This record was kindly provided by the generous assistance of Tony Cooper

          "U 187." a 740-ton U-Boat commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Ralph Münnich, was sunk at 1337 Zone Time on 4th February, 1943, in position 50° 12' N., 36° 34' W., by H.M.S. "Vimy," escorting Convoy S.C.118.  
          It was "U 187's" first patrol and the first experience as Commanding Officer for Münnich, who did not survive.  
          Forty-five men of the U-Boat's total complement of 54 were picked up by "Vimy" and "Beverley."  
          Survivors included two officers, one subordinate officer, three Chief Petty Officers, 10 Petty Officers and 29 other ratings.  
          Security-consciousness among prisoners was not highly developed.  
          This report contains comprehensive details of "U 187's" working up trials in the Baltic (see Appendix "A") and her first and last patrol, as well as additional information regarding G.S.R., R.D.F., extensible look-out masts as fitted to "U 187's" series, and other comparatively recent innovations of the U-Boat arm.  
          As "U 187" was sunk before she herself could claim any success, no information could be obtained regarding an actual attack on a convoy, but one or two prisoners talked freely upon modern operational practice as applied to U-Boats.  
          Key to equivalent Royal Navy and German Navy ranks used in this report:  
Konteradmiral Rear-Admiral
Fregattenkapitän Commander (Senior Grade).
Korvettenkapitän Commander (Junior Grade).
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander.
Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich sur See Midshipman (Senior Grade).
Fähnrich zur See Midshipman (Junior Grade).
          (Ing.) after a rank denotes Engineer Officer, as  
Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Lieutenant-Commander (E).
         "Der Reserve" after a rank denotes a Reserve Officer.                       
  Displacement 740 tons.
  Type IX C.
  Building Yard Deschimag, Bremen.
  Armament (a)  Guns:
            One 105 mm. (4.1 in.) forward.
            One 37 mm. (1.45 in.) aft.
            One 20 mm. on bridge. for which two spare barrels were carried.
            Mountings for four M.G.s on conning-tower.
            Two machine pistols, Type M.P.34, with 32 round magazines, carried as close-range defence weapons against aircraft and to repel boarding parties.
    (b)  Torpedoes.  Twenty-one carried.  Distributed as follows:
            Six electric torpedoes in tubes.
            Four electric torpedoes in bilges forward.
            Two electric torpedoes on bow compartment floorplates.
            Three electric torpedoes on after torpedo compartment floorplates.
            Six air torpedoes in upper deck containers.
  (C49073)                                                                                                                    *3  


  Armament contd. (b)  Torpedoes.  contd.
            A torpedo rating said that the voltage of the electric torpedoes had to be kept up to 110 volts.  Beneath this figure the certainty of hitting a target could not be guaranteed.  He added that the voltage of "U 187's" electric torpedoes was kept up to between 115 and 120.
            (N.I.D. Note.  Some information regarding new types of torpedoes was obtained from prisoners, but this has been considerably supplemented by information from survivors of "U 432" and "U 444," two more recently sunk U-Boats.  It has therefore been decided to collate all information regarding these torpedoes obtained from survivors of the three U-Boats and publish a complete summary in a later report.)
    (c)  Torpedo Pistols.  These were four whiskered.  Type G.7.H.
    (d)  Torpedo Arming Fans.  It was stated that arming fans had to make 326 revolutions before the torpedoes became "live."
    (e)  Torpedo Tubes.  Four forward, two aft.  One prisoner stated that the tubes were modified while "U 187" was undergoing final adjustments at Stettin, to permit the use of new types of torpedoes.
  Propulsion (a)  Diesel Engines.  Two 9-cylinder, 4 stroke, Type M.9 V.40/46 M.A.N. Diesels.  (See C.B. 04051 (53), Section VII (vi).)
    (b)  Diesel Superchargers.  These were driven by the main engines; ratio 1:7.  (See also section V (xxii).)
    (c)  Diesel Oil Consumption.  An average of 180 grams (.4 lb.) of oil were consumed per h.p. per hour.
    (d)  Diesel Engine Performance.  On two Diesels (in calm weather):
170 r.p.m.   7 knots (dead slow).
240 r.p.m.   11 knots (slow).
300 r.p.m.   15 knots (half speed).
415 r.p.m.   17-1/2 knots (three-quarter speed).
460 r.p.m.   18-19 knots (full speed).
    (e)  Fuel Tanks.  "U 187" had six external fuel tanks on either side and two internal tanks in either side forward of the control room.  The total fuel capacity was given as about 240 cm (20-4 tons).  Ten tons of lubricating oil were carried.
    (f)  Electric Motors.  Two Siemens motors.  (For details of performance see C.B. 04051 (55) Section VII (viib).)
    (g)  Batteries.  Type M.44 M.A.L., 62 cell.
  (vi)  G.S.R.  
          The G.S.R. was by Metox of Paris, and was hurriedly fitted only three days before the U-Boat left Kiel on her first patrol (i.e., about 9th January, 1943).  
          A prisoner stated that no one aboard had attended any G.S.R. course, but that while in Kiel the four W/T personnel were summoned to the depôt ship "St. Louis," where they were given a short lecture on its use.  In practice the set was found to be very simple to operate and was used every night when passing between Iceland and the Faroes.  At least one aircraft was detected with it and the U-Boat at once dived.  The prisoner added that the majority of U-Boats are now fitted with G.S.R. and it was considered so important, that supply U-Boats carried a number of sets to fit all U-Boats which had sailed without the equipment, or were in need of spares.    
          It was stated that "U 187's" G.S.R. aerial, which was attached to the centre of the base of the forward periscope, was similar to the type previously described by prisoners from other U-Boats namely diamond-shaped, the upper arms being slightly shorter than the lower ones.  The horizontal  


  crossbar in the centre had two insulators to prevent salt water entering the cables.  The horizontal dipoles started below and above the right insulator, continued to the right, then made a sharp loop to the other end of the crossbar and returned to the right insulator.  The vertical dipoles started from the left insulator to the left hand of the horizontal bar.  Prisoners said that the aerial, and particularly the wooden socket in which it fitted, was frequently broken by heavy seas.  It was thought that a new type aerial frame made of Plexiglass was now in production.  
          When the G.S.R. was being used, the operator within the U-Boat listened with headphones on and ordered a deck-hand to rotate the bar until any sound he might detect was at its loudest pitch.  He then knew, from the position of the aerial, the approximate bearing of the enemy or its reciprocal.  In order to ascertain whether the enemy was in front or behind the aerial, a rating held two tubular shaped pieces of iron horizontal and parallel to the aerial, and approached the ends of the pieces gradually towards it.  If the sound then faded considerably, or even faded out altogether, this proved that the direction of the enemy was on the same side of the aerial as the iron rods.  The prisoner admitted that this was a very primitive operation, and added that "U 187" was fitted with an early type G.S.R., the improved models not yet being in large scale supply.  
          A prisoner gave the range of the G.S.R. of his U-Boat as 15 miles.  
          The set was said to be extremely sensitive to electrical machinery within the boat, and a P.O. telegraphist related that they dived four times on one day before they discovered the false alarms had been caused by a pair of electric hair-clippers.  
  (vii)  R.D.F.  
          A number of prisoners confirmed that "U 187" carried R.D.F., the Second Lieutenant stating that all U-Boats are now fitted with it.  
          A P.O. telegraphist made the following remarks:  
          He had had no course in R.D.F., but had seen the set from the outside.  It was kept locked up and only one specialist in the crew was allowed to service it in the event of breakdown.  
          He believed that it was only fitted to the larger U-Boats, and that it was used for locating targets which had been lost in darkness, fog or snow.  
          There are a number of fixed dipoles on the forward face of the conning-tower, about eight in number, the exact number being unknown.  The diploes are approximately 15 cm. in length, 10 cm. distant from the conning-tower, with vertical polarization; one set for sending and one for receiving.  There is a double cable from each pair of dipoles, about 2-3 cm. thick, armoured, and the glands were these cables pass into the control room are fitted with screw caps.  Should the cable be damaged, it is cut and the cap screwed over the cut end to prevent the entrance of water.  
          The set is in two sections, each about 1-1/2 metres high by 40 cm. wide, and has no maker's name, but is thought to be by GEMA.  The left-hand half has tuning and control knobs for receiver, transmitter and power supplies, and also has a button for calibration.  The right hand side has a cathode ray tube, about 10 cm. in diameter, covered by a lens about 20 cm, square; control knobs for cathode ray tube; azimuth handle and scale on the right side, and instruments on a sloping panel about half way up.  
          The cathode ray tube is fitted with a scale in sea miles, reading up to 10, but the trace extends beyond the end of the scale, and it might be possible to pick up an object at 12 miles.  Calibration is checked by pressing button and seeing if the spot moves to the far end of the scale.  Azimuth is found by altering the phasing of the dipoles, and thus moving the beam from side to side.  This is controlled by a lever on the right-hand side of the set; the measurement is made by moving this until maximum echo is obtained, and reading off on a scale at the base of the lever, the maximum deflection of beam being 10° to port (red figures) and starboard (green figures).  For further azimuth search, it is necessary to turn the whole U-Boat.  
          Frequency was said to be under 100 cm.; high tension supply once transformed, up to 8,000 volts.  
          Owing to increased distances, the set did not prove so useful in the Atlantic as it was on trials in the Baltic.  The accuracy of the set is not very great, a maximum of half a mile, but this is not necessary, as it is only used until the object comes within visual range.  (See also Section V (xviii).)  
  (viii)  W/T Equipment  
         "U 187" was fitted with three transmitters, all by Telefunken:  
                  (a)  One 200-watt short-wave; 20-80 metres, normally used for communication.  
                  (b)  One long-wave, 500-1,000 metres, used for emergency transmission and D/F transmissions.  
                  (c)  One 40-watt emergency transmitter, ranges 20-80 metres, and a long-wave range somewhere between 500 and 1,000 metres, but transmissions on this range were not good.  
          Five receivers were carried:  
          (a)  A short-wave 20-200 metres, eight bands (Stufen).
          (b)  One universal receiver, 10-20,000 meters, eight bands (Stufen).  
          (c)  One D/F receiver, 500-20,000 metres, five bands (Stufen).  
          (d)  and (e)  Two broadcast receivers, one Radione and one N.Z.51, the latter supplied by the Kriegsmarine Werft, Kiel.  
  (C49073)                                                                                                                     * 4  


  (ix)  W/T Aerials, etc.  
          "U 187" carried an extensible aerial projecting, when fully extended 20 to 22 ft. above the conning-tower.  This was used during very rough weather or for transmissions when in sight of a convoy.  
          The D/F aerial is retractable under protection of the conning-tower, and this aerial is used for long-wave receptions when completely submerged.  Reception is possible down to 48 ft.  
  (x)  Hydrophones  
          Multi-unit type fitted; 24 receivers on each side of the bows.  K.D.B.; None.  
  (xi)  S.B.T.  
          S.B.T. apparatus was fitted in the heads on the starboard side of the stern compartment.  It was operated only by control-room personnel.  It is believed that a number of acoustic pills were ejected during the hunt which finally led to "U 187's" destruction.  
  (xii)  Echo-sounding Devices  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that "U 187" was fitted with "Shallow" and "Deepsea" sounding devices.  These had three ranges, as follows:  
1st   Down to 400 ft.
2nd   Down to 3,250 ft.
3rd   Down to 9,750 ft.
  He added that the last two ranges are recorded by a sound indicator.  At each 3,250 ft. an illuminated mark appears on a scale.  
  (xiii)  Diving  
          (a)  Crash Diving.  Prisoners said that the best crash-diving time obtained during trials in the Baltic was 38 seconds to periscope depth.  
          (b)  Deepest Dive.  It was alleged that "U 187" was taken down to 440 ft.  
          (c)  Depth Gauges.  Depth gauges were graduated to 200 m.  (about 650 ft.) but graduations, although not figures, continued to about 250 m. (772-1/2 ft.), where a red-line appeared.  According to one prisoner, depth gauges in the bow and stern compartments are sometimes disconnected during attacks should the crew show signs of panicking.  
  (xiv)  Extensible Look-out Mast  
          "U 187" was fitted with an extensible look-out mast immediately abaft the conning-tower, so that when raised there is no space between the two.  Then the mast is lowered, its head lies about a foot before the after torpedo hatch.  It is about 48 ft. high and carried a collapsible crow's nest.  
          The mast is raised by telemotor system employing oil pressure of 990-1,280 lb. per sq. inch.  The telemotor control is on the bridge.  By pressing down a handle the mast is raised; by pulling up the handle the mast is lowered.  The mast was said to be U-shaped in section, with rungs between the two edges of the U.  Then first fitted, it was possible to fold one's arms around the mast and slide down in case of alarm.  The mast in this form was not found to be strong enough and, indeed, "U 187's" mast broke during her Baltic trials.  It was then strengthened by two vertical rails running parallel to the edges of the U.  Beside trying to strengthen the mast, there rails enabled look-outs to descend quickly merely by grasping them with their hands and sliding down.  The masts are believed to be fitted to a series of U-Boats, beginning with "U 178."
          It was stated that the mast cannot be used in seas over Force 3.  
  (xv)  Binoculars  
          Prisoners had never heard of the use of periscope-type binoculars in U-Boats.  Those used by the ratings were the same type as those of the officers, although somewhat inferior.  
  (xvi)  Conning-tower Badge  
          "U 187's" conning-tower badge was a white horse, a replica of the sign of the White Horse Inn on Wolfgangsee.  
  (xvii)  Yard Number  
          "U 187's" yard number was W.1027.  
  (xviii)  Field Post Number  
          "U 187's" field post number was M.09255.  


