Assembled Interrogations of Matrosengefreiter Gerd Horn and Maschinengefreiter Werner Rast

Prisoner UO-926/41S was Matrosengefreiter Gerd Horn and UN-10842/41T was Maschinengefreiter Werner Rast. These interrogations were conducted at the Joint Interrogation Center at Fort Hunt, Virginia by Navy Intelligence Officers.


Assembled Interrogations of: 1. UO-926/41S
  2. UN-10842/41T
from Dec. 28, 1942 to Jan. 3, 1943
A.A. Guns on "595" 12
Becker, Lieut, Com. 32
Blohm& Voss yards 26
Blotting-out device 14-15
Bombing of cities 1-2
Brest - Submarines Squadrons stationed at 1-19-20
Bülow, Capt. Lt. von 1-19
Cables - defects in "595" electric 1-5-6-7-11
Concentration camps 27
Crews of Submarines - where from 1-24
Directional receiver 15
Funkmelde Beobachtung 23
Gas, not likely to be used 25
Going - Commander 26
Hamburg, harbor 26
Hauptmann, Lieut. Com. 31
Horstig, von - mental condition 6
Lorient - Squadrons there 1
MG 34, on "595" 13
"Mein Kampf", German attitude 27
Morale, submarine crews 25
Morale, in Germany 27-28
Mortar, use of 83 cm 25-26
Oran, in harbor of 10
Pill-thrower (Q.C. Neutralizer) 7-22-23
Priehn, ship commanded by 30
Raeder, Admiral 27
Rollmann, Capt. 31
SS New York at Kiel 24
SS Troops - Fear of in army 28
St. Nazaire - Squadrons there 1
Submarine "595", History of 1
        (1) Launching 1
        (2) Commissioning 2
        (3) As training vessel 3-15
        (4) Cables burned through 3-5
        (5) Quaet-Faslem 4
        (6) "Sea Cows", use of 4
        (7) Destroyer sunk by "595" 4
        (8) "595" damaged 6
        (9) Sinking of 12
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Tables of Contents (Cont'd.)
Submarines, list of 28 ff.
Submarine "755" 20
        (1) Construction of 24
        (2) Officers commanding 20
        (3) Launched 20
        (4) Commissioned 20
        (5) Conning Tower Insignia 21
Submerging in different waters 8-9
Suchergeraetemfaenger 14
Supply ship, for submarines 22
        (1) Submarine type 22
        (2) Described 22
Torpedo, stuck in tube of "595" 16-17
Torpedoes, employed by submarines 21-22
        (1) Weight of 17-21
        (2) Length of 22
Transport, attacked by "595" 10
Training ships 28
U-boats - List of numbers 28-32
Vogel, Lieut. (Supply ship of) 30
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  Interrogation of  
      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
  From December 28, 1942 to January 3, 1943 (inclusive).  
Q. Tell me, what submarine squadrons are stationed at Brest?
1. The ninth is there.
2. And the first, too.
Q. You mean the first and ninth are both in Brest?
1. Yes, sir.
Q. Who is the Commander of the first?
1. Let's see, now.
2. Von Bülow, wasn't it?
1. Yes, that's right, Captain Leutnant von Bülow.
Q. What squadrons are there in Lorient?
1. The second and seventh.
Q. Do you know the names of their commanders?
1. No, I don't.
2. I don't either.
Q. What is at St. Nazaire?
1. I know that the third is there, for I had a friend who was transferred there. I don't know anything about the others.
Q. What is the reconstitution program in Germany after the bombing attacks? Are there many new homes built?
1. I would like to really tell you about that. As you probably have noticed our submarine crews come mostly from Central Germany, the Rhineland and Saxony. When those boys go on furlough, they never go home. Do you know why? Because of air attacks and the misery there. The last time I went home, I didn't recognize the place; homes gone here, there, and everywhere.
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
1. (cont'd.) And every family has some loved one who is dead, missing, or who is a prisoner of war.
Q. Do they rebuild the houses that are demolished?
1. Well, if they can be repaired, yes, but mostly they can't and so they are torn down immediately. There is no material available for civilian construction; only military buildings are constructed.
Q. What happens to the people that are bombed out?
1. They are transplanted into other sections of Germany, for instance, coal miners from the Ruhr district to the coal mine regions of Silesia.
Continuation of Interrogation                                                                       December 29, 1942.
Q. Do you recall when the keel of the "595" was laid?
2. The period of construction varies all the time. Sometimes it takes 11 months, sometimes 12, sometimes 10. There really is no standard time set for the construction.
Q. Then, you don't know when the keel was laid?
2. No, we don't know that.
Q. But, you know when the vessel was launched?
2. That was on the 10th or 12th of September. It must have been within those three days.
1. Yes, on the 10th, 11th, or 12th.
Q. 1941?
1. Yes, 1941.
Q. And when was the submarine commissioned?
2. On the 6th of November.
Q. Did this submarine serve as a training vessel for a short period?
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
1. Yes, for four months.
Q. What was the matter with that boat?
1. I don't know.
2. That was an order. An order was passed down by higher authority that the vessel was to be stripped and to be utilized as a training vessel.
Q. YOu say that it was utilized in that capacity for 4 months?
2. Yes.
Q. Someone told me that there was something wrong with the electrical cables, or with some other electrical installation.
