Chapter 1. Introductory Remarks
  2. Crew of U-203
  3. Early History
  4. First War Cruise
  5. Second    "
  6. Third    "
  7. Fourth    "
  8. Fifth    "
  9. Sixth    "
  10. Seventh    "
  11. Eighth    "
  12. Ninth    "
  13. Tenth    "
  14. Eleventh    "
  15. Twelfth    "
  16. Sinking of U-203
  17. Details of U-203
  18. Flotillas
  19. U-boat Bases
  20. General Remarks on U-boats
  21. Miscellaneous
  22. Other U-boats
  23. Officers


RYDZY to MACHON   Boat made 11 patrols.


Chapter II.  CREW OF U-203
WEBER (KUERT'S report)   KOTTMANN stowed away in a Danish ship to Japan and back to Germany via Russia.  KOTTMANN made Klt. day before sinking.  WEBER had made 4 trips in this boat.
WEBER   January '41 eingetreten.  Erckenförder until May '41.  Then in Neustadt for 1 month and 3 weeks in Lazarette with sprained leg and belly ache.  Fall of '41 to France where he remained until joining U-203 a day before she sailed.  Had leave Nov '41; Nov. '42; Mar. '43.
FUCHS   Only on this boat, cruiser in peacetime and teacher on shore during war.  Very security conscious.
GERNHARDT   Bootsmaat 21 years old.  Has made all cruises with the boat except when MÜTZELBURG dies when he was on shore for high blood pressure, and Bblg. Pillau U-Schule.
KARSCH   Oct. '39 eingetreten.  Rekrutenausbildung in Glückstadt, about 12 weeks.  Then to Nachrichtenschule at Aurich (?), early Jan. '40.  Stayed there three months.  Then was given his first Bordkommando.  Sept '41 to Maatenschule at Flensburg, for 8 weeks.  Then to U-Schule in Gotenhafen until end December '41.  Then Durchgangskompanie in Plön.
BERKENHAGEN   Bootsmaat.  Joined Navy in October '40.  Rekrutenausbildung Wesermünde 3 months.  Durchgangskompanie Gotenhafen 6 weeks, U-Schule Pillau, mid-Feb. to mid-June the Durchgangskompanie in Plön 8 weeks then joined U-203 as Matrosengefreiter in St. Nazaire.
    P/W has E.K.I. and II and U-bootsabszeichen.
    Was quartermaster on the bridge and action station was diving rudders.
    Engineer Officer who was killed was Olt.(Ing.) ALBUTAT.
    KOTTMANN possibly took over as C.O. when the boat was brought back.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   KOTTMANN made three patrols.  Was promoted to Klt. on the first Osterfeiertag.
KOTTMANN   Was SS before joining the Navy.  Father old time army officer.  Saw HMS Seal as training boat.  Has taken merchant navy prisoners aboard U-boat.  Claims his Oberfeldwebal to be hopeless individual and a disgrace to the German Navy.
    Was skiing with wife in Austria this winter.
    Father has large farm with Ps/W working on it.
    Was present when Ark Royal was sunk.
RYDZY   Entered Navy August 1, '41 at Stralsund where he did Rekrutenausbildung.  No U-Schule but straight to Brest late '41 where un U-Stammabteilung.  L.I. had only joined for last patrol.