  (i)  12th-14th January:  Kiel to Kristiansand S.  
          At 0800, 12th January, 1943, "U 187" left Kiel leading six 500-ton U-Boats in line ahead.  Of those six 500-tonners, one was commanded by Oberleutnant Mahnke, one by Oberleutnant Thäter, and one by Oberleutnant Tinschert.  "U 187" proceeded on both Diesels at "Half-speed," i.e., about 15 knots.  Just before reaching the Skagerrak, the U-Boats were joined by a 600-ton Sperrbrecher which led them, still in line ahead, and spaced at roughly one cable intervals, to a point off Kristiansand S.  
          "U 187," the Sperrbrecher and the six 500-ton U-Boats entered Kristiansand S. on the early afternoon of 14th January, but three 500-tonners left later the same day.  The Sperrbrecher secured next the pier, and alongside her, beam to beam, lay the four U-Boats.  "U 187," herself next the Sperrbrecher, had on her seaward side, a U-Boat commanded by a "small fat man" and bearing a Globe and the four points of the compass as conning-tower badge.  A further U-Boat had a Red Devil holding Neptune's trident as badge.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  It is considered that, even with her minesweeping circuit switched off, the Sperrbrecher's residual field would effect the degaussing of the U-Boats alongside.  
          That night, "U 187" charged batteries, and topped up with fuel and fresh water.  The customary pre-patrol carouse took place.  All but the duty watch went ashore, where they quartered in a former school building now taken over by German infantry and Alpine troops.  The evening began with the showing of a film, "Daughter, Beware!"  Later, all became drunk.  On "U 187" the officers settled down to a comfortable session, to which they invited C.P.O. Tidjen, the Sperrbrecher's captain.  The bottle passed freely.  Leutnant zur See Strait became insensibly intoxicated and had to be put to bed by Buschmann, the Junior Officer.  Despairing of reviving Strait, Buschmann finally emptied a bucket of water over him.  This water soaked the bunk beneath Strait, belonging to Meyer, the Engineer Officer.  This started an altercation between Meyer and Buschmann, whereat the latter took fright and disclaimed responsibility.  
  (ii)  15th January:  Kristiansand S. to Farsund  
          The U-Boats, again escorted by the Sperrbrecher, got under weigh at 0830 the next morning.  Trimming practice was carried out in Kristiansand Fjord, dives being made to 65 ft., while the Sperrbrecher dropped depth-charges in the distance to accustom the crews to this experience.  
          Weather worsened on this day, and at midnight the U-Boats put into Farsund, where they lay at a pier.  Prisoners inferred that, because of congestion within the U-Boat, some of the complement slept ashore that night.  
  (iii)  16th January:  Departure from Farsund  
          The U-Boats, escorted by the Sperrbrecher, sailed at 0915, and proceeded up the Norwegian coast.  
  (iv)  17th January:  Off Bergen  
          Prisoners agreed that "U 187" arrived off Bergen at about noon on 17th January.  At 1300 the Sperrbrecher signalled "U 187":  "God Speed!" and parted company.  Soon after "U 187" lost sight of the remaining U-Boats, none of which she ever saw again.  
          Course of approximately 315° was now set, "U 187" remaining on the surface for the rest of that afternoon.  In the ensuing night the sound of a steamer was picked up on the hydrophones and Münnich ordered "U 187" to submerge to 130 ft.  He then decided that the ship must be friendly, and "U 187" surfaced and continued her journey as before.  
  (v)  18th January:  On Passage to Patrol Area  
         "U 187" submerged in the early morning of 18th January and remained submerged all day.  She surfaced in the evening and continued thus throughout the night.  
  (vi)  19th January:  On passage to Patrol Area
          Early on this day "U 187" again submerged and did not surface again until nightfall.  At 2100 there was a sudden alarm when an aircraft was detected by the G.S.R.  "U 187" dived to about 38 ft. and remained submerged for two hours.  According to one prisoner "U 187" had reached the latitude of 64° 30' N. by the end of this day.  
  (vii)  20th January:  On Passage to Patrol Area  
          "U 187" continued to approximately latitude 65° N., where she altered course to 225° to make the passage of the Rosengarten.  She had submerged in the early morning but surfaced in the evening and increased speed to 12 knots.  
  (C49073)                                                                                                                    B*  


  (viii)  21st/22nd January:  Passage through Rosengarten  
          "U 187" passed through the Rosengarten between 21st and 22nd January.  No evidence was obtained that she deviated from her routine of submerging by day and surfacing at night.  At this time orders were received from Admiral U-Boats to report weather and position.  Weather, which had been bad, was reported during daylight.  It was not until night fell and the stars came out that "U 187" was able to fix and report her position.  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that signals giving area of operations were all decoded in their final stage by Münnich, who alone had the tables.  Each morning the prisoner had to record "U 187's" position and the receiving strength of the shore wireless station, in order to note where communication between U-Boats and base was worst.  
          Several drifting mines were seen in the Rosengarten area.  
          It would appear, from prisoners' statements and from one survivor's diary, that "U 187" altered course southwards after traversing the Rosengarten.  This was confirmed by the First Lieutenant.  
  (ix)  22nd/23rd January:  Instructions received from Admiral U-Boats  
          The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that at about this time, a signal was received from Admiral U-Boats instructing "U 187" to join Group Landscnecht comprising a group of 15 U-Boats in all, the remainder being commanded respectively by Zittewitz, Schröter, Werner Schutze, Soden, Schwantke, Jessen, Gretschel, Mumm, Teichert, Thurmann, Langfeld, Rudloff, Tinschert and Mengersen.  The First Lieutenant confirmed the majority of there names, but said that he did not think Schroter or Mengersen formed part of the Group.  All these U-Boats were keeping watch on the former "Irland" wavelength, known at that time as the "Diana" wavelength.  The object of the formation of Group Landsknecht was to intercept an outward-bound convoy from England.  
          "U 187" took the most northerly position in the sweep which extended for approximately 340 miles to the south, the U-Boats on parallel courses being spaced at intervals of about 20 miles.  The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that this sweep was 220°, speed of four to five knots was ordered, on the surface day and night.  It had been calculated that Group Landsknecht would contact the convoy on either 23rd or 24th January.  
  (x)  23rd January:  (?)  
          One day after the formation of Group Landsknecht one of the most southerly U-Boats in the sweep, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Langfeld, reported that she had only about 25 tons of fuel remaining.  She was allegedly instructed by the Admiral to remain in position and await further orders.  (N.I.D. Note.  Langfeld commanded "U 444," sunk on 11th March, 1943.)  Seas now began to increase in violence and speed had to be reduced accordingly.  
  (xi)  24th January:  (?)  
          The storm reached its peak on this day, sea Force 11 or 12 being recorded.  Prisoners stated that at about this time "U 187's" G.S.R. aerial was repeatedly damaged by the battering she was receiving.  
  (xii)  25th January:  Group Landsknecht is disbanded  
          The storm continued unabated and because of this orders were given by the Admiral to disband Group Landsknecht, the U-Boats having only been able to make two to three knots against the weather instead of the calculated four to five knots.  It had been found impossible to serve meals and at these times "U 187" submerged for two hours while meals were taken in two watches.  
          The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that shortly before the disbanding of Group Landsknecht he intercepted a signal on the "Grönland" wavelength from a U-Boat captain named Bleichrodt claiming sinkings from a small convoy off Greenland.  To an inquiry from Admiral U-Boats as to whether his sinkings had been made from a coastal or an England bound convoy.  Bleichrodt replied that only a few ships had been seen.  According to the prisoner Bliechrodt was operating in a second group known as Gruppe Haudegen which had been sweeping an area between Greenland and Newfoundland.  Other U-Boats in this group of 11 in all were commanded by Hackländer, Huth, Hesemann, Thacher and Mahnke, but prisoners could not remember all names.  
  (xiii)  25th/26th January:  Formation of Group Pieil  
          Following the disbanding of Group Landsknecht, "U 187" received orders to proceed west with the other U-Boats and herself to take up a position on the Newfoundland Bank.  It was calculated at the time that she would need between two and three weeks to do this.  Shortly afterwards, however, a further signal was received ordering the former Group Landsknecht U-Boats to reform as Group Pfeil in order to intercept a large eastbound convoy, probably on its way to Russia, which was then expected.  The First Lieutenant stated that the Admiral signalled that the convoy was to be stopped at all costs as it was possibly carrying supplies for the Eastern Front.  Group Pfeil proceeded westward on the surface, the U-Boats spaced twenty miles apart.  


  (xiv)  26th/31st January:  "U 187" proceeds Westwards  
          Nothing out of the ordinary occurred between the 26th and 31st January, as "U 187" continued westwards.  Prisoners stated that seas lessened on the 26th but again increased in violence on the 29th.  
          During this period the P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that he intercepted a number of signals from other U-Boats.  These were mainly reports of position and weather.  Wolfbauer, far to the south, reported that he had carried out his refuelling orders and requested permission to return.  Another U-Boat reported that a Leutnant Feutsch had been washed overboard.  
  (xv)  1st February:  "U 187" unsuccessfully chases a 12,000-ton Steamer  
          On the afternoon of 1st February, prisoners stated, a single 12,000-ton, grey painted, steamer was sighted proceeding east along the so-called "Swedish Lane," (described as a neutral shipping lane between two German blockade areas).  The steamer was observed through rain squalls at a distance of about three miles.  "U 187" at first turned away to avoid being seen.  It was then observed that the steamer was zig-zagging and an attempt was made to close her from astern.  Torpedo tubes were ready to fire and the steamer was almost within range when she suddenly zig-zagged again and disappeared behind a rain-squall.  Endeavours to pick her up with R.D/F. and later, on submerging with G.H.G. proved fruitless.  A report was then made to the Admiral that contact had been lost with a suspicious steamer independently routed.  "U 187" then put about and proceeded at her best speed throughout the night to regain position in Group Pfeil.  She accomplished this the following morning.  
  (xvi)  2nd/3rd February:  Extensible Look-out Mast Used  
          On the evening of the 2nd or 3rd February, "U 187's" extensible look-out mast was raised and used for the first time during her patrol.  
  (xvii)  4th February:  Events leading up to the Sinking of "U 187"  
          At 0700 Zone Time  
                  On 4th February, Leutnant zur See Strait relieved Leutnant zur See Buschmann on the bridge as Officer of the Watch.  The two Officers, however, remained talking together for some time.  Sea was Force 5 or 6.  
                  A burst of Very lights was seen to port.  "U 187" immediately closed the position to investigate.  Prisoners claimed that these lights first disclosed to them the position of a convoy which was, in fact, S.C.118.  They presumed the lights were fired either as a signal to the ships to alter course, or to close up.  
          Buschmann, Strait and the Chief Quartermaster reported the smoke plumes and mastheads of a large convoy 10 miles distant.  They estimated that this convoy would pass from West to East across the centre of the area "U 187" was then covering.  
                  A "first sighting" signal was made to Admiral U-Boats.  This signal was not acknowledged.  
                  A second "first sighting" signal was made and acknowledged.  As "U 187" was the first U-Boat in the sweep to contact the convoy, she now assumed the role of "contact keeper."  
                  A third signal was now made giving the strength of the convoy and its position.  Remaining on the surface "U 187" took up position about 10 miles ahead of the convoy.  This move was later criticised by both officer and rating survivors as the first of two tactical errors made by Münnich  The more experienced prisoners gave the opinion that Münnich would have done far better to withdraw and take station astern of the convoy.
                  (N.I.D. Note.  "Vimy" reports that at 1100Z on 4th February, 1943, while escorting convoy S.C.118, position 50° 12' N., 38° 34' W., course 036°, "Vimy" being in position B, "Beverly," when five miles ahead of the starboard wing column, sighted a U-Boat about 10 miles ahead of the convoy, course East.  She immediately gave chase.  Simultaneously S.S. "Toward" obtained an H/F D/F bearing on 037°, "Vanessa" thereupon ordering "Vimy" to "Beverley's" assistance.)  
                  From "U 187's" bridge the bow waves of two destroyers were suddenly approaching.  Münnich at once ordered "Alter course, full speed ahead on the surface."  This was considered by prisoners to be Münnich's second mistake.  They felt that "U 187" had already delayed far too long before submerging.  Münnich's intention in still remaining surfaced may be explained in part by the statement of one prisoner who alleged that he hoped still to make further signals, one of which would have been the convoy's speed and the strength of the escort.  It has not been established whether this signal was actually sent.  
  (C49073)                                                                                                                    B*2  