2. I could not even tell you. To my knowledge, the E-machines were in perfect operating condition.
1. Wait a second, could it have been that ....
Q. Yes. I was under the impression that she had been used for that purpose, because something was wrong with the electrical installations. For that reason she had to be temporarily removed from combat operations.
2. No.
1. If such a serious mistake is discovered within a submarine, she will never be used for front line duty.
Q. I thought that, perhaps, she might have been repaired.
2. On the second trip, all the electrical cables burned through.
Q. When you departed from Kristiansand, where there any other submarines with you?
2. Just one.
Q. Which one?
2. It was a large boat. I don't recall what her number was.
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
Q. Was that one of the "sea cows"?
1. Yes.
2. It was a supply ship.
1. A vessel of 1600 tons.
Q. Do you know the number of this supply vessel?
1. No, I don't.
Q. With whom did you go through your tactical exercises?
1. With whom?
Q. Yes, who was the captain?
1. The commandant?
Q. Yes.
2. With our original commandant - Quaet-Faslem. He was our commander since October. In other words, we arrived in Hamburg in October, and from there on we knew who our commander was.
Q. Which route was your boat to take?
1. On our second trip?
Q. Yes
2. It was within the North and Middle Atlantic. Yes, it was within that area, but I cannot give you the exact locations.
Q. You did sink one boat on your second trip?
2. No, we did not sink any vessels at all.
Q. None at all?
2. On the first trip we sank a destroyer, according to statements by our officers and the Lieutenant (sr. gr.), and on the third trip we sank a transport vessel. But we netted nothing on the second trip.
Q. Did you ever have to return to your base, because there was something
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
Q. (Cont'd.) wrong with your submarine?
1. Yes, on the second trip.
2. On the second trip we went through this trouble with the cables. They burned through.
Q. When was that? On which day?
2. I don't recall.
Q. Well, give me an approximate date.
2. It happened very soon after we departed on our second trip.
Q. When did you depart?
2. On the 31st of October. We contacted the convoy approximately on the -
Q. 7th?
2. Yes, approximately. When did we make contact? We made contact on the 7th, and you fellows operated right next to us. On the 7th or 8th we approached the enemy.
1. No, that was 10 days prior to that. It was on the 27 or 28th of October.
Q. October?
2. No, not October. It was in September. On the 27th or 28th of September
Q. On the 27th of September?
2. I cannot give you the exact date, but it was around that time.
Q. That's all right. Of course, I shall check all these dates and testimonies to convince myself of their veracity. Were you attacked by an airplane on your second trip?
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
2. There was an attack under water, and then a destroyer dropped depth charges, while the transport escaped under full steam.
Q. So it was a destroyer which intercepted you?
2. There were several - eight altogether, in addition to three corvettes and the troop transport. We could not catch the troop transport, because she escaped by reaching the speed of 25 sea miles. So we called off our attack and returned to our base.
Q. That was on the 29th of September?
1. On the 10th of September.
2. You say it was on the 29th of September?
Q. Yes.
2. Well, if that was on the 29th, then the damage on the cables occurred on the 30th. Yes, the damage occurred one day after the attack. I think it was then or early on the 31st.
Q. Do you think that this damage was caused by the depth charges?
2. I would not say by the depth charges. There must have been some kind of damage within the cable system, allowing salt water to find its way to them. That was close to the central station, and the short circuit which was thus touched off burned all the cable through.
Q. I guess von Horstig is a little off the beam.
1. I suppose he is just a little too young.
2. In a way you are right. He is a little careless. But why did you bring that up?
Q. He wanted to commit suicide. He thought that he was responsible for the damage which befell the submarine. He was the watch officer at the time.
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
2. No, he was not the watch officer at the time.
1. No, he wasn't.
Q. Anyway, he tried to commit suicide.
2. How?
Q. I think he wanted to hang himself.
1. I know why. The "old man" would have subjected him to a court-martial, if he had returned.
Q. Is that right?
1. The whole crew talked about it. We were all at our stations, ready to leave port on the 31st of October, while he was running around on the pier like a mad-man. All the arsenals and the ordnance depots had been closed, so he tried to get all that stuff from one of the other submarines. He had forgotten to get one of our most vital defensive weapons.
Q. What was that, the anti-aircraft defense?
1. No a device which operates from the boat. The pill-thrower (Q.C. Neutralizer).
Q. Oh, the pill-thrower (Q.C. Neutralizer).
1. Yes he had forgotten the ammunition for that.
Q. My goodness!
1. The squadron commander was already poised in our boat and everything was ready. The "old man" was just waiting for the accomplishment of this task so that he could make his report.
Q. So you did not have any pills.
2. No.
1. But it so happened that we did not need any of them on this trip.
2. No.
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      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
1. But we were submerged in a depth of 150 meters, the sound could not be picked up above the surface. In this case the airplanes could not pick up the sound.
Q. I guess not.
1. The quality of the water makes the difference. If in the Atlantic a depth charge explodes three-tenths of the way down, above the boat, everything trembles like Hell, and you think that the hulk of the boat is about to collapse. In the Mediterranean, the effect is very much diminished, due to the large percentage of salt this water contains and which plays an important part with regards to the protection of the boat.
2. I suppose you are not familiar with this particular phase.
Q. No.
1. For the very same reason, you cannot hear any noises. When we torpedo a vessel, which might be 2,000 meters away, we immediately submerge to a certain depth, so that the destroyers cannot see us.
