South Atlantic, off African coast.
  Sinkings About six weeks.  Sailed from Lorient 21st July, 1941.
  Sinkings Four ships equal to about 25,000 tons claimed.  All ships sailing independently; at least one tanker.  "St. Amsel" among them, from which 18 survivors were picked up by a Portuguese ship.  One ship sunk by gunfire after torpedo hit.
  Attacks One aircraft alarm off Dakar.
  Return to base Returned to Lorient end August, 1941.  About three weeks at base.  Repairs made to vents.  Only officers and very few of crew had leave.  Oberleutnant zur See Makowski relieved.
VI.  3rd PATROL OF "U 66"
      C.O. Korvettenkapitän Zapp.
      First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Achilles.
      Second Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Sammler (1937 term)..
      Engineer Lieutenant Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gahl.
  Departure Sailed from Lorient late September, 1941.
  Operational area Off coast of South America.
  Duration Not quite 11 weeks.
  Sinkings One tanker of about 10.000 tons, off coast of Brazil between Cera (Fortaleza) and San Salvador (Bahia) outside 300-mile limit.  Date about 10th October, 1941.  Tanker kept switching lights on and off while being stalked.
  Return to base Returned to Lorient end November or beginning December, 1941.  Oberleutnant zur See Achilles relieved.  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gahl relieved.
VII.  4th PATROL OF "U 66"
      C.O. Korvettenkapitän Zapp.
      1st Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Siebold (1936 term).
      2nd Lieutenant Leutnant zur SeeSammler.
      Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Olschefski (not in G.N.L.).
  Departure Christmas Day, 1941.
  Duration Not quite six weeks.
  Operational area Off Cape Hatteras.
  Sinkings Six ships - five certain and one credited later.  One large ship of 12,000 tons carrying ore.  45,000 tons claimed.  Total tonnage after this patrol not quite sufficient for Knight's Cross for Zapp.
  Damage to boat Return trip made through heavy seas which tore off railing and deck boards.  Bermuda sighted.
  Return to base Returned to Lorient on 1st of 2nd February, 1942.  Leutnant zur See Sammler relieved.  Repairs to boat.
VIII.  5th PATROL OF "U 66" (Last patrol under Zapp)
      C.O. Korvettenkapitän Zapp.
      First Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Siebold.
      Second Lieutenant Oberfähnrich zur See Herwig (not in G.N.L.)
      Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Olschefski.
  Departure End March, 1942.
  Duration About eight weeks.


APPENDIX "G" continued
  Operational area Caribbean.
  Sinkings Seven ships totalling 62,000 tons, including at least three tankers.
  Ritterkreuz Zapp awarded Knight's Cross during this patrol, announcement to U-Boat.
  Return to base Returned to Lorient late May, 1942.  C.O. Zapp received Knight's Cross and relieved of command having sunk 142,000 tons.
IX.  6th PATROL OF "U 66" (1st under Markworth)
      C.O. Kapitänleutnant Karl Markworth (1934 term; former 1.W.O. under Viktor Schütze).
      1st Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Siebold
      2nd Lieutenant Oberfähnrich zur See Herwig..
      Engineer Lieutenant Leutnant (Ing.) Olschefski.
  Departure Late June, 1942
  Duration 100 days.
  Operational area Caribbean.
  Sinkings Eight ships totalling over 40,000 tons.  Several quite small freighters.
  Capture of merchant Captain The Polish-born Captain of one of the U.S. freighters sunk was made prisoner aboard "U 66."  He slept in the U-Raum and messed with the officers.  He was disembarked in Lorient.
  Attacks Daylight attack by aircraft about 90 miles off Trinidad.  About five bombs.  No damage.  Second aircraft attack by day.  No damage.  (Prisoner already aboard).
  Returned to base Returned to Lorient end September, 1942.  Oberleutnant zur See Siebold relieved to get own command.  G.S.R. fitted at this time.  Oberfähnrich zur See Herwig promoted Leutnant zur See.
X.  7th PATROL OF "U 66"
      C.O. Kapitänleutnant Karl Markworth.
      1st Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Wiedemeyer (Wedemeyer?) (Not in G.N.L.)
      2nd Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Herwig.
      Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Olschefski.
  Departure 9th November, 1942
  Duration Two days.
  Operational area Destined for South Atlantic off African coast.
  Breakdown On second day out, off Cape Finisterre, vents failed to close properly on diving.  Large amount of water entered the boat, flooding electric motors and batteries, and generating chlorine gas.  Boat unable to dive.
  Aircraft attack In this condition, "U 66" was attacked by aircraft with searchlight.  U-boat being unable to dive, guns were manned.  Leutnant Herwig was stationed at after gun.  Aircraft first passed over, then returned and dropped six to eight depth-charges.  No hits and no damage.  Attack ceased.
  Return to base Returned to Lorient at 2100, 11th November.  Thorough overhaul of boat in dry-dock, including Diesels, motors, batteries.  New gun platform built in.  Most of the crew, including 2nd Lieutenant, sent to take special A/A course near Bordeaux.  Left Lorient about 21st November, returned 4th/5th December.
XI.  8th PATROL OF "U 66"
      C.O. Kapitänleutnant Karl Markworth.
      1st Lieutenant Oberleutnant zur See Wiedemeyer (Wedemeyer?).
      2nd Lieutenant Leutnant zur See Herwig..
      Engineer Officer Leutnant (Ing.) Olschefski.
        Two "Kriegsoffiziere" Officers undergoing training with rank of Oberfeldwebel.
  Departure Left Lorient at 16.30 January, 1943.
  Passenger Immediately before sailing a Frenchman, Jean Marie Lallart, was taken aboard for passage to West Africa.
  Landing of saboteur On 20th January, 1943, two ratings were sent in a rubber boat to put Lallart ashore.  The rubber boat overturned and was damaged by the breakers, and it was impossible for the ratings to return to the U-Boat.  They allowed Lallart to march them to Port Etienne where they gave themselves up to the French authorities.
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