                  Realising that by zig-zagging on the surface he could not hope to escape the destroyers, Münnich ordered "U 187" to submerge.  The U-Boat did not respond well following the diving order and took a full 50 seconds to get down.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1145 "Beverley" had reported  that the U-Boat had dived four miles ahead, and by 1200 both she and "Vimy" were in the vicinity of the diving position which "Beverley" had marked with a flare.  At 1203 "Vimy" obtained a good contact at 800 yards, bearing 000°, with moderate opening Doppler.  This gave little time to find its movements, and by 1206 the ship was considered to be over it.  A flare was dropped and "Vimy turned round to starboard but was unable to regain contact immediately.  A westerly course was then steered for one mile then altering round to 060° doing an 80-80 sweep.  At 1235 contact was regained bearing 009°, 1,200 yards, again with moderate low Doppler and slight movement to the left.  This one produced a fair recorder trace and was attacked with a five-charge pattern at 100 ft.)  
          1235, 4th February, 1943  
                  Prisoners stated that "U 187" had submerged to a depth of about 260 ft. when the first series of depth-charges were heard.  An experienced Petty Officer prisoner said that he was standing near Münnich at the time and he remarked: "I have never heard depth-charges dropped so far away."  No damage was sustained within the U-Boat, which was then submerged to approximately 440 ft.  
                  (N.I.D. Note.  "Vimy" reports that meanwhile "Beverley" had been unable to gain any contact and at 1253 she signalled that her asdics were out of action due to a high turn of speed.  This fault was not remedied for the duration of the hunt and so she was not able to take part in any of it.  In "Vimy" contact was soon regained astern fairly firm and it was next decided to carry out a hedgehog attack.  "Vimy" then turned to starboard at four knots to gain sufficient accurate information.  Echoes were marking fairly well on "Scale 25" and moderate left movement was obtained.  At 1255 the ship increased to eight knots.  Target movement had eased up a bit and when switching to "Scale 10" the traces became very poor.  The hedgehog was fired on a poor trace with 3° left deflection at 1300.  A queer "dull" echo was heard for the next few transmissions which may have come off the bombs.)  
                  In "U 187" a second series of explosions was heard rather nearer than the first.  Prisoners said that no appreciable damage was done, but "U 187" was trimming badly and that whenever she lay on an even keel she tended to rise.  Because of all this all the crew who could be spared from action stations were sent forward to the bow compartment.  Here they appear to have become alarmed, for Leutnant zur See Strait stated that he was sent forward to calm the men.  One of his actions was apparently to disconnect the depth gauge in this compartment.  
                  (N.I.D. Note.  "Vimy" reports that no results were heard from her second attack and the ship turned right around to starboard regaining contact at 1310 bearing 290°, 1,500 yards with moderate opening Doppler.  A fair trace was obtained with slight right movement and was attacked with a 14-charge deep pattern at 1315.)  
                  "U 187" survivors said that a third depth-charge pattern fell fairly near the U-Boat and caused the first major damage.  Lights failed in the listening room and in the conning-tower, the G.H.G. was temporarily put out of action and depth gauges in the conning-tower and stern compartment broke.  Some prisoners believed that the after hydroplanes were affected by this attack and added that "U 187" suddenly became stern heavy and rose rapidly to about 250 ft. before she could be checked.  She had been proceeding at 2-3 knots.  Münnich again ordered her down to 440 ft.  
          The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that throughout these attacks he had been on duty in the listening room.  Each time he had reported; "Run in beginning.  Alter course"; Münnich had said, "Yes," but had kept the U-Boat on the same course, except for a slight alteration after the second attack.  The Junior Officer who was seated beside the prisoner had added that it was not necessary to alter course.  The P.O. Telegraphist claimed that immediately before each attack an acoustic pill was ejected from the S.B.T. apparatus.  The First Lieutenant confirmed this, but said that he thought that the U-Boat was moving so slowly that the pills may even have betrayed her position.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Following her attack at 1315 "Vimy" reported that she ran out astern until range was 1,700 yards and came into the attack again.  Echoes were becoming very weak and in "Scale 10" only two echoes left a mark, the remainder had to be positioned by ear and eye.  Inclination was slight closing and the target appeared to be moving slowly right.  Thus "Vimy" dropped her second and successful 14-charge pattern at 1333.)  


                  Prior to the fourth and last depth-charge attack the noise of two destroyers was picked up on the hydrophones, one bearing 000° and the other 180°.  The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that he realised at once that their position was desperate.  He reported:  "Run is beginning"; and commented, "If we don't alter course now it's all up."  This time his anxiety was shared by the Junior Officer who suddenly flung down his earphones and dashed out of the listening room white in the face.  A prisoner described the explosion of this series as "like the roar of an avalanche."  A Quartermaster who had been detailed off to keep a log of the attacks, said that he never had time to add the word "near" after "depth-charges."  It was believed by many survivors that some depth-charges actually exploded on the outer casing.  Lights failed in all compartments forward of the control room, but not aft.  The gyro-compass was wrecked.  A fracture 4 ft. long and 1/2 in. wide was caused in the pressure hull aft, and the U-Boat becoming stern heavy, inclined at an angle of at least 45°.  In addition the port side of the control room was stove in and oil from a port fuel tank cascaded into the boat.  This oil swamped the batteries generating dense fumes.  At this moment Meyer, the Engineer Officer, told Münnich that the position was hopeless and they must surface at once if anyone was to escape alive.  The U-Boat laboured slowly upwards, while the calmer members of the ship's company convinced that their end was near, solemnly shook hands in farewell.  Prisoners estimated that "U 187" took five minutes to surface and, they added, that when she finally emerged most of their air was exhausted.  
                  No order to abandon ship reached the bow compartment but Strait led the men there through the galley hatch.  Simultaneously, the remainder were leaving through the control room hatch.  Once on the upper deck a number of ratings clustered round the 105 mm. gun for support, others misguidedly attempting to clear the gun away.  This caused fire to be opened upon them from the destroyers then about 600 yards distant.  Confusion reigned for some seconds until a wave swept those on deck into the water.  
                  (N.I.D. Note.  "Vimy" reported that the U-Boat surfaced astern at 1337 bows up at an angle of 50°, later leveling out on the surface.  Fire was immediately opened with "X" gun and Oerlikons, the ship was turned to starboard and full speed rung on.  The U-Boat crew were then jumping overboard in the wake and just before she sank stern first at an angle of 70°, "B" gun scored a hit on her bows with H.E. DA.)  
                  No clear account as to the fate of Münnich or Meyer has been forthcoming.  According to one prisoner he last saw Meyer hustling men up the conning-tower hatch and he believed that he stayed within the U-Boat.  Münnich has been variously described as shooting himself, and as standing on the conning-tower as the U-Boat went down for the last time.  
                  It is not believed that any signal reporting the sinking was sent to Admiral U-Boats.  The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that no signal was sent, firstly, because the instruments were smashed, secondly, because, in the general upheaval and scramble to leave the rapidly sinking U-Boat, no one had thought of doing so.  
                  Two officers, the Midshipman and 31 men were picked up by "Beverley" and nine ratings by "Vimy."  Four of the ratings rescued by "Vimy" later died of wounds and were buried at sea.  
  (i)  Duties of a Contact-keeping U-Boat  
          The U-Boat which first sighted a convoy automatically becomes "Fühlungshalter" (Contact-keeper) and is responsible for keeping Admiral U-Boats informed as to the position of the convoy.  
          Her "first sighting" signal to the Admiral contains the following information:  
                  (a)  Message in code reporting enemy in sight.  
                  (b)  Her exact position.  
                  (c)  Originator.  
          As soon as possible after this signal has been sent a further signal is made as follows:  
                  (a)  Size of convoy and number of escorts.  
                  (b)  Formation.  
                  (c)  Course.  
                  (d)  Speed.
          If the U-Boat is then forced to submerge, by aircraft, for example, she is likely to remain at periscope depth in order that she may still receive low frequency signals from the Admiral.  
          Other U-Boats in the area are given the position of the convoy by the admiral.  As soon as they sight the convoy they make a short signal, which informs the Admiral which U-Boats have reached the convoy.  
  (C49073)                                                                                                                    B*3  


          The contact-keeper reports her position approximately once an hour, but at no definite time.  She has an hour and twenty minutes from the despatch of one signal in which to make the next one.  Should she fail to do so within this time, the duties of contact-keeper pass to another boat.  This boat then transmits an enciphered signal stating that she has taken over the duty and giving the course speed and position of the convoy, and continues to function as contact-keeper.  
          In bad visibility, when other U-Boats have difficulty in picking up the convoy D/F signals are transmitted by the contact-keeper on about 440 kc/s.  These signals are made at regular intervals at regular times twice an hour.  The P.O. Telegraphist prisoner who made this statement at first alleged that the times were from 20-25 minutes and 40-45 minutes past the hour, but when it was pointed out that this meant an interval of 20 minutes in one case and 40 in the other, he said he was sure that the 20-25 minutes time was correct and that there was half-an-hour interval, the other must be 50-55 minutes past the hour.  
          This is the only occasion, according to the prisoner, when medium frequency is employed.  
          A prisoner maintained that 20 miles was the maximum range at which a contact keeper could keep in touch with a convoy, i.e., by means of its hydrophones.  Ten to fifteen miles was more usual in unfavorable weather.  This range was shortened at night, but was not likely to be less that five miles.  
  (ii)  Attack Tactics  
          As each U-Boat arrives in position she reports this to Admiral U-Boats.  When a sufficient number of U-Boats has reached the convoy the signal to attack is given by the Admiral.  U-Boats are ordered to attack simultaneously, if possible, so as to create the maximum confusion.  The contact-keeper remains astern of the convoy.  
          A prisoner stated that he had heard of U-Boats surfacing momentarily in the vicinity of a convoy in order to divert the escort's attention from other U-Boats, but he thought this practice had been abandoned as too foolhardy.  
          The same prisoner added that U-Boats preferred to attack down moon should it be high and to fire torpedoes on the beam of the convoy, but should the moon be low the favorite tactic was to approach up moon, again firing on the beam.  There was no rigid rule, however, as an attack was largely a matter of opportunism.  
  (iii)  Intercommunication between U-Boats  
          This only occurs on two occasions: (a)  When communication with Admiral U-Boats on normal frequency breaks down; (b)  during W/T coded conversation.  
          (a)  Should communication between Admiral U-Boats and a group of U-Boats break down, another U-Boat still in contact with the base is detailed to relay signals.  The group of U-Boats switch on to a "group frequency."  The U-Boat, still in contact with both the Admiral and the group, relays signals in either direction.  Every four hours, however, U-Boats in the group must try to regain contact with the base on normal frequency.  
          (b)  The second occasion when U-Boats communicate directly with each other is in "W/T coded conversation."  This can be ordered either by the Admiral or by Senior U-Boat in any particular group and is employed for the following types of communication:  
                  (1)  A senior U-Boat allotting other U-Boats in the neighbourhood of a convoy to attacking positions.  
                  (2)  Enquiries as regards fighting strength (Kampfraft), i.e., the amount of torpedoes, fuel, provisions etc., remaining, upon which the fighting efficiency of the U-Boat depends.  
          When either the Admiral or the Senior U-Boat in a group whishes to communicate by W/T/ coded conversation," they state the time at which this type of communication is to commence some time in advance.  
  (iv)  R/T Communication between U-Boats  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that short-wave W/T-R/T sets, manufactured by Lorenz, are carried by U-Boats when working up in the Baltic, and that U-Boat captains can then communicate by this means.  The sets are taken out of the U-Boats prior to their first patrol, because it is suspected that in the past American stations have succeeded in picking up conversations between U-Boats operating in the Atlantic.  
          The sets now have the addition of a small auxiliary transformer which does away with the need for batteries.  