Q. I understand that different layers of water show different degrees of density and concentration.
1. No, that is not quite correct. The water in the Mediterranean forms a compact mass of its own, and the water in the Atlantic does likewise. The depth has actually no bearing on the density. If a boat in the Mediterranean submerges to a depth of 30 meters, it can be seen by a destroyer just as well as if it would be submerged in the Atlantic at a depth of 150 meters. However, if a destroyer cruises on the surface of the Mediterranean and the submarine is submerged at a depth of 30 meters, the destroyer can pick up the sound a little better, because the noises penetrate to the surface at a much greater speed, the fact for
- 8 -


      1. UO-926/41S  
      2. UN-10842/41T  
1. (cont'd.) which is based on the principle of the sound waves. It is the same principle which is applied to the radio. But it does not make to much difference, and if the submarine has submerged to a greater depth it can hardly be heard on the surface, because the density of the water is so enormous in the Mediterranean, and likewise, the concentration of salt, that it is extremely difficult to pick up any sound.
Q. In the Pacific, extending beyond the west coast of the United States, there are certain layers within the water, into which a submarine can penetrate and float within this layer, as if she were floating on air. Is this same condition prevalent in the Atlantic.
1. No, that does not exist in the Atlantic.
Q. I just heard about it. Do you recall when you passed through the Straits of Gibraltar? Can you give me the approximate date?
2. I could not tell you.
1. I don't recall that either. It may have been a week later, but I could not state the exact date.
Q. In this case it should be on the 6th or 7th of November.
2. Since we departed on the 31st of October, it is extremely possible that it was on the 6th or 7th of November.
1. I was questioned downstairs here about this date, and I told them also that it was about a week later.
2. Yes, on the 6th, 7th, or 8th.
Q. Did you cruise very close to the African coast or more towards the middle of the Mediterranean?
2. I could not tell you that either.
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
Q. Well, of course, you were all the ways down in the submarine with the machines. Did you enter the port of Oran?
2. I don't know that either.
1. Neither do I, but I presume that we did.
2. The officers said that we had been in the harbor.
Q. Where you attacked in the Bay of Biscay?
2. No, we were never attacked.
Q. Do you recall where you launched your attack, during this last trip of yours?
1. That was before Oran.
2. That was before Oran? I was under the impression that it was between Oran and Algiers.
1. I can't say for sure, where it was. It was not in the harbor of Oran, but out in the Mediterranean.
Q. I suppose it was in the vicinity of Oran - north of Oran?
2. Yes, north of Oran, but I cannot give you the exact location.
Q. When you were in this neighborhood, did you know of any submarines that might have been nearby?
1. They maintain radio communications with each other, but it is possible that they are far away from each other.
Q. When you went on your second trip, did you attack this transport one day before you experienced this interruption of your cables? The 26th was mentioned, and then you mentioned the 29th. Could it have been between those dates - on the 28th?
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
2. One day after the attack on the transport, the cable was disrupted. At noon we attacked a transport and 5 o'clock the next morning the cable burned through
Q. You said that you had to return on the 27th, because the cable was disrupted. In that case the attack should have taken place on the 26th. Or perhaps it was on the 28th?
2. I couldn't tell you for sure, when the attack was launched.
Q. What kind of a vessel was the one which you attacked on your last trip?
2. You mean the troop transport?
Q. Yes, you sank one didn't you?
2. No. We didn't sink any.
Q. I mean on the third trip - the last one.
2. Oh yes, on the third trip. That was a large troop transport, but I believe it was empty.
Q. Fine, that checks, too. Why did you first venture on the water at 9 o'clock in the morning? Could you see that there was something wrong with your apparatus, or whatever it was?
2. No. do you mean the machines?
Q. Yes. Was there anything wrong that caused you to surface?
1. That was up to the commandant. That was his decision.
Q. After this attack had been launched upon you, what was the first damage which became most apparent? Did the aft quarters cave in first, or was there damage to the rudder?
2. When we wanted to submerge, the depth control rudder was out of control.
1. Only the lateral rudders had been damaged during the first attack. So we went downstairs, but we could not accomplish anything through manual
- 11 -


  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
1. (Cont'd) operations, either. The depth control rudder could also be operated by hand. Subsequently the fuses of the machine were replaced and the depth control rudder started to function again. Then the order came through: "Emerge". Then we picked up the sound of the airplanes
Q. During the second attack, water penetrated into the stern chamber?
2. Yes, I understand that there was a penetration of water into the stern chamber, but whatever actually happened, I would not know for sure.
1. I did not see any water at all, and I was in the boat all the time.
Q. Now you can tell me something. How many airplanes did you shoot down?
1. I did not shoot down any.
Q. I am referring to the entire crew. I don't care whether you shot them or somebody else. Did anyone on your submarine shoot down any?
1. The "old man" said that we shot down two airplanes. But I was on watch as A.A. gunner, and I should know how many we shot down.
Q. And you think that you didn't shoot down any at all?
1. They were burning like wildfire - motors and everything, and they had to discontinue the attack, but I did not see any of them fall into the sea. I don't believe, however, that they returned to their base. After all, we are not so bad.
Q. What type of A.A. guns do you have?
1. 2 cm. and 3.7 cm.