CHAPTER II.  (Cont'd)
RYDZY to MACHON   No. Bblg.  No U-Schule.  Joined boat in Brest.  Made 6 war cruises with U-203.  Has E.K.II. and U-bootsabszeichen.  Was on 2nd watch.  Battle Station was tiefenruder.
    RYDZY joined Sept. '41.
    2,W.O. was with Mützelburg, and with KOTTMANN did surface firing because I.W.O. was new.
BROCKMANN   Obermaschinenmaat.  Was in DD Thiler ? at Narvik where he got E.K.II. and Narvik shield.  After in Hafenschutz boat in Norway 1/2 year leaving December '40.  4 months Unteroffizierschule Kiel.  Pillau 8 weeks U-Schule.  Joined U-203 in Brest, made 6 patrols with MÜTZELBURG and now on third with KOTTMANN, boat sunk on 11th patrol.
    SEIDEL and present one only I.W.O.'s they ever had.
RYDZY to MACHON   P/W joined boat on 6th patrol.  KOTTMANN was 1.W.O. under M. except on death cruise when he was at Kommandantenschüler and SEIDEL was 1.W.O.  KOTTMANN was to receive 750-ton boat after finishing the school.  This was his 3rd cruise as C.O.
    SCHMIDT, now 1.W.O., in Sept. '41 was Oberfähnrich in Neustadt and was Zugführer of the 3rd Company.
    HEEP was L.I. under M. on the death cruise.
WEBER (via KUERT)   He was a gefechtsrudefganger.
GRÜNEWALD   Eingetreten April 1, 1941.  Rekrutenausbildung at Leer for 8 weeks.  The Mechanikerschule at Mürvik-Flensburg.  Then to U-Schule at Pillau for 6 weeks.  Then served 4 months in a French base before joining this boat.  Served under M., after M. had received the KCIC and before Xmas '42.  Hein ZÖNNER was a Mechaniker.
    P/W knew HEEP but not HAUPT.  Was in H.J., his father was in S.A.
    The P/W has E.K.II., got it before Xmas after his first patrol.
    The P/W came to the boat in May 42.
SCHÖNFELDER (report)   FUCHS was a trouble-maker, complained about way things were run, argued with officers etc.  Was very unpopular with crew.
    Crew: 49 in all.  3 Fähnrich (1 Fähn.(Ing.)) - 2 Fähn See).  Obersteuermann named HAIN.  Among those not saved were Obermaschinenmaat NEUKIRSCH and 2 Centralegäste.  Had a Verwaltungs Obergefreiter on board last trip.  This is the first man received who had been replaced on land by a "wave".
OXFORT   October '41 eingetreten.  Last Urlaub, Xmas '42.  Sats he never knew SEIDEL or SCHMIDT.
NEANDER   Oct. '41, eingetreten.  The only students on board were Fähnrich.
FUCHS   Was on Leipzig before the war.  Served on battleship when war broke out and was in the Norwegian campaign.  Made only 2 patrols and did not know M.


Chapter II.  (Cont'd)
HESSE   April '41 eingetreten, Freiwillig.  Rekrutenausbildung at Sassnitz.  Served under M.  Knew SCHMIDT when he was 1.W.O.  Also knew HEEP, HAUPT, PICKERT, but not WALLBAUM.  WEBER made three or more trips.
BRANDT   Jan 1, '41 eingetreten.  This was his 1st boat.
WEBER   Came to the boat in March '42 and made six trips.
    Bootsmaat BÖHM, Matrosengefreiter RABENAU were on watch positions.  WEBER had been a mason for four years before joining the Navy; three years as apprentice and one year as journeyman.  He earned up to 60 R.M. per week.  His parents are living at home and his brother is in the Luftwaffe.  His Rekrutenausbildung was at Erkenförde, whence he went to Neustadt to his Durchgangskompanie.  There he was hospitalized for a month with an injured foot (sport, says he).  His first assignment was a post in France, which he refused to name.  He arrived there about the beginning of Oct. '41.  He claims it was not a Schiffsstammabt. or Durchgangskompanie, but a regular post or station (ein unabhangiges Kommando).  He had leave in Nov. '41 and became Gefreiter on Jan. 1, '42.  He claims he stayed right there until he was assigned to this boat.  Jan 1, '43 became Obergefreiter, and had leave again in March '43, whence he returned directly to U-KOTTMANN.  He had volunteered for the U-Waffe in Jan. '43, he says, and protests he never had any U-Schule.  Because of his good sight, he was assigned as Aussguck, although only a "Lehrlihg" on board - more or less the "Moses".  He claims he had no Gefechtstation, lived in the Bugraum, shared two bunks with two other men (2:3), had 4 hours watch, 8 hours off.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖNFIEDER   The P/W was in St. Naz. and Bordeaux.
GERNHARDT   Crew:  P/W volunteered for Navy Jan. '40.  Rekrutenausbildung, Stralsund 6 months Jan. to June '40.  11th Schiffsstammabteilung.  F.K. SCHÜLER, C.O.  P.O. was in 2nd Company under Klt. KONTE.  Volunteered to U-boats June '40, direct to U-Schule, Pillau.  6 months at Pillau to just after New Years 1941.  F.K. ZERPKE, C.O.  Lived and had classes on Robert Ley.  Visited school boats at dock but made no trips on them.  Training entirely in seamanship as P/w in seaman division.  Only 3 or 4 small school boats in use at that time.
    P/W has E.K.II. and E.K.I., presented by Flotillenchef, also U-bootsabzeichen.  The latter was generally presented to crew members, by the Flotillenchef after their second war cruise.
    Stammbesatzung (original crew) was feted in Patenstadt, Essen, Jan. '42.
    KOTTMAN was 1.W.O. under M. from the time he came to the boat in Jan. '42 until the end of the 7th cruise.  He was absent at the time of M.'s death.
    SEIDEL came to the boat in early summer '42.  P/W is hazy about date.  He was 1.W.O only on 8th cruise, when M. died.
    KOTTMANN took over as C.O. on 9th cruise.
    P/W confirmed that WEBER mad at least 4 or 5 cruises with the boat and was a competent crew member.  P/W had leave after 3rd cruise, Oct. '41; again at time of 8th cruise; again in Feb. '43 before 11th and last cruise.