  (v)  Signals Areas  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner stated that the signals areas for U-Boats operating in the Atlantic, organised by Admiral U-Boats, are the following:  
Hubertus Area   Bounded on the east by a line from the easternmost point of Greenland southward to a position approximately in the latitude of Newfoundland.  The southern boundary runs from this position westwards to the American continent.
Diana Area   Adjoins Hubertus to the south and east, extending as far south as the Straits of Gibraltar.
America I     |   To the South and west of Hubertus and Diana
America II    |  
Africa I      |   To the south and east of Hubertus and Diana
Africa II     |  
          (N.I.D. Note.  These appear to be Series 8 (Hubertus), Series 7 (Diana), Series 3 (America I and II) and Series 4 (Africa I and II).  See C.B. 4002.)  
  (vi)  Transmissions from Admiral U-Boats  
          The prisoner who gave the above information stated that the wavelength of the transmissions from the Admiral are changed in the Diana area, the only area in which he had operated, at the following hours:  0000, 0700, 0900, 1100, 1200, 1800, 1900, 2300.  From 00' to 05' after any change, no signals are made, except tuning signals, and the signature of the transmitting station, e.g. Lorient R.X.U.  This enables U-Boats to tune exactly to their Base.  From 05' to 10' after a change, now signals are made from the Base; during these five minutes the Base is listening very carefully, for it is then that U-Boats make their most vital signals, such as the position of enemy convoys and warships.  From 10' to 60' after any change, the Admiral can signal at any time, and does.  
          The prisoner believed that the wavelength of transmissions to U-Boats operating very far afield is changed hourly owing to the varying quality of reception in distant areas.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The times of change and the frequencies used vary with the time of year.)  
  (vii)  Signals Procedure  
          Watch is always kept on high frequency, but in addition there are regular low frequency transmissions which a U-Boat can receive without extending her aerials, when submerged at periscope depth.  These low frequency transmissions are from 0700 to 0900, from 1200-to 1400, and from 2000 to 2200 and consist of repetitions of all high frequency transmissions from the Admiral which U-Boats may have missed.  
          High frequency signals from U-Boats are immediately repeated by the Admiral to signify that the message has been received and understood.  In addition these messages are repeated, two hours later, four hours later, seven hours later, 14 hours later, 20 hours later and 28 hours later, to ensure that all signals are acknowledged and that all U-Boats are able to receive all messages.  The messages are dated and numbered.  In spite of this procedure cases have been known to occur of U-Boats missing signals.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  VL/F routines vary for different H/F Series.)  
  (viii)  Additional duties of W/T Operators  
          Besides keeping watch on short wavelengths when surfaced and long wavelengths when submerged, W/T operators have to keep G.S.R. watch, when surfaced, on the orders of their Commanding Officer.  It is also the duty of the P.O. Telegraphist to keep hydrophones manned day and night when submerged.  Watches are four hours in the day and two six-hour watches at night.  
  (ix)  Watch on W/T Traffic round Convoys  
          While not an order, it is a tactical recommendation that U-Boats should try and overhear merchant ships transmitting their position, name and the fact that they have been attacked, on 500 kc/s.  
  (x)  W/T Guard in Home Ports  
          A boat or ship from each Flotilla, whether U-Boat, minesweeper or other craft, is detailed in each German or German occupied port to keep W/T guard.  She is recognisable as she always flies the pendant "T" for "TONI."  She is used as W/T headquarters, and it is part of her work to look after W/T codes for some weeks ahead.
  (xi)  Diving Policy  
          (a)  Biscay Area.  U-Boats proceeding submerged through the Bay of Biscay are now instructed to remain at a depth of 130 ft. during daylight.  
          (b)  Rough Weather on Patrol.  Prisoners maintained that rough weather did not normally cause a U-Boat to submerge unless it was combined with bad visibility.  One prisoner said that on one occasion in the Atlantic they submerged for six hours because of bad weather and bad visibility combined.  
  (C49073)                                                                                                                    B4  


          In Sea Force of 7 or more it was the custom to submerge for the mid-day meal from about 1200 to 1400.  They did not submerge for other meals, i.e., breakfast from 0600 to 0700, or tea from 1600 to 1800.  
          U-Boats sometimes submerge for a few hours at night in rough weather in order to give the crew a rest.  
          (c)  After G.S.R. Contact.  One prisoner alleged that, following G.S.R. contact with an aircraft, U-Boats submerge for between 15 and 30 minutes, and then surface and carry out another G.S.R. search.  
          (d)  After Aircraft Sighting.  U-Boats submerge for at least one hour after an aircraft sighting, even in the vicinity of a convoy, because it is assumed that an aircraft has a patrol endurance, as opposed to total endurance, of about four hours.  
  (xii)  Bridge Watch Procedure and Training  
          The relieving watch has always to report to the Officer of the Watch half an hour before they are due to take over, in order to get used to natural light after their period under artificial light.  They are given special supplies of black coffee and pills to maintain ocular efficiency, but no anti-soporific pills.  
          The Officer of the Watch has to remain permanently on the bridge, but the three look-outs are allowed to get some relaxation by changing places with the Quartermaster.  
          The bridge watch, during tactical exercises in the Baltic, is expected to correctly identify different types of German aircraft.  
          During these tactical exercises, tests are made to see whether the U-Boat or the aircraft spots the other first.  An interval of half an hour was almost invariably observed in favor of the U-Boat.  The best surprise was achieved by aircraft flying at 600 ad 900 ft., this being especially so at dawn or dusk, if they approached down sun.  
  (xiii)  Protection against Aircraft Attack while on Trials  
          All U-Boats working up in the Baltic carry one yellow stripe about one metre wide painted diagonally across the deck four to five metres from the bows.  Also a half metre wide yellow strips round the conning tower and a further diagonal stripe aft.  This is so that they may be recognised easily by German aircraft.  
  (xiv)  Oiling at Sea  
          A prisoner gave the following procedure for refuelling from a supply U-Boat at sea:  
                  In the supply U-Boat the fuel hose connection s are uncovered from beneath deck gratings right aft.  These connections can be closed from inside the U-Boat as well as from outside in case of alarm, to prevent water entering or exuding, which might leave oil slick.  A manila hawser with float attached is veered astern.  To this manila is secured the fuel hose and a wire hawser.  The U-Boat taking over fuel secures the manila and hauls it in with the fuel hose and the wire hawser.  The wire hawser is then secured to the towing bits.  The hose is connected to the supply valves in the U-Boat being refuelled.  The towing hawser can be slipped in case of alarm while the hose would be severed.  
          Generally two or three lengths of hose are carried.  Before transferring oil, water is pumped through the hose in order to test it.  
  (xv)  Rendezvous with Supply U-Boats  
          A prisoner said that the possibility of failing to rendezvous with a supply U-Boat seldom caused U-Boat captains anxiety.  In the first place, fuel was never allowed to run so low that, should the supply U-Boat fail to arrive, the U-Boat expecting it would be helpless.  If the supply U-Boat were late, it would only be a question of waiting a few days in the vicinity.  
          A second prisoner said that he had never heard of supply U-Boats towing smaller U-Boats to their area of operations, but he believed it possible that, if a U-Boat ran short of fuel and a supply U-Boat had none to give her, the latter would attempt to tow the smaller U-Boat into port.  
  (xvi)  Markings on Practice Torpedoes  
          Torpedo Testing Command (T.E.K.) torpedoes have red and white longitudinal stripes on the head.  
          Torpedoes of the 8th Torpedo Firing Flotilla have red and white bands round the head.  
  (xvii)  Torpedoes, General  
          When Air Torpedoes are embarked they are supplied sometimes in their containers and sometimes without according to whether the U-Boat has empty containers on board.  
          During torpedo firing practice, torpedoes are generally fired at a range of between 625 and 1,000 yards.  
  (xviii)  R.D.F. with Torpedo Aiming  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner said that R.D.F. is often used at night in bad visibility for firing electric or air torpedoes.  If the range of the target is not over two miles and a salvo of torpedoes  


  be fired, fairly accurate results may be obtained.  The accuracy of R.D.F. is insufficiently great to direct a single torpedo "blind."  The First Lieutenant said that he thought R.D.F. could be used for directing torpedo firing, but that "U 187" had never practised this method as, during her torpedo firing exercises, her R.D.F. was out of commission.  
  (xix)  Training of U-Boat C.O.s  
          Should prospective U-Boat commanding Officers never have served as First Lieutenant in another U-Boat, they undergo the following training:  
                  (1)  Navigational, Torpedo and W/T Courses at Flensburg.  
                  (2)  U-Boat School at Pillau or Gdynia.  
                  (3)  Course with the 24th (Torpedo Firing) Flotilla at Memel - firing 30 torpedoes in all, as well as additional instruction in Torpedo-Fire Control Gear (Feuerleitanlage).  Among torpedoes fired are three salvoes of two, two salvoes of three and one salvo of four.  Single torpedoes are fired first at slow ships and then at fast ships.  
          The Commanding Officer is then appointed to stand by a boat building.  
  (xx)  Patrolling in Operational Squares  
          It was said that in the reconnaissance sweeps joined by "U 187" the U-Boats were strung out along a line running roughly North-West to South East, and that they patrolled each in their own squares.  
  (xxi)  M.A.N. 9 40/46 Diesel Engines  
          (1)  Two well-informed Stoker P.O.s gave the following information regarding this engine:  
                  (a)  One spare piston and 40-50 spare piston rings are carried by each U-Boat.  Old type pistons had three main and one scraper ring; the new type have four main and one scraper ring.  
                  (b)  Cylinder liners are of excellent quality and are plated or otherwise protected against corrosion by the cooling water.  
                  (c)  Valves are normal.  
                  (d)  Fuel pumps are manufactured by Bosch  
          (2)  Use of Diesels underwater.  All prisoners were emphatic that even a short burst underwater on Diesel engines was quite impossible.  One prisoner stated that if the air bottles were enlarges and built to withstand a pressure of 300 atmospheres, it might be possible to run the Diesels underwater for a short maximum period of two minutes.  The dangers would be so great, however, that this would never be accepted.  
          (3)  Diesel-Electric.  One of the more reliable prisoners said that Diesel-Electric, as a means of propulsion, is more economical in a rough sea, with one Diesel turning between 220 and 240 r.p.m.  In a calm sea, however, it was preferable to run direct on one Diesel.  Other prisoners said that 240 r.p.m. was never exceeded in Diesel-Electric propulsion.  
  (xxii)  Diesel Engine Superchargers  
          Three types of supercharger were described by prisoners.  All give a pressure of between 0.2 and 0.3 atmospheres.
                  (a)  Kapselgebläse (Rootes Blower).  This is a conventional Rootes type blower driven through gearing at about seven times the engine speed.  
                  (b)  Turbineengebläse.  This is a turbine compressor driven through gearing.  
                  (c)  Buchigebläse.  This is a turbine compressor driven by an exhaust gas turbine, without any appreciable loss of engine power.  
  (xxiii)  U-Boat Construction  
          A prisoner claimed that no U-Boats are being built at the Stettin Yards.  Both the Oderwerke and the Vulkan Werke at this point are occupied in refitting U-Boats.  (N.I.D. Note.  This is probably true.)  
  (xxiv)  Refitting U-Boats  
          A stoker P.O. said that the normal period between commissioning and the first refit was from three to five months.  Subsequent refits take place after every patrol and last between four and five weeks if no major repairs have to be carried out.  
          A major refit takes place after approximately two years.  This corroborates previous information, according to which U-Boats return to Germany for a major refit after ten patrols.  
          During minor refits after patrols, main engines are not replaced, but the Diesels are taken apart and reassembled by dock-yard personnel.  The electric motors are not touched unless damaged.  
          Engines may possibly be replaced during a major refit.  