Q. Don't you have any of those 8.8 cm guns on your submarine?
1. No, that is not a ship's gun at all.
Q. Yes, I know.
1. They might have been on larger vessels.
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
Q. The gun used by the first watch is only an antiaircraft gun?
1. On submarines there are only 3.7. In other words, caliber 3.7 and 2 cm., besides the machine guns.
Q. What are those, heavy or light machine guns?
1. They are light machine guns, but they can be used as heavy ones. They are air-cooled and shoot at the same rate of fire like heavy machine guns.
Q. Is that the MG 34?
1. Yes, it is.
Q. How many of those MGs do you carry with you?
1. Those of the 34 type?
Q. Yes.
1. Four.
Q. They are kept in the conning tower?
1. Yes.
Q. After you had shot down those two attacking planes, were you attacked again?
1. More and more planes attacked. We were attacked at great length. Even on land they kept shooting until we disappeared in the brush.
Q. Is that right?
1. They even shot at us when we were on land.
Q. The airplanes?
1. Yes.
Q. And what about the destroyers?
1. The destroyers fired at us too, while we were on the water and after we had landed.
Q. Then you fellows were fortunate indeed that there were no casualties among you.
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
1. You have no idea how those planes fired at us. After all, we don't have so much ammunition for anti-aircraft defense on board. For that reason we have to conserve ammunition. So we permitted the airplanes to come very close and then we cut loose. Consequently they turned tail, dropping the depth charges, which they had on board, and beat a hasty retreat. Those machines dive from a height of 3,000 meters down to 200 meters, and then they cut loose with machine guns. The entire conning tower was punctured. I was very much surprised that I was not struck by a bullet. The water splashed into the air from the impact. After the attack they circled above us and shot with their machine guns from their rear turret. Besides they dropped some more bombs and engaged in similar tricks. I really was fortunate.
Q. Perhaps there was an angel who protected you.
1. All the little girls are my guardian angles.
Q. Is that the device by the name of "Fu. M.B. Gerät", which you told me about last night - the (Suchgeraetemfaenger) searching device receiver?
2. Yes. If an airplane approaches, we can hear it. It receives the beams, and then there is an apparatus, in a long box, through which we can hear, whenever an airplane is near, or a destroyer. How do you call that?
Q. Those devices are employed on all the submarines?
2. Yes, most of the submarines have them.
Q. And that device which you had was the receiver?
2. Yes.
Q. Did you have a blotting-out device, too?
2. A blotting-out device? No.
Q. Isn't that the device which blots out all the beams from airplanes?
- 14 -


  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
1. There was a device, an under-water device, which blot out beams from destroyers searching device. It blots out the beams which a destroyer sends out.
2. Yes, but not those from airplanes.
Q. What about the directional receiver?
2. The auxiliary device? That is already old. It can be raised out of the boat like a periscope, and if a large vessel is in the vicinity, it can be employed to intercept radio messages.
Q. Did you have that on all the boats?
2. On every boat - on many boats.
Q. You don't know, I don't suppose, on how many kilocycles one of those devices operates? I was under the impression that something was wrong on your submarine, before you started, that the electrical installations had somehow been damaged, which was the cause of the cable disruption during your second trip.
2. I don't know a thing about that. I can only tell you that the cable served as a connecting link between the battery and the E-machine.
Q. But you know that for four months the boat served as a training craft.
2. In January, February, March and April. On the first of May we departed.
Q. Is the 8th Flotilla a flotilla school?
1. That I could not tell you.
2. The submarine was supposed to be a unit of a harbor flotilla in times of peace.
Q. In times of peace?
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
2. Yes, I suppose in times of peace only. But I have no knowledge of its actual mission during times of war.
Q. Were you on the high seas between the 30th of July and the 4th of August?
2. ..... July was on the 23 of July until the - did you say the 4th of August?
Q. Yes, that was on your first trip.
2. That was later. That was on the 14th of August. Yes, until the 15th of August.
Q. Was that the date of your first trip?
2. Yes.
Q. From the 23rd of July to the 15th of August?
2. Yes.
Q. Can you recall whether during the period of the 6th to the 9th of August you participated in a wolfpack attack together with the U-210 and the U-397?
2. I wouldn't know.
Q. Were you together in one pack with Lengerson, and then with Zuhren?
2. I really shouldn't tell. I have heard of those names before, but I don't know anything about any attack.
Q. Here is something else I wanted to ask you. Do you recall that a torpedo was stuck in a tube and that you had to return to Brest for that reason?
2. Yes, that was during the first cruise.
Q. That torpedo was stuck in the tube and you could not remove it?
2. Yes. It did not leave the tube, and we could not pull it out, either.
Q. Isn't that dangerous, if you try to pull one of those torpedoes out?
2. Yes. This particular torpedo did not emerge from the tube at all. it
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
2. (Cont'd.) was still inside the tube, just as it had been loaded, with the leaking cap closed. It was stuck right in the front end of the tube.
Q. And it could not be removed?
2. We could not pull it back and we could not launch it.
Q. And that was on your first cruise?
2. Yes.
Q. Was there no fear prevalent among you that the torpedo might explode in the tube?
2. You just don't think about that. But it was quite possible.
Q. If that should happen, there would be nothing left of the submarine except shreds. My goodness! What difficult work all that is. I'd rather not have anything to do with that, and stick to soldiering.
1. It is already a tough job to load one of those torpedoes into the tube because they weigh almost 30 Zentner (3,000 German lbs.)