  (xxvi)  Closing of Conning-Tower Hatches  
          Prisoners said that the hatch from the conning-tower to the control room of "U 187" was seldom, if ever, closed.  The hatch, which had a locking device, would have been closed had there been any danger of "U 187" being rammed, when the conning-tower would have been most vulnerable.  
          The purpose of leaving the hatch open was to enable the C.O. to pass word of mouth commands down to the control room.  
          A prisoner who had served in "U 172" during her trials said that the hatch to the control room was always kept open in the U-Boat, where it was the custom for two or three men to remain in the conning tower while diving.  
          On the other hand, a prisoner who had served in "U 68" (under Kapitänleutnant Merten, an experienced captain) said that her commanding officer always closed the lower conning-tower hatch when submerging.  
  (xxvii)  Evasive Action  
          A Chief Quartermaster said that he regarded aircraft attacks as very much more dangerous to U-Boats than those of destroyers.  He believed that the Allied Nations have not enough destroyers for two or more to detach themselves from a convoy to hunt any one U-Boat.  It should be possible for a good Captain to avoid a single destroyer aided by S.B.T.  He thought that oil pills ejected by S.B.T. were also most valuable in confusing aircraft, who were too easily tempted to bomb oil tracks.  He did not think that any Allied aircraft could carry more than eight or nine D/Cs and said that they always counted the number of detonations before resurfacing following an aircraft attack.  
          The First Lieutenant said that, if surprised by an aircraft, orders were to dive to 120 ft. with helm hard over to port or starboard.  If the aircraft was seen to be a large on capable of carrying a considerable number of depth-charges, the diving depth was likely to be 260 ft.  Another prisoner stated that U-Boats were now being equipped with four 20 mm. machine guns, so that they could fight it out with aircraft, if surprised on the surface.  
          A Petty Officer prisoner said that, when discovered by Asdics, their policy was to turn either bows on or stern on to the attacking vessel, in order to present a narrow a reflecting surface as possible.  
  (xxviii)  Passage from North Sea to Atlantic  
          The first Lieutenant believed that an order from Admiral U-Boats exists instructing U-Boats to remain submerged during the hours of daylight when proceeding to the Atlantic from home bases until they are clear of the Rosengarten  
  (xxix)  Welding Equipment  
          Both gas and electric welding equipment are carried by all U-Boats.  One prisoner, a welder in civil life, said that he had used electric welding in "U 187" to repair the compressor for the ventilating system used when on the surface.  He did not know what the maximum current available for welding was.  
          Every U-Boat carried a rating with a certain amount of training in welding.  
  (xxx)  U-Boats in the Black Sea  
          A prisoner said that 24 250-ton U-Boats had been transported to the Black Sea, where they were now operating.  They were considered the most suitable type for Black Sea operations.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  It is considered that not more than six U-Boats are operating in the Black Sea.)  
  (xxxi)  Manning of U-Boats
          Prisoners said that large numbers of men serving in the largest surface ships were now being drafted to U-Boats.  
          The First Lieutenant believed that Admiral Dönitz, in his new capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the German Navy, intended to insist that all men serving in surface warships should undergo U-Boat training to facilitate later drafting should an emergency arise.  
          The following list of U-Boat types was given by the First Lieutenant:  
VII C Standard 500 tons.
VII D 500-ton minelayer, slightly longer than Type VII C, with 5-6 vertical shafts in line, abaft the conning tower, and sunk through the U-Boat's pressure hull.
IX C Standard 740-tons.
IX D 740-ton minelayers.
X 1,600-ton supply U-Boats.
XIV 1,200 tons.


          It was apparent from prisoners' statements that, apart from the comparatively new 1,200-ton type U-Boat, trials are going forward on other types, notably a 1,600-ton minelayer, and on midget U-Boat types.  Trials with midget types are taking place at a small covered yard at Hel, where rigid security measures are in force.  The following details of new U-Boat types have been given by prisoners:  
  (i)  1,600-ton Minelayer  
          A P.O. Telegraphist prisoner claimed to have seen this type on two occasions.  They have 12 mine-shafts, carrying four mines in each.  The shafts are situated fore and aft and on each side of the conning-tower.  Prisoners believed this type to have been built by the Germania Yards, Kiel.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Previous reports stated that the 1,600-ton minelayers have 18 mine shafts.  This type is built at the Germania Yards, Kiel.)  
  (ii)  1,200-ton Type  
          A Stoker P.O. described the 1,200-ton type as being very similar to the 740-ton type.  The pressure hull compartment layout is identical, the main engine room naturally being larger.  The whole U-Boat is very little broader in the beam than a 740-tonner, although considerably longer.  He thought that this form had been designed to enable higher speeds to be reached.  
          This prisoner said that when "U 187" left Deschimag, Bremen, in July, 1942, the yards had three 1,200-tonners on the stocks; of these, only one was nearing completion, and she was having her engines installed.  He stated that these engines were six Mercedes Benz E-boat type (V20 cylinders) Diesels.  The engines were mounted in two groups of three abreast, the after group being higher than the forward group, so that the latter's shafts passed underneath the after group.  The gearing and drive were totally enclosed, and were apparently so arranged that any suitable combination of engines could be used to drive the two electric motors and propeller shafts.  With all six engines 12,000 h.p. would be developed, giving a surface speed of 27 knots.  
          The other two 1,200-tonners on the stocks were to be fitted with two M.A.N. 9-cylinder Diesels with electric motors on the same shafts in the usual manner.  Forward of these units were two M.W.M. 8-cylinder Diesels, known as "Lademotoren" (charging engines), each coupled to a dynamo.  These latter units are used:  
                  (a)  To charge the batteries.  
                  (b)  To run the motors when going full speed on the surface.  
                  (c)  To supply power to equalise shaft speed when running Diesel-electric on one main Diesel only.  
                  (d)  To run Diesel-electric at economical speeds.  
          The prisoner also stated that, although the hulls of all the 1,200-tonners are the same, there is a third engine room layout, probably used in the case of semi-supply U-Boats, with two 6-cylinder and two 4-cylinder Diesels.  (N.I.D. Note.  Semi-supply U-Boats have not been previously mentioned.)  
          It was said that 1,200-tonners were being constructed in twos and threes by three different yards.  The First Lieutenant believed that a short series of 1,200-tonners, probably consisting of six U-Boats, preceded"U 181," and that a latter series starts at "U 190."  
          A number of prisoners said that they had seen 1,200-tonners working up in the Baltic.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  On 15th July, 1942, there were 12 boats of this type on the slips in the whole of the Deschimag yard.  This type is being built at Deschimag, Bremen, only.)  
  (iii)  Midget Type U-Boat  
          A number of prisoners alleged that they had seen a midget U-Boat at Hel, where she was under going trials in December, 1942.  To a P.O. Telegraphist, she appeared larger than pictures he had seen of the Japanese two-man submarine, although only 22 to 26 ft. of the superstructure could be seen above water.  There is a form of wave-breaker with streamlined fairings to the conning-tower.  Immediately abaft the conning-tower there is a hatch, astern of which the superstructure curves down to water level.  A periscope is fitted.  In the fore part of the conning-tower there is a water-tight observation port.  About half way down the hull, on either side, are two exhaust outlets, which show when surfaced.  The U-Boat has twin propellers and twin torpedo tubes forward.  To load torpedoes, the U-Boat is lifted from the water by a crane.  The prisoner thought that the complement was four or five men.  He alleged that Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren was on board on several occasions, and it was rumoured in early December, 1942 that trials would be completed in six weeks' time.  
          According to an engineer to whom the prisoner spoke, boats of this type are intended to be carried by parent ships to their area of operations.  Another prisoner said these parent ships might well be converted whale-oil factory ships.  
          Two Petty Officers thought the boat might attain 15 knots.
          The P.O. Telegraphist said that the 22 to 26 ft. of superstructure showing above the water looked itself like a small U-Boat, but that under water the hull was probably about 48 ft. in length.  He thought that the U-Boat was built at Kiel.  
          The first Lieutenant described the boat as an U-Schnellboot (U-Speed boat).  
  (iv)  Hanomag E-Boats  
          A Stoker Petty Officer claimed to have been on board a form of Hanomag E-Boat lying at Deschimag Yard, Bremen.  


          The dimensions of the boat are approximately; length 25 m., beam 3-1/2 m., draught 2 m., maximum height above water-line 3 m.  The hull construction is all-metal on closely-spaced frames with diagonal bow reinforcement.  They are apparently designed solely for ramming.  (N.I.D. Note.  A First Lieutenant has referred to "Rammboote".)  There are two decks.  No torpedo tubes are carried but the exhaust silencers might well be mistaken for such.  The twin exhaust silencers are heavily protected with wire mesh and lie one on either side of the control position.  
          There are three compartments containing the following equipment:  
          Forward compartment.  Two-cylinder auxiliary Diesel, driving a 2-stage compressor and electric generator.  
          Centre Compartment.  Four new type M.A.N. 2-stroke, double-acting, ultra-high-speed Diesels.  These engines are said to develop a very high horse-power for their size and produce between 1,000 and 2,000 h.p. each.  
          The forward pair of engines are directly coupled to the two propeller shafts, whereas the after pair are offset on the outboard sides of the shafts to which they are geared.  
          After Compartment.  This is very small and is probably a store room.  
          Speed.  Estimated by various prisoners to be 50 knots.  
          General Appearance.  The name of this boat is possibly a nickname derived from the fact that when at rest, she looks like a Hanomag car (roughly resembling an elongated baby Fiat (500 c.c.).  
          When going at speed, the whole boat is obscured (possibly intentionally) be her bow wave.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Other reports (graded C.3) have referred to similar types of boats which may travel on the surface or submerged.  This type of boat has been reported as fitted with a detachable explosive bow or torpedo tube.  The type mentioned has not been identified by reconnaissance aircraft or met with in service.  It is probable that Germany is developing a craft similar to the Italian human torpedo and the two accounts given of the midget submarine and Hanomag may possibly refer to it.)  
  (i)  Battle Cruiser "Gneisenau"  
          120 men were killed when "Gneisenau" received a direct hit during an air raid on Kiel on March, 1942.  The work of fitting new bows was still going on in January, 1943.  
   (ii)  Cruiser "Köln"  
          A prisoner said that structural alterations have been made to the cruiser "Köln," which now has two funnels.  
  (iii)  "Monte Sarmiento"  
          Prisoners stated that when this U-Boat depôt ship was gutted by fire during an air raid at Kiel in January, 1942, 300 ratings were trapped below decks and burnt alive.  The vessel burnt for four days.
  (iv)  "Seeburg"  
          This vessel, formerly the "Adelaide Star" (Blue Star Line, 11,400 tons), was seized by the Germans when they entered Copenhagen.  She was renamed "Seeburg".  A prisoner had served in her until February, 1942.  She had spent much time acting as a tactical training ship for torpedo firing, and had also taken part in a number of operations, which included the Finnish campaign, when she was used as a transport.  When she was first seized, another ship in the same yards, of the same type but slightly smaller, was also taken.  
  (v)  "Lo Fjord"  
          Stated to have been formerly the yacht of King Haakon.  Burnt out in the Free Harbour at Danzig in December, 1941, or January, 1942, as a result of sabotage.  "Lo Fjord" was being used as a depôt ship for officers of the 8th U-Boat Flotilla at the time and prisoners thought that a large number were killed, including an Engineer Officer who had formerly served with Kapitänleutnant Endrass, known to have been lost in "U 567".  Another casualty was Oberleutnant Radke, former Commanding Officer of  "U 148."  
  (vi)  "Drechtdijk"  
          A prisoner said that in February, 1942, he joined an 8,000-ton Dutch freighter, "Drechtdijk," which plied up the Norwegian coast as far as Trondheim.  She usually carried soldiers in both directions and occasionally prisoners of war from Norway to Germany.  The prisoner left the ship in May, 1942.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The "Drechtdijk," 9,338  gross tons, was formerly owned by the Holland-America line of Rotterdam.)  
  (vii)  "Ilse" (or "Else") "Howaldt"  
          A 5,000-ton freighter which in May, 1942, was being converted into a troop transport at the Stulken Yards, Hamburg.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  There is no confirmation of the existence of this vessel.)  


  (viii)  "V.P.208"  
          This 500-600-ton converted fishing trawler, commanded by Chief Petty Officer Ströth, was lost at Brest.  She belonged to the 2nd Patrol Boat Flotilla, based on that port and commanded by Kapitan zur See Schiller.  The flotilla consists of 8-12 boats which operate under the orders of the 3rd Coastal Defence Division.  The boats carry 37 mm. guns.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The 2nd Patrol Boat Flotilla was transferred from Brest to St. Malo in January, 1942.)  
  (i)  Gdynia  
          Personnel of the 2nd U-Boat Training Division at Gdynia are accommodated in the depôt ships "Wilhelm Gustoff," "Oceana" and "Hansa".  The first two lie in the Basin Wojenny No. 2, alongside the north-east quay, opposite the entrance, and "Hansa" alongside at Port Wojenny, opposite the pilots' wharf.  
          "Hansa" accommodates officers and trainee P.O.s.  In "Wilhelm Gustoff" are the 1st-6th and 9th companies of the training establishment, each of about 150 men, and certain P.O. instructors.  There is a cinema on board.  The remaining companies, the 7th and 8th, are accommodated in "Oceana."  
          The 22nd U-Boat (School) Flotilla boats lie at Oxhoeft and the permanent staff is housed in barracks there.  
          50-60 men are sent daily from the depôt ships of the 2nd U-Boat Training Division to do courses and receive instruction in schoolboats; about six trainees being taken in each.  These U-Boats return to their berths from exercises at about 1800; lectures on board finish at about 1900.  
          The daily routine in "Wilhelm Gustoff" was given as follows:  
0700 Call the hands.
0745 Hands to breakfast.
0830 Leave ship for instruction ashore.
1300 Return to dinner.
1400 Instruction ashore.
1600 Quarters.
1800 Supper.
  In the summer the routine starts one hour earlier, the extra time being used for physical training.  
          Instruction takes place in buildings between the naval barracks and the Basin Wojenny No. 1, and the A/S school adjoins these immediately to the north.  There are also quarters for the instructional staff of the 2nd U-Boat Training Division and for W/T personnel under instruction.  Elementary courses are given in a number of hutments to the east of Port Wojenny.  
          In most of these buildings personnel is undergoing instruction from 0800 to 1700.  
          There are 20 mm. A/A guns on two air raid shelters, one north of "Hansa," the other north-east of "Oceana" and "Wilhelm Gustoff."  
          U-Boats arriving at Gdynia for tactical exercises lie alongside two wooden moles on the Basin Wojenny No. 2.  On arrival, W/T personnel board the depôt ships "Kophammel" and "Wilhelm Bauer" for instruction, while U-Boat captains attend a conference.  
          U-Boats leave for about two days' preliminary tactical exercises, return for a few hours' instruction and leave for 6-8 days exercises proper.  These are controlled from a wireless station in Port Wojenny.
          Other ships connected with the tactical exercises include "Isar," "Erwin Wassner" and the target ship "Nordstern."  
          The Torpedo Trial Command ("T.E.K.") is situated at Port Drzewny.  Here there are barracks to house the crews of U-Boats at the Command, and the depôt ship "Nautilus" with torpedo-firing equipment stowed on board.  


  (ii)  Hel  
          The depôt ships of the U-Boat Training Group Command ("Agru-Front") lie inside the mole at Hel.  These were "Zwakopmund" (now moved), accommodating officers and P.O.s of U-Boats there.  ""Preussen" for ratings, and "Odin," in which are the staff officers and telephone exchange, etc.  
          The U-Boats of the Training Group lie alongside the mole.  
          The "Agru-Front" is under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren.  His First Lieutenant is Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Müller, Dipl. Ing.  Other officers are Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Zetsching and Kapitänleutnant (Ing. Wltze (?).  
  (i)  Glückstadt  
          In July/August, 1941, the 14th Manning Division moved to Breda from Glückstadt.  
  (ii)  Hamburg  
          The First Lieutenant said that he believed a new U-Boat flotilla base was now being established at Hamburg.  
  (iii)  Kiel  
          The floating pressure dock is about one and a half times the length of a 750-ton U-Boat and broad enough to enable a U-Boat of this tonnage to enter with half her beam to spare.  It resembles a floating dry-dock, but is domed on top.  It is camouflaged, protected by torpedo nets and frequently towed to different positions in the harbour area.  There is an entrance at one end, which is screwed up when a U-Boat is inside.  
          Each U-Boat spends half a day in the dock.  Her tanks are flooded and she is tested to approximately 10 kg. per square centimetre (142 lb. per sq. in.).  
  (iv)  Leba (Pomerania)  
          One prisoner, who joined the Navy in October, 1942, had done his infantry training here.  There was only one company of over 200 men, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Dr. Neff.  
  (v)  Memel  
          The 24th Torpedo Firing Flotilla for new U-Boat captains was based on Memel in November, 1942.  
  (vi)  Pillau  
          The following information (as at February, 1942) was given by one prisoner:  
          There are two divisions to the 1st U-Boat Training Division (I. U-Bootslehrdivision) at Pillau.  The first division is for officers and petty officers, who are accommodated in the depôt ship "Pretoria" under Korvettenkapitän (Ing.) d.R. Fritz Giloi, who was a U-Boat Engineer Officer in the last war.  The second division, accommodated in "Robert Ley" is for ratings, and under Korvettenkapitän (Ing.) Zerpka.  
          The daily routine of the second division in "Robert Ley" is as follows:  
0700 Call the hands.
0715-0800 Hands to breakfast (three watches).
0800-0830 Divisions.
0830-1130 Clean ship.  Trainees to instruction.
1130-1155 Stand easy.
1155-1250 Hands to dinner.
1250-1400 Stand easy.
1400-1600 Trainees to instruction.
1600-2300 Free.  (Liberty men 1700-2200).
1700-1900 Hands to supper.
2300 Pipe down.
  Personnel of the first division are allowed shore leave from 1600 until the next morning.  
          Based on Pillau is the 21st U-Boat School Flotilla.  Personnel is accommodated in the depôt ships "Kamerun," Knowwhahn," "Donau," and "Saar."  U-Boats attached to the flotilla were said always to moor alongside this line of depôt ships.  
          Positions of the base depôt ships were given as "Pretoria" alongside the railway station quay in the narrow entrance to the "Hinterhafen"; the ships "Kamerun," "Knorrbahn," "Donau" and  


  "Saar" in line astern of "Pretoria" towards the "Hinterhafen"; and "Robert Ley" in the already known position alongside the quay between the fishing harbour and the entrance to the "Hinterhafen."  
          Other ships at Pillau are believed to be a flotilla each of patrol boats and minesweepers, lying in the "Hinterhafen," and two heavily-armed guardships of 700-800 and 1,000 tons, lying in the entrance channel to the "Seetirf."  There is no A/A/ in "Robert Ley" and probably none in the other depôt ships.  
         The First Lieutenant said that in May, 1942, the 26th Torpedo (Firing Flotilla) was based on Pillau.  He did not know whether it had since been moved.  The flotilla was commanded by Korvettenkapitän von Stockhausen, who sometimes instructed himself.  The leading instructor was Oberleutnant Hesemann.  Other officers were Kapitänleutnant (V) Metzer (Paymaster), Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Teichmann (Flotilla Engineer) and Korvettenkapitän Wolf.  
          Normal instruction included practice firing at the target ship "Venus" (5,487 gross tons).  At the end of the course other ships arrived to form a convoy, and one day attack and one night attack upon it were exercised.  The Guard company consisted of one seamanship division.  
          depôt ships attached to the Torpedo Firing Flotilla were "Duala" and "Zwakopmund."  Barracks however have recently been erected and the First Lieutenant thought that the ships had been transferred elsewhere.    
          Six stokers from "U 187," who had all joined the German Navy about October, 1941, were trained at Beverloo.  The course lasted eight weeks and the companies, of which there were six to seven, were named after towns and districts, such as "Boulogne," "Calais" and "Rheingebiet."  Survivors were impressed with the size of the establishment.  
  (i)  Hennebont  
          One survivor said that with 90 U-Boat trainers from Neustadt he had been transferred to Hennebont, a few miles north-east of Lorient.  Only about 20 men were there when they arrived.  They were billeted in an old monastery.  
  (ii)  St. Nazaire  
          The shelters are completely self-contained and all repairs on U-Boats are carried out inside.  It was pointed out that, as far as moving torpedoes, batteries, engines, etc., is concerned, this is considerably easier with an overhead traveling crane, as fitted in each shelter, than with ordinary quayside cranes.  
  (iii)  Lorient  
          Shelters have sliding iron double doors, 3 ft. apart, each of a thickness of 4-5 ins., protecting the entrance.  
  (iv)  Les Sables d'Olonne
          The 27th M/S Flotilla is based on Les Sables d'Olonne.  
          One prisoner had done his preliminary training on entering the Navy in October, 1941, at the 13th Manning Division, Libau.  This lasted for eight weeks.  
          The 20th Manning Division is at Ede under the command of Fregattenkapitän Treichel.  Field training of naval new entries is under both naval and military officers.  
          The 4th M/S Flotilla is based on Stavanger.  It consists of old ships which are used to escort shipping from Stavanger to Kristiansand S.  The only numbers of ships to prisoners were 84 (C.O. Oberleutnant zur See Hille) and 110.  
  (i)  Torpedo-carrying Aircraft  
          One prisoner had seen Ju.88s and old-type biplanes doing torpedo exercises at Gdynia.  He said the Ju.88s carried two torpedoes and attacked from various angles, but usually on the beam at a height of 30 m. (approximately 100 ft.) making their get-away by flying between the masts.  


  (ii)  Propaganda Broadcasts  
          It is now quite obvious that Admiralty propaganda broadcasts are widely listened to by both officers and ratings in the German Navy.  
          One prisoner also mentioned that scandal stories about Party Leaders, broadcast by a secret station on the 25- and 48-metre bands, were received with much amusement.  
          Another prisoner said he had believed, with everybody else in Germany, the sinking figures issued by the German Propaganda Ministry, until, lying in hospital in England, he had an opportunity of reading the "Lagerpost."  He was then satisfied that, although all official communiqués from all the belligerents are exaggerated, the British are, nevertheless, nearer the truth.  
  (iii)  Korvettenkapitän Prien  
          One prisoner told of a tremendous reception given to Prien on his return from his penultimate patrol.  They were met by girls with flowers; the girls being referred to as "Officers' mattreses."  At 0400 the next morning a drunken Prien returned to find one dirty ashtray on board his U-Boat.  He ordered all hands to clean ship until daylight.  The U-Boat was lost on its next patrol, and the prisoner believed that this was due in part to the poor morale on board, which had developed following this and other similar incidents.  
  (iv)  Korvettenkapitän von Stockhausen  
          It was stated that Korvettenkapitän von Stockhausen is not popular with Admiral (U-Boats), in spite of his tireless work with the 26th Flotilla.  Here, he would even take over the command of a U-Boat for a whole week, while the Captain had leave to get married.  
          The First Lieutenant mentioned a party he had attended with von Stockhausen and his wife and the Consul-General of Columbia, after which a Gestapo report was made as follows:  
                  "Baltic Station, signed Chief of Staff.  
                  "Recently, naval officers have frequented the house of the Consul-General of Columbia in Scharbeutz.  Among others there was an officer named Stockhausen.  It appears that this officer mentioned military matters.  In Baltic Station Orders it has now been laid down that officers may not consort with foreign diplomats."  
          The prisoner added that mention had never been made of military matters.  
  (v)  Cadet Count Kyburg  
          Leutnant zur See Strait said that Cadet Count Kyburg of the 1940 German Navy List was, in reality the Archduke Franz Ferdinand von Hapsburg.  He had had to leave the German Navy, as he was found to be totally unfit for any form of duty.  He was now studying at the High School for International Commerce.  