2. Yes, 30 Zentner.
Q. And you don't recall whether you were with the others between the 6th and 9th of August.
2. I know that several submarines participated in this attack on the convoy, but I don't know which ones.
Q. You did not approach the same convoy?
2. I could not even say for sure whether the others you mentioned were there, but submarines were there.
Q. Did you attack one of the destroyers with 3 torpedoes?
2. The first destroyer attacked in unison with the corvettes, and we launched 2 torpedoes against her. She was about 800 meters away. When she came 200 meters closer, we recognized her as a destroyer. When she passed by she was enveloped with smoke. But I could not say for sure whether only
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  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
2. (Cont'd.) one or both of the torpedoes hit her. We fired the third at another vessel.
Q. Here is another question, and then we shall come to a close. Which other boats departed with you from Kiel? Do you recall that?
2. That was the supply ship.
Q. She departed with you from Kiel and arrived with you at -
2. Kristiansand. We stayed in Kristiansand for the same period and departed from there at the same time. We stayed together until the evening of the same day. Then they turned towards the west, and we continued in a northern direction.
Q. I suppose you don't know if any of those boats returned which did not participate in that attack on the 6th and the 9th of August. I wonder in particular whether the submarine of Commander Topp was destroyed.
2. Topp? As far as I know I have never seen him.
Q. How about the 210 and the 397, were they destroyed?
2. I know the name of this or that boat. This flotilla is stationed with us.
Q. Who was the commander of the 7th and 9th Flotilla, Lehmann?
2. Lembruck (?).
Q. Who was the commander of the First Flotilla?
2. I don't know.
Q. You don't know that either? It isn't the same as the 9th, is it?
1. I don't think so. The First Flotilla was commanded by another squadron commander. But I don't know his name either.
Q. Don't you recall it?
1. I have never heard the name.
2. That is true, neither have I.
- 18 -


  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
1. Did you get the name of the commander of the First Flotilla from another source?
Q. Yes. His name is supposed to be von Buelow.
2. That may be correct. As a matter of fact, the name does sound familiar to me.
1. Yes, that may be correct.
Q. Do you know the names of the commanders of the 2nd and 7th Flotillas?
2. No, I don't recall them.
1. The same applies to this case as to the one of von Buelow. If you haven't mentioned him, I would have never recalled him.
Q. Which other boats were together with you in Brest? I mean at the time when you were in Brest last? Especially those of your own flotilla.
2. I don't know the numbers.
Q. How many were there with you in the harbor?
2. About 20 submarines.
Q. 20 from the same flotilla?
2. From the 1st and 9th Flotilla.
1. Yes, from the 1st and 9th Flotilla. The boats of the 1st and 9th Flotilla occupy the same bunker.
Q. And how many submarines are there in one flotilla, 10 -12? You say that there were approximately 20 submarines?
2. Yes, approximately.
1. Yes, about that many. However, I presume that one flotilla has more submarines than just 10 or 12.
2. Yes, there are more.
- 19 -


  1. UO 926/41S.  
  2. UN 10842/41T.  
  Continuation of Interrogation
December 30, 1942.
Q. Give me a few details of the 755, will you?
1. Yes, sir, I sure can do that for I served quite a while on her.
Q. The name of the Commanding Officer and all other Officers and noncommissioned Officers.
1. Commanding Officer Kapitaen Leutnant Going
  Engineer Oberleutnant Hartmann 1937B
  1st Watch Officer Leutnant z.s. Blischke       "
  2nd Watch Officer        "        "   Cristans
  Obersteurmann Klug
  Boatman Feldwebel Grosser
  Obermaschinenmaat Pempe
            " Muenster.
Q. When was this boat commissioned?
1. November 4, 1941.
Q. What else can you tell me about her?
1. Well, let's see, she had her shakedown run at Kiel, which took twelve days. She was listened down in Denmark.
Q. Hold it, what do you mean "listened down"?
1. Well, they must sound her out for any unusual noises, and that is done at a little town by the name of Roenne on the Danish Island of Bornholm.
Q. What else.
1. She belongs to the 9th squadron at Brest. Her first cruise took 64 days.
Q. Did you sink anything on that cruise?
1. Yes, an American auxiliary cruiser.
Q. What name?
1. I don't know, but she was of the 7,000 ton class.
Continuation of Interrogation
January 1, 1943.
Q. How are you this morning after last night's New Year's celebration? Do you have a big head?
- 20 -


  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
  1&2 No.  
1. Have you had a very nice New Year's eve?
Q. Yes, thank you. I had a very nice New Year's celebration.
1. I wanted to give you the conning tower insignia of the 755.
Q. Oh, I forgot all about that. What does it look like?
1. The motto on it says: "Es geht weiter". in the center.
Q. Where was that motto derived from?
1. It was derived from torpedo firing practice. Whenever we were through firing, a board of officers came on board, telling us that we had missed and that we had to start all over again. (Es geht weiter) became our proverbial nickname and finally our conning tower insignia. - To stay on the subject, the removal of the torpedoes from the outside to the inside is a tough job. Not that it is dangerous because of the possibility of explosion, but because of the fact that the torpedoes are so heavy and the decks so slippery that any misstep might result in permanent injury.
Q. How much does one of these torpedoes weigh?
1. 30 to 32 Zentner (3,000 to 3200 German pounds). A projectile like that costs 28-30,000 RM.