          (Note.  Interrogation results appertaining to Appendix "A" have been supplemented by extracts from the diary of P/W Liedler, a Seaman Torpedoman.)  
  (i)  Building  
          "U 187" was built at the Deschimag Yards, Bremen.  It has not been established when she was laid down or launched.  It is believed that her yard number was W.1027, and that she was built in one of Berths 7 to 11.  
          The first members of her crew to join her arrival at the yards at the end of May, 1942, to stand-by during the final stages of construction.  They were accommodated in former offices of the North German Lloyd Shipping Company.  A few days before commissioning the U-Boat was placed out of bounds for the ship's company while she received her final coat of paint.  
          A prisoner, who was drafted to the U-Boat about five to six weeks before commissioning, said that "U 187" was then already launched and lying about 1,500 yards west of berths numbered 7 to 11 in Harbour A (see Plan 42A, C.B. 1818) on the south side.  Later she was moved 1,500 yards further west on the same side of Harbour A.  Her next position was in the middle of the north side of the "Westhafen" just west of Berths 1 to 5.  She was then moved just to the east of the two long rail jetties lying parallel to each other and to the "Floating Dock."  She was again moved to the east end of the long mole dividing the "Westhafen" from the Weser River, and lay on the far side of it.  Lastly she lay on the south side of the western continuation of Harbour A at a point just off of Plan 42A, C.B. 1818.  
  (ii)  Commissioning  
          "U 187" was commissioned on 23rd July, 1942.  A celebration was held, to which officers and men of "U 188" and "U 189" were invited.  "U 186," whose building had overlapped that of "U 187." had left some time before.   
  (iii)  Departure for the Baltic  
          "U 187" left Bremen for her Baltic trials on 27th July.  Prisoners stated that they had experienced a number of air raids while at Bremen, but neither "U 187" nor the yards had been damaged.  
  (iv)  U.A.K. Trials  
          Passing through the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, "U 187" reached Kiel, where she remained until 12th August undergoing her initial trials with the U-Boats Acceptance Command (U.A.K.).  It is not clear when these trials finished; the captured diary gives "U 187's" movements between 12th and 20th August as follows:  
"12th August To Swinemünde.
13th August Swinemünde. to Stettin, arriving at night.
14th, 15th, 16th, 17th August At Stettin.
18th August 0900, to Swinemünde.; arrived 1300.
19th August At Swinemünde.
20th August 0500, Swinemünde. to Danzig, arriving 2200."
          "U 187" was now wearing a "trials sign" of a red triangle with two bars beneath, on her conning tower.  
  (v)  First Torpedo Firing Practice
          "U 187's" first torpedo firing exercises began on 21st August.  She left Danzig in the early morning hours of the morning and arrived at Gdynia at 0600.  Here she embarked 18 practice torpedoes and fired 12 during exercises.  She fired the remaining six on the following day.  
          On 22nd August the ship's company were granted leave ashore at Gdynia.  
          At 0600 on 24th August, 12 torpedoes were embarked and fired during the day, and at 0600 on 28th August 14 torpedoes were embarked and later fired.  This completed the first torpedo firing exercises.  
  (vi)  Agru-Front  
          At 0700 on 26th August, "U 187" returned to Danzig from Gdynia.  At the same hour on the following day she cleared for sea to begin her first Agru-Front trials off Hel, where prisoners said that 30 U-Boats were assembled.  Prisoners said that on different occasions during these trials Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren and Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) Zschetsching came on board as supervisors and critics.  
          The following extracts from the captured diary describe this period in detail:  
"27th August 0700, ready to proceed.  Diving practice.  Three dives, including two crash dives made.  Best time:  25 seconds (?).
29th August Ready to proceed.  Diving practice until 1400.  Afternoon leave for crew.
31st August 0700 ready to proceed.  Steep angle crash diving practice until afternoon,  (First of course of five special diving exercises.)  Became Flotilla Guard Boat until following noon.
1st September Afternoon crash diving practice from Hel.
2nd September 0800 ready to proceed.  Diving practice to 260 ft.  (Second diving exercise.)
3rd September 1100, ready to proceed.  Operating as Guard Boat until 1300 on 4th September, then returned to Hel harbour.
5th September 0800, ready to proceed.  Timed practice dives until 1800.
6th September 0500, timed practice dives until 1400.  
7th September 0500, ready to proceed.  Diving practice (third exercise).
8th September 0800, ready to proceed.  Third exercises repeated.
9th September 0900, ready to proceed.  Guard Boat until next day at 1500.
11th September 0500, ready to proceed.  Fourth diving exercise.
12th September 0800, ready to proceed.  Fourth exercise repeated.
13th September 0500, ready to proceed.  Fifth exercise.  completing course at Hel.  A minor celebration for the ship's company in the evening.
14th September 0800, ready to proceed.  Fifth exercise repeated.
15th September 0900, proceeded to Gdynia for refuelling; then on to Danzig."


  (vii)  Tactical Exercises  
          "U 187" carried out her tactical exercises from Danzig and Gdynia between 16th September and 14th October.  At this time, it is believed, "U 187" was attached to the Eighth Flotilla, where she came under the orders of Korvettenkapitän Hartmann.  During these exercises Kapitänleutnant Korth spent two days on board instruction and criticising Münnich.  
          The captured diary gives the following details of this period:  
"16th September Embarked ammunition for main and A/A guns.
17th September Embarked nine torpedoes for firing tomorrow.
18th September Torpedo firing did not take place.  Torpedoes disembarked.
21st September 0500, proceeded to sea for firing at convoy target.  A number of abortive attacks were made before a suitable position was achieved and four torpedoes fired
22nd September 0500, embarked five torpedoes and fired four.  This exercise lasted all day and the following night.
23rd September 0600, embarked seven torpedoes; practised day and night firing at destroyers with salvoes of three torpedoes.
25th September 0530, preparations made for embarking torpedoes.
26th September 0630, ready to proceed.  Gunnery and A/A practice.  Two men of A/A crew suffered hand injuries.  Later embarked nine torpedoes.  (Prisoners said that an accident occurred when the breech of the 105 mm. gun was opened too quickly following a hangfire.  The charge exploded with the breech open, wounding one man so badly that he was not able to rejoin the boat.  The two casualties were discharged to the hospital ship "Strassburg" at Gdynia.)
27th September Ten torpedoes fired.  Seven "night torpedoes" (Nachtaale) embarked and fired at night.
28th September Berthed at 1430.  Embarked 10 torpedoes and fired four.
29th September Put to sea.  No firing practice.
30th September Six torpedoes remaining on board returned to shore.
1st October In Gdynia harbour.
2nd October 0400, sailed for attack on target convoy in Baltic.
3rd October Able to approach and attack convoy three times.
4th-12 October Pursuing convoy.
13th October Still close to convoy.  Received instructions to abandon exercise.  Returned in direction of Gdynia.
14th October Proceeded to Danzig in afternoon."
  (viii)  Miscellaneous Trials  
          Having returned to Danzig, "U 187" spent from the 15th to the 25th of October carrying out further torpedo and gunnery trials.  The ship's company, when in harbour, were accommodated in the depôt ships "Deutschland" and "Hamburg."  
          According to the diary, these additional trials took place as follows.  
"16th October Prepared to embark torpedoes.
17th October No torpedoes embarked.  Ship's company on leave.
18th October 0500, embarked nine torpedoes; fired them during the day and night.
19th October 0530, embarked seven torpedoes which were not fired.  Refuelled.
20th October 0600, sailed for torpedo firing.  Three torpedoes not fired owing to bad weather.
21st October 0500, embarked seven torpedoes; fired more than 10.
22nd October 0500, embarked seven torpedoes; fired them during the day and night.
23rd October 1000, left for gunnery practice.  Fired 100 rounds.  Seas were heavy and soaked the gun's crew to their waists.
24th-25th October Crew on leave in watches."
          (N.I.D. Note.  It will be noted that, during the above-mentioned trials and exercises, approximately 100 torpedoes were fired.)  
  (ix)  "U 187" Rams another U-Boat  
          At 0800 on 26th October, "U 187" sailed for her hydrophone trials.  While submerged she rammed another U-Boat which the First Lieutenant said was a 740-tonner, either "U 525" or "U 526."  The interior of "U 187" was thrown into confusion; the periscope bent over, the conning tower damaged, and the dinghy lost.  The First Lieutenant admitted that the ramming was due to a "deplorable piece of seamanship" on the part of "U 187."  
          "U 187" immediately returned to Danzig, where the periscope was replaced on the next day (27th October).  On 28th October, at 0400, "U 187" left Danzig for Swinemünde, arriving at 2000.  She left again at 1000 on 29th October for Stettin, where she arrived at 1200.  
  (x)  Final Adjustments at Stettin  
          On 30th October all moveable gear within the U-Boat was removed and she was handed over to the Oderwerke Yards for final adjustments, under the supervision of Oberleutnant (Ing.) Reibnitz, who had previously served in "U 43," but was later appointed Flotilla Engineer at Stettin.  
          Work done on "U 187" at this time included:  
(a) Repair of a small leak in a port fuel tank which had been found to be causing a surface oil trace.
(b) Repair and strengthening of extensible look-out mast, which had been fractured, having been left improperly secured in heavy seas.
(c) Repair of clutch of port Diesel engine.
(d) Lengthy repairs to steering gear.
(e) Adjustments to torpedo tubes in preparation for possible use with new types of torpedoes.


          While these repairs and alterations were being carried out, the ship's company were housed in neighbouring barracks.  They were required to do light duties and to attend lectures and educational films.  Long leave was granted in staggered 12-day periods.  
          It was stated that while "U 187" was in the Oderwerke Yards, four or five other U-Boats were also there, among them "U 123," which was refitting after several patrols.  
          Final adjustments were completed by 2nd December; provisions were embarked on that day.  
  (xi)  Second Agru-Front Trials at Hel  
          Owing to previous difficulties with her steering gear, "U 187" returned to Hel on 3rd December for further Agru-Front trials.  One Petty Officer prisoner stated that this was not really necessary by Münnich., recently married, wa anxious to dally as long as possible before "U 187" left Germany for good.  The prisoner added that Münnich. blamed Meyer, his Engineer Officer, for the delay and that bad feeling sprang up between the two.  
          The course of the second Agru-Front trials is described in the captured diary as follows:  
"3rd December 0700  Sailed for Hel and arrived next day.
4th-5th December Remained in Hel harbour.
6th-12th December At sea in afternoons.
13th December Remained at Hel and given local leave.
14th-17th December At sea until afternoon."
  This period of trials was apparently completed on 17th December.  
  (xii)  Silent Running Trials off Bornholm Island  
          On 18th December "U 187" left Hel for Rönne, on Bornholm Island, where silent-running trials were carried out.  Trials began on 19th December and culminated on 20th December, when "U 187" lay on the bottom off Rönne while she was listened to.  Trials were completed on 21st December; there was a minor celebration on on the afternoon of that day, and at 2100 "U 187" proceeded to Stettin.  
          During the whole of her trials "U 187" had never practiced from another U-Boat.  
  (xiii)  Last Days at Stettin  
          "U 187" arrived back at Stettin on 22nd December, and remained there until 5th January, 1943.  In this time she was once more checked over and provisions and torpedoes were embarked.  She was fuelled from Essolube railway tank cars shunted to a siding at Bredower Werde.  
  (xiv)  Final Preparations at Kiel  
          "U 187" left Stettin on 6th January and arrived at Kiel on the morning of the 8th.  Four days were now spent in final preparations for her first patrol.  During this time, prisoners stated, "U 187's" G.S.R. gear was fitted.  She took a further 140 tons of fuel.  
          Two Petty Officers were discharged for being involved in a scandal concerning the pilfering of provisions.  
          The crew were told that "U 187" now belonged to the 10th U-Boat Flotilla (they had previously belonged to the 4th) and that their final destination was to be Lorient, whither their personal kit was despatched.  Their patrol, if it all went well, was to last a maximum of 80 days.  
          On the night of 11th January there was a final celebration on board, during which the officers broached a bottle of White Label Scotch whisky, described as a very rare luxury in present-day Germany.  
          "U 187" had a complement of 54.  This consisted of five officers, including one midshipman, six Chief Petty Officers, 11 Petty Officers and 32 other ratings.  Of these numbers three officers, five Chief Petty Officers, eight Petty Officers and 29 other ratings survived.  
  (i)  Captain  
          The Captain of "U 187" was Oberleutnant zur See Ralph Münnich., who is missing.  The exact manner of his death has not been determined.  Münnich., age about 32, was a native of Wuppertal in the Ruhr district.  He joined the Navy in 1935 but was later transferred to the German Air Force.  It was said that he had taken part in a hundred war flights and had won the Iron Cross, 2nd Class.  He was retransferred to the Navy in 1941/42 as a prospective U-Boat Captain.  Prisoners stated that he had made only one patrol prior to taking over "U 187."  For that patrol he had served as First Lieutenant in a U-Boat whose number has not been ascertained.  
          The picture of Münnich. presented by prisoner's evidence is not a happy one.  He was popular with some men and unpopular with others.  In general, he appears to have been anxious to do well, but irresolute and uncertain in his decision.  His lack of decision was illustrated in the events which led up to the sinking of "U 187."  The following story is a further example.  Münnich. was a non-smoker.  When "U 187" started her first patrol he found that men smoking in the conning tower (a usual practice in surfaced U-Boats) had caused the conning tower drain pipes to be come clogged with cigarette-ends.  This meant that Münnich. was constantly getting his feet wet when he sat down at the attack periscope.  Because of this he forbade smoking in the conning tower for the entire ship's company.  This order was broken by the Chief Petty Officers, later by the Petty Officers, and finally by the other ratings.  After 10 days, during which he stormed and railed at his men, Münnich. finally gave in and ordered ash trays to be placed inside the conning tower.  Leutnant zur See Boschmann had no hesitation in telling interrogators that he had a poor opinion of his captain, and that had he been in command, "U 187" would be still afloat.  Other prisoners stated that Münnich. had quarreled with both his First Lieutenant and his Engineer Officer.   
          One Petty Officer said that when he was first introduced to Münnich. he thought to himself, "If that man is to be our captain the U-Boat is bound to be lost."  
          Münnich. was only very recently married.  His bride was described as young and beautiful, devoted to her husband, whom she followed to every port "U 187" visited during Baltic trials.  The pair met at the famous White Horse Inn in the Wolfgangsee, and because of this a White Horse was adopted as "U 187's" conning tower badge.  
          It was alleged that Münnich. often dipped into the U-Boat's larder and packed up parcels of delicacies which he took home to his wife.  


  (ii)  First Lieutenant  
          Leutnant zur See Rudolf Strait, a 22-year-old Viennese, was senior surviving officer.  In conversation he said that he had always yearned to go to sea and had seized the opportunity to join the German Navy afforded by the Anschluss of 1938.  In that year he sailed to Trinidad in the cadet training ship "Goch Fock," and in 1939 was drafted to the superannuated battleship "Schleswig Holstein" in which he took part in the bombardment of the Westerplatte at the start of the war.  He later attended a torpedo course and became a qualified torpedo officer.  He said that in 1941/42 he had served, during trials, in a U-Boat commanded by an Oberleutnant Odo Löwe.  "U 187" was, however, the first U-Boat in which he had made a war patrol.  He had also seen some service with E-boats and had trained as an observer with the German Fleet Air Arm.  
          Strait, a bulky blond young man, was quite pleasant to talk to, but his character was marked by much of the Laissez-faire spiritlessness of the Viennese.  He displayed no Nazi arrogance and had a wholesome respect for the Russians.  He is a devout Catholic and one of his first requests was for a Bible.  He was most grateful for the kindly treatment he had received in "Beverley."  
  (iii)  Second Lieutenant  
          The Second Lieutenant, Leutnant zur See Hans Georg Buschmann is a tight-lipped young Hun who has just celebrated his 21st birthday.  His home is at Weimar.  
          Buschmann joined the German Navy in 1939.  In spite of his youth he claimed to be an experienced U-Boat man and to have completed a number of patrols with well-known U-Boat captains.  He refused further details.  He holds the Iron Cross, 2nd Class, the U-Boat badge and the minesweeper badge, the last-named for service in a minesweeper off the French coast in 1940.  
          Although aged beyond his years by his experiences, his outlook on life is still immature and indeterminate.  He is given to hero-worshipping and stated that his two favorites among the U-Boat captains were Korvettenkapitän von Stockhausen and Kapitänleutnant Reinhardt Suhren.  Stockhausen he admires because "he combines all the virtues of a typical Prussian officer" (f) and Suhren "because he could drink the whole of the rest of the U-Boat arm under the table.  
          Buschmann said that two of his brothers were serving in the German Army before Stalingrad and he believed they must be either dead or captured.  He added that a brother-in-law of his, named Geisser, was formerly a Youth Leader in the National Socialist Party, but he had fallen into disfavour in 1930 or 1931 when, as the result of a Party quarrel, he had challenged Balder von Schirach, present leader of the Hitler Youth, to a duel.  Schirach had evaded the challenge.  
          Buschmann, himself, was a staunch although not arrogant Nazi.  He professes extreme admiration for the quality of the British sailors he met in "Beverley."  He said:  "For the first time I realised that the British sailors are true seamen, while the men was call sailors are really only soldiers.  Some of our "seamen" couldn't even tie a rope when they came on board."  
          Buschmann was not popular on board "U 187."  His shipmates considered him conceited and said that he was always giving himself airs as a "superman."  In reality, they added, he was a coward, who had lost his head completely during the sinking.  
  (iv)  Engineer Officer  
          Little has been discovered about Leutnant (Ing.) Kurt Meyer, who did not survive, apart from the fact that he seemed to be an efficient and popular officer.  He had been promoted from the lower deck.  His home was at Magdeburg and he was recently married.  
  (v)  Midshipman  
          The midshipman, Fähnrich zur See Jürgen Brehm, aged nineteen, joined the German Navy on 1st January, 1941.  He was ignorant, inexperienced, security-conscious and in every respect an incorrigible young Nazi.  
  (vi)  General  
          The remainder of the ship's company presented a good average of previous U-Boat experience when compared with other crews recently captured.  Quite a number had made three or four previous patrols in other U-Boats, while two men had made as many as nine and eleven war cruises, respectively.  It may well be that this wealth of experience within the U-Boat contributed towards undermining the confidence of the ship's company, generally in their Captain.  
           It could not be said that "U 187" was a happy ship.  There was much quarrelling and bickering, particularly over the amount of food various members of the crew pilfered from the U-Boat when they were given leave.  In the matter of misappropriating ship's stores a bad example was set by Münnich himself, and by Strait, whose habit it was to leave a large bag in the galley which he instructed the cook to fill for him.  
          According to one Petty Officer prisoner, "U 187's" complement had no intention of dying a "hero's death" to escape capture.  He said that before the patrol started, a number of senior C.P.O.s and P.O.s had secretly sworn that if Münnich, in an emergency, decided to sink the U-Boat with all hands, they would rush the controls and surface her.  
          The following translation of a notice taken from the cook of "U 187" indicates the rate of consumption of stores in the boat.  
         "Cook, remember we shall be fourteen weeks at sea!  
Consumption of Stores
Butter 4.4 lbs.
30.3 lbs
Cooking fat 1.6 lbs.
12.2 lbs.
Coffee 14 ozs.
6.1 lbs.
Sugar 5.5 lbs.
38.5 lbs.
Milk 17 tins
119 tins."


  (i)  Raider 16  
          An Able Seaman prisoner had served in Raider 16 from the time she left Kiel on 11th March, 1940, till her sinking by H.M.S. Devonshire" on 22nd November, 1941, in position 04° 13' S., 18° 43' W.  The prisoner made the following corrections and additions to information regarding this Raider already published in the C.B. 04051 series:  
          C.B. 4051 (29), page 32 (xiii).  The correct list of officers believed to have served in Raider 16 is the following:  
Captain Kpt. z. See Rogge.
First Lieutenant Klt. Kohn.
1st Divisional Officer Olt. z. See Strecker.
2nd Divisional Officer Klt. Kasch.
3rd Divisional Officer Olt. (Ing.) Kielhorn (engine room)
(There was no 4th Division)  
Navigating Officer Klt. d. Reserve Kament, ex Nord Deutscher Lloyd.
2nd Navigating Officer Obersteuermann Pigors.  (This officer is now said to be Leutnant zur See.)
Mining Officer Olt. z. See Feher.
Torpedo Officer Olt z. See Walbaum.
Pilot Officer (aircraft) Olt z. See Bulla.
Adjutant Olt. z. See d. Reserve Mohr (son of Kapitan zur See Mohr).  This officer was said to be a highly intelligent and travelled man who was the brains of the ship.
Paymaster K. K. Dr. Larenzen.
Surgeon Dr. Reil.
Assistant Surgeon Dr. Sprung.
Meteorological Officer Dr. Collmann.
Prize officers, of which there were six, included:
  Lt. z. See d. Reserve Wogs.
  Lt. z. See Breuers.
  Lt. z. See d. Reserve Mund.
  Lt. z. See Dehnel.  (Prisoner of war.)
  Additional Corrections to C.B. 4051 (29)  
          Page 33, paragraph 3.  The U-Boat which escorted Raider 16 from Kiel on 11th March, 1940 was commanded by Korvettenkapitän Hartmann.  
          Page 35, paragraph 3.  The position of the whaling fleet had been obtained from captured documents.  
          Page 36, paragraph 4.  One of the Americans wounded in the "Zamzam" action died in Raider 16 and was buried at sea.  
          Page 36, paragraph 5.  The torpedo Officer's name was Rodich.  
  Correction to C.B. 4051 (49)  
          Page 16, paragraph 1.  The 6,700-tonner with bridge and funnel amidships was Raider 16.  
  Additional Information  
          The prisoner stated that since 30th May, 1941, Raider 16's exploits were uninteresting, the only ship sunk during the trip round the world was the "Silvaplana."  The raider also called at the French Island of Wana Wana, said to belong to a Pacific group.  Having transferred her prisoners to the supply ship "Kots-Nopan," Raider 16 was able to embark a large part of "Silvaplana's rubber cargo; it was intended to bring this home.  
          Raider 16 met "U 68" (Kapitänleutnant Merten) about five days before she was sunk.  The U-Boat was refuelled and provisioned before she proceeded south.  Five days later rendezvous was made with "U 126" (Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer) (see C.B. 4051 (49), page 17 (ii) ).  At the time of "Devonshire's" attack Bauer was not in a bath on board Raider 16, as was previously believed, but was having a meal in the wardroom.  He was not, however, able to get back on board his U-Boat in time, but he survived the sinking of Raider 16.  
          The prisoner said that Raider 16 sailed with a complement of between 350 and 360.  Her total casualties were 23 men, 12 being killed at the time of her sinking, one dying of sunstroke, one falling off the mainmast while at Kerguelen Island, and one dying of exposure in "Python," sunk in the South Atlantic by "Dorsetshire" on 1st December, 1941.  
          The prisoner admitted that the discipline on board Raider 16 was strict and a lot of work as repeated changes of camouflage were made by Rogge.  During the cruise Rogge seldom mixed with his officers or men, keeping very much to himself.  Once a week he would ask a few ratings to have lunch in his cabin and during the week he would occasionally entertain officers or walk with prisoners.  After the cruise Rogge made a speech, saying he purposely created labour in order that the crew should curse him and not let their minds wander to thoughts of home.  Rogge added that he would willingly take the same ship's company to sea with him again and the prisoner was of the opinion that many would volunteer to serve under him should the circumstances arise.  The entire ship's company were feted in Berlin on their return and 20 were selected for presentation to Hitler at the Reichs Chancellery.
          Kapitan zur See Rogge is now stated to be in charge of officers' training.  Oberleutnant Strecker was given command of a torpedo boat on returning to Germany, but the prisoner thought he had now been reappointed.  Oberleutnant Walbaum was appointed to the Naval Operations Directorate in Berlin.  
  (ii)  Raider 45  
          The same prisoner stated that in January, 1943, he went to visit Rogge, having previously heard that Raider 45 had been sunk.  Rogge confirmed this, saying that the ship was not far out when the sinking occurred.  The prisoner believed that her Commanding Officer, Konteradmiral Robert Eyssen, survived, and he last heard of him as having a command in the Black Sea.  
  (iii)  Raider 26  
          Fitted with G.S.R. and R.D/F., stated to be lying at Trondheim in December, 1942.  A number of ratings from St. Nazaire had been drafted to her.  


(i)  Survivors:
English Equivalent.
Strait, Rudolf Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant
Buschmann, Hans-Georg Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant
16.  2.22
Brehm, Jürgen Fähnrich zur See Midshipman
26.  5.23
Götz, Willy Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
28.  4.15
Lesemann, Hermann Obermaschinist Chief E.R.A.
2.  8.14
Skrzipek, Heinrich Steuermann Chief Q.M., 2nd Class
15.  7.11
Bräutigam, Ali Obermaschinist Stoker, Petty Officer, 1st Class
Günther, Bruno Obermaschinist Stoker, Petty Officer, 1st Class
17.  7.16
Schreiber, Arno Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
23.  7.21
Leschkat, Alfred Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
9.  9.20
Kossowski, Siegfried Maschinenmaat Stoker, Petty Officer, 2nd Class
16.  9.21
Niestroj, Georg Maschinenmaat Stoker, Petty Officer, 2nd Class
28.  9.20
Beauweiler, Herbert Maschinenmaat Stoker, Petty Officer, 2nd Class
Preuschoft, Günter Maschinenmaat Stoker, Petty Officer, 2nd Class
3.  3.20
Grätz, Franz Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
11.  7.19
Tröger, Heinz Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
28.  2.20
Schulz, Hans Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
Bäuerlein, Fritz Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
10.  2.10
Schröter, Werner Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
25.  6.22
Sohn, Otto Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
28.  5.22
Konieczny, Ernst-Karl Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
12.  8.22
Schmidtke, Hans-Wolfgang Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
26.  8.23
Römer, Bernard Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
11.  5.20
Geist, Willi Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
13.  3.21
Wesemeyer, Adolf Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
12.  9.20
Noss, Walter Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
Klonz, Gerhard-Helmut Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Silbermann, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
Ludwig, Erwin Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
9.  2.23
Fassbach, Friedrich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
24.  4.22
Noack, Otto Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
12.  7.21
Heidemann, Herbert Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Fröhlich, Wilhelm Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
Dickel, Ernst Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
15.  1.24
Körner, Hubert Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
15.  1.21
Gertsch, Gotfried Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
6.  5.23
Fritzsch, Hans Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
28.  9.22
Gauckler, Willi Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
7.  1.23
Niermann, Hermann Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
14.  8.22
Schumann, Hans Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
20.  6.23
Fink, Werner Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
Wernard, Alfred Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
13.  3.24
Gielissen, Willi Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
24.  7.21
Rothaupt, Kurt Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
29.  5.24
Liedler, Ernst Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
28.  1.23
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .


  (ii)  Casualties:  
English Equivalent.
Münnich, Ralph Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant.
Meyer Leutnant (Ing.) Sub-Leutnant (E).
Stieg* Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class.
Bietz Bootsmann Chief Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class.
Haas Maschinenmaat Stoker, Petty Officer, 2nd Class.
Meier* Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class.
Lentsch, Franz Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Scheibel, Paul* Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class.
Pryk Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
*  Buried at sea.
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (iii)  Total Crew:  
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
  (C49073)  406  8/43  



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