2. Of course in times of war their manufacture is cheaper because they use less expensive materials.
Q. When you take your topside torpedoes into the torpedo room, do you have to carry them through the conning tower?
- 21 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
1. No, we have a special torpedo hatch on the front deck of the boat through which they are carried. Even if you could get them through the tower, which in itself would be a dangerous operation, you could not force them through all those doors. You must realize that the torpedo is 8 meters long, and it would be impossible to lug it through all the various chambers. Another tough job is the loading of torpedoes from supply ship on to your own.
Q. Do the supply ships bring you torpedoes?
1. Yes, that is customary in the Atlantic. In order to save time certain meeting places are designated and the 1600 ton supply submarines bring us anything we need; food, fuel, and torpedoes.
Q. What is the overall length of a 1600 ton submarine?
2. They are not so much longer. They are about 5-8 meters longer than the 500 ton submarines. The difference is actually in the width. The deckwalk of these 1600 ton is equal to the width of this room, plus one half, about 10-15 meters; I would not like to serve on that kind of boat, because there is nothing but hard work. They do not serve on any front, and they are not equipped with torpedo tubes. They do not have any means of defense.
Q. You told me yesterday about the pill thrower. What kind of a device is that?
2. That is a tube which sticks out through the plating and is similar to a torpedo tube. It is 12 cm in diameter, and it has two pressure-proof lids, one on the inside and one on the outside. The ammunition looks the same as those beer cans about which we talked yesterday. Six of those pills are inserted into a tube.
- 22 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
Q. What purpose do they serve?
1. They destroy the rays. Now a destroyer can hear the propelling screw of the submarine when we stealthily approach our objective. These pills destroy the rays which pick up our sound.
Q. Are they filled with chemicals?
1. They are filled with some kind of a chemical substance, a brand new invention, of which nothing is known to us. Whenever they are ejected, no particle of any noise can penetrate.
Q. Now the other device which you talked about yesterday, the fu-M-B, what does that mean?
1. (Funkmelde Beobachtung). Radio message observation. That is employed by airplanes and also by destroyers. It is a detection device, with which they seek to discover us. They have an electrical machine which sends out rays, and this machine always ticks. In whatever direction they turn this apparatus, in that direction the rays go, while the apparatus continues to tick. And when the rays hit iron, the ticking becomes louder, which is an indication to them that they have spotted us.
Q. What do you do with the radio message observation device?
1. THis device absorbs the rays and whenever it absorbs those rays, we realize that we have been discovered, and then we take to our heels.
Q. Can you destroy those rays?
1. No. Of course, the German scientists are working on this very problem right now.
2. They have tried one solution. They have covered one boat completely with rubber, which works wonderfully. However, whether that is feasible I don't know, because you must realize that we do not have the sources of rubber which you have.
- 23 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
Q. Where was the 755 constructed? At the Stuehlke dockyard?
1. No, in Wilhelmsshafen. It was formerly the imperial-royal naval dockyard. Nowadays, it is called the "Kriegesmarine Werft". (The Navy Yard). The "New York" is one of the largest ships I have seen. I saw her in Hamburg in 1936.
Q. What did they do with all those large passenger vessels? Where have they hidden them?
1. The "New York" is in Kiel and is lying in the Tirpitz dock.
Q. What happened to the aircraft carrier "Graf Zeppelin"?
2. She is in Gotenhafen. There is still much work to be done on her.
1. The deck installations are completed though.
2. There is a lot of work to be done yet. The guns have yet to be emplaced.
1. I think that the guns have already been emplaced.
2. The guns which were mounted on the decks have been dismantled.
1. There should not have been any in the first place. She is supposed to be one of the largest aircraft carriers in the world.
Continuation of Interrogation
January 2, 1943.
Q. What is the reason that most of the enlisted personnel on U-boats are from the central part of Germany rather than using professional sailors from the coast?
1. The Merchant Marine is still in existence. They draw their personnel chiefly from coastal regions. The personnel for the submarine arm, however, because of the experience during the last war, is recruited from within Germany.
Q. What is the political feeling between the officers on submarines nowadays?
- 24 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
1. Let me tell you about that. I remember when I served on the 755, we were cruising through the canal from Swinemuende to Stettin, all of the crew with the exception of the machine watch were on deck. As we passed a certain point we were singing the communistic song, the "Internationale".
Q. That sounds unbelievable.
1. Well, it may sound unbelievable to you, but it is a fact. I remember that the Commander and the Quartermaster were up in the tower. The song was started by either the Quartermaster or the Eng. Officer. I don't quite remember who started it, but I know for sure that they too were singing it. I would certainly like to see Commander Going. I am positive that he is not a National Socialist.
Q. Why were you transferred from the 755 to the 595?
1. I was getting too thick and friendly with the noncommissioned officers on the 755.
Q. I am surprised that gas has not been used in this war.
1. I don't believe that Germany will ever start with chemical warfare. However, we do have plenty of gasses, all those dangerous ones. They also perfected just recently a new gas which is supposed to be very poisonous.
Q. What type of gas is that? One hears so much about those propaganda gasses, like nerve gas and laugh gas etc.
1. This is no propaganda gas, but the real "McCoy". It has something to do with liquid air. However, I don't believe we need chemical warfare in this war. Look at the terrible weapons that are being used. For instance, that new mortar which the German's used at Sevastopol.
Q. What size mortar was that, 52 cm?
1. No, that is an 83 cm mortar. Along the coast are also many new guns installed, long barreled railroad guns. Their approximate range is supposed
- 25 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
1. (Cont'd) to be 120 km. The length of the barrel is about 20 m.
Q. Are they installed along the entire coast? The French, German, Danish, Coast, etc.?
1. I have seen them in the neighborhood of Calais.
Q. Have you seen the camouflage of the harbor installation in Hamburg, especially around the Alster?
1. Nowadays the entire harbor has been camouflaged with wooden frames and chicken wire from which brownish looking paper is suspended. THis has been done to camouflage Hamburg against night bombers.
Q. Have the Blohm& Voss Yards in Hamburg suffered any damage?
2. No, there isn't any damage. I received my construction training at that yard. I have a friend who is a Hamburger, whom I saw last October. He had just completed his training there, and he certainly did not know of any damage at the yards if there was any.
Q. You received your construction training at Hamburg at the Blohm & Voss Yards. Do you know the familiar Hamburg greeting of "Hummel-Hummel"?
1. Yes, and I know the reply "Morsch-Morsch".
2. Do you know that this is a part of the tower insignia of the submarine 592? The full insignia consists of the following: a chimney-sweep who is carrying from a neck yoke two buckets, underneath which is written "Hummel-Hummel".
Q. Who is the Commander of the 592?
2. That one I don't know. I have a friend on her, and I know that they have not sunk anything either. That boat cruises in the Arctic Ocean. The last time I saw them was in Hamburg. They had a busted cylinder in the Diesel Engine, and came to the Blohm & Voss Yard for repair while I was there.
- 26 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
Q. How about giving me some more submarine names, commanders, and insignias. After all, the more we know about them, the better for us, when they are finally taken prisoner, especially if we know before hand what their political feelings are. I suspect that a great many of your older officers are good fellows and are not National Socialists.
2. Well, that is even known to us in the enlisted brackets. Take for instance the cases of Admiral Raeder, the highest commander of the fleet. He would have been dismissed a long time ago by Hitler, were it not for the fact that he is indispensable at this time. We know that he is not on talking terms with Hitler, which is very understandable to us, when you come to think that such a snoody ex-Corporal should place himself over officers who have spent their entire life in the military service.
1. Do you know how we call Hitler's "Mein Kampf" in Germany? We call that "Mein Kampf" (My Cramp). About six miles from where I live a new concentration camp was established sometime ago, in which social democrats and Catholics are kept. The Camp commandant was selected for his known characteristics and cruelties. He did not live very long, though. A Catholic boy who had been maltreated with whipping and placing pepper and salt in the wounds, got to the stage where a doctor from our village had to be called. The doctor told the story in the village, whereupon representations were made to the government by the village elders. Nothing was done by the government, so one night when this commandant showed his face in the village he was killed by inhabitants. A fine of Rm. 500,000 was placed upon the inhabitants of the village as punishment.
Q. It looks to me as if things are beginning to look wobbly in Germany already?
- 27 -


  1. UO-926/41S  
  2. UN-10842/41T  
1. Well, it is just like that. The morale of about 60-65% of the people is very low. Yet, do not forget that they cannot express their opinion. As I pointed out to you yesterday, there is always the SS and Gestapo. The SS is even feared within the Army. They are very dangerous hounds. We are always told that the Russians do not take any prisoners. If that is so, I do not blame them, because the SS does not take any prisoners either, only high ranking officers. As a matter of fact, they started this practice. Our own soldiers and sailors who are placed in prison for some offenses now also come under the control of the SS. They have military prisons at Graudenz, East Prussia, and Hela. Hela is located on the tip of the "Kurische Nehrung". Both of these prisons are for Navy personnel.
Q. Have you to been in Gotenhafen?
A. Yes, we had our torpedo practice firing there. And that is known as the "A.Gru.Front" which stands for front line training center.
Q. You were telling me about those Joy Through Strength ships which are now being used by the Navy. What are they being used for and where are they located?
1. THey are being used as floating barracks at the U-schools. The "Robert Ley", a 28,000 ton boat is located at Pillau. The "Wilhelm Gustov" lies at Gotenhafen.
1. Well, I will have to leave you now pretty soon, and I wish you would give me as many U-boat numbers, their tower insignia, their commander's name, as you can think of. You have given me the 592 and its insignia. How about some others.
2. There is the 596, which is commanded by Lieut. Jahn. She is located at Lorient. I don't know her tower insignia. At one time she belonged to
- 28 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
2. (Cont'd.) another crew and had then a die with three spots which has been removed since that transfer. The next one I know is the 593, which is located at Lorient. The Commander's name sounds something like "Bruenning", but I am not sure of it. There is another one which I recall, because I had a good friend on that ship. That is the 601, another 500 tonner. My friend is the Eng. Officer on board. His name is 1st Lieut. Poida. The tower insignia of the 601 is the city emblem of the city of Hamburg. Around the entire tower are two stripes, one red and the other yellow. I also remember the 437, of which I know very little, other than her tower insignia, which is a little comical man, with a high hat, long legs, and funny big looking shoes.
Q. Well, that helps a lot. However, if you can think up some more, I wish you would let me have them.
1. We will try to dig up as many as we can think of. If we had a piece of paper and pencil on hand, we could write them all down as we think of them.
Q. I will get you that. Good-day.
January 3, 1943.
Continuation of Interrogation.
Q. Give me as many U-boat numbers as you can remember.
1. Well, I know a great many of them, but I cannot remember all the information about them.
2. Man, we have seen so many! They are in and out all the time. There is the U-594 and the supply vessel with which we were together at Kristiansand. The 594 has, as its conning tower insignia, a sitting rabbit with a gun in its hand. It looks like your Peter Rabbit in your comic strip. The boat is commanded by a naval captain, but I cannot recall his name right now.
- 29 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T..  
1. I know a boat, too, which is a 750 ton boat. I don't know her number, but she is commanded by Lieut. Uebeken, and her tower insignia is the ace of spades.
2. The 1600 ton supply submarine, which was together with us at Kristiansand, is commanded by Lieut. Jr. Gr. Vogel, and her conning tower insignia is an octopus.
1. I know the Suhren. The commandant is the bearer of the knight's cross.
Q. Is that a 750 ton submarine?
1. No, no, no. Most of those submarines are only 500 tons. She has a white elephant on her conning tower.
2. Yes, sir, that's what it is, an elephant.
1. I know the Priehn boat.
Q. I thought that Priehn was dead?
1. Yes, Priehn is dead, but his old boat is still in existence. He was formerly serving on a 500 ton submarine, but was transferred to a 750 tonner, after which he got it in the neck. The tower insignia of the old 500 ton boat is a galloping steer, with his head down and his tail up, snorting fire out of his nostrils.
Q. Who is the commander of the former Priehn boat?
1. He is unknown to us. Have you seen a boat with the insignia "Westward Ho"?
2. Oh, that is one of the older boats. I recall that Lieut. Commander Hauptmann was in charge of her. She was stationed at Gotenhafen, while I was there. Her number is U-37.
1. She is now on front line duty. I know because I have seen her. Her insignia are the 5 Olympic rings, and underneath is written "Westward Ho". Over the top of this insignia is the figure 210,000, which is the total amount of tonnage she has sunk.
- 30 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
Q. And she is commanded by Lieut. Commander Hauptmann?
1. No, he was transferred. A new commander is in charge, who is very young and whose name I cannot recall. An entirely new crew has taken her over; she was taken off school duty, and placed on front line duty. I also remember our sister ship, the 756, but so help me, I can't remember the name of her commander.
Q. Tell me something honestly, fellows. How can you be sure that all this information is correct?
1. Look it is just like that. Every time we go to school, we live on those old steamships which have been converted into barracks. The quarters on the upper decks are occupied by the officers. Of course, during the school time we have to listen to our commanders and officers. When we go up to their quarters we can see all the names of the commanders and the boat numbers marked on their doors. What is the insignia of Lt. Sr. Gr. Troja?
2. I don't recall.
1. I have seen so many of them, because the submarines constantly enter and leave port.
Q. How about the names of the squadron commanders and any other commanders that you can think of?
2. The 8th Flotilla is commanded by Commander Eggermann, and do you know where the 5th Flotilla is? She is in Kiel. She is commanded by Captain Rollmann. The 22nd School Flotilla is in Gotenhafen. It was formerly commanded by Lieut. Commander Hartmann, but he was transferred and is now in charge of all the tactical exercises. He has been elevated to the rank of Captain. He is one of the toughest guys I have ever met in the Navy. As soon as someone makes the slightest mistake, he is immediately
- 31 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
2. (Cont'd.) eliminated.
1. The 21st School Flotilla is located in Pillau. The base commander in Koenigsberg is Captain Doebel.
2. Lieut. Commander Bexker is in charge of construction training at Blohm & Voss in Hamburg. And then there is Lieut. Commander Schmidt, who is in charge of the 1st U-boat school at Pillau.
1. I cannot think of any more at the present, but whenever I think of any, I shall write them down on this paper for you.
Q. I would like to get them as soon as possible, preferably within the next two days. Be very accurate on this information, because you know that it can always be checked back.
2. Would you like to know something about the guns, which are mounted on our submarines?
Q. I would certainly like to know.
2. On our submarine the gun mounted on the forward deck is an 8.8 gun. We have no guns in the rear, but an antiaircraft gun and two machine guns in the conning tower.
Q. How about the 750 ton boats?
2. In front they have a 10.5 artillery gun. On the after deck a 3.7 double-barrelled anti-aircraft gun is mounted. In the tower there are a 2 cm antiaircraft gun and two machine guns.
1. You know how many torpedoes we carry?
Q. No.
1. We carry 14, and the 750 ton submarine carries 24.
Q. Whereabouts do you carry those?
1. We carry ten forward, 2 in the rear, one on deck in a special container, and one in the rear tube.
- 32 -


  1. UO-926/41S.  
  2. UN-10842/41T.  
Q. With all those torpedoes on board, doesn't the danger exist that during an attack, one of them is exploded by a depth charge?
1. No, that is not possible. There are seven safety devices on our torpedoes. The last is as follows: The propeller of the torpedo has to make 150 revolutions, and that is approximately the distance of 100 meters before the last safety device is released. It happens sometimes that when a boat suffers a direct hit in the vicinity of the forward, the casing of the torpedo might break, which results in a terrific explosion, due to the fact that a torpedo carries 205 Atmospheres of compressed air.
Q. Is that what causes the terrific explosion when a torpedo hits a boat?
1. No, that is due to the explosive load, which a torpedo contains; there are 6 Zentner (600 German lbs.) of compressed black powder inside of a torpedo. That load is compressed into tubular shape to fit inside of the torpedo and is 53 cm in diameter.
- 33 -



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