Chapter II.  (Cont'd)
NAHORN   Dec. 1, '41 freiwillig eingetreten.  Rekrutenausbildung in Memel.  Maschinist - and U-Schule at Pillau.  Lived on Robert Ley.  P/W served only under KOTTMANN.  Was Zentralgast.  This was his first boat.
MEISSEN   Joined Navy Oct. 1, '41.  Rekrutenausbildung in Bake (5th Kompanie) for 6 months, 3 months of which only were training.  U-Schule in Gdynia 1/4 year.  Sent to Brest but developed stiff rheumatic knees en route and taken to Landerneaux hospital near Brest where remained 5 months.  Dec. 2 to Dec. 23 on leave.  Returned Brest, worked in office till 3rd April when he joined U-203 on sailing.  Ordinary watch-keeping.  No Befechstation.
RYDZY   P/W confirmed making 6 cruises.
FUCHS   Volunteered to the Navy in June '35, at the time when compulsory military service came in.  Rekrutenausbildung at Emden, 3 months.  Another Rekrutenausbildung course at Wesermünde 9 months.  On cruiser Leipzig 1 year, making 2 foreign cruises, during which they touched at the Canary Islands, Cadiz, Algeciras, Algiers and Portugalete (near Bilbao).  In summer 1937, to Meatenschule, Wesermünde.  Then 2-1/2 years on battleship (would not give name) to New Years 1942.  Then to Kiel for Oberfeldwebelschule.  Then abkommandiert to U-Waffe and sent to U-Schule, where P/W says there were other men of his rank in school.  Then to Stamm at Brest, from which he was abkommandiert to U-203 just before the 10th cruise.
    There were two Obermaschinists on board - the other was lost - who under the L.I. divided responsibility for all the machines in the boat.  P/W was the senior petty officer on board, Obermaschinist being 2 Dienstgraden higher that Obermaat, which is of Feldwebel rank.  P/W is a wise old soldier, extremely security conscious, plainly proud of his two stars and "mit porte eppe" status.  P/W was not with the L.I. when the boat went down, though that is normally where he would have been.  The L.I. gave him the order to abandon the ship.  P/W comes from Silesia.  His wife comes from Wesermünde, where she and their 2-year old daughter are now living.
WILBERTZ   Jan. '41, eingetreten.  Rekrutenausbildung at Stralsund.  Funkschule at Aurich.  Had land station in Frankreich.  Served under M.  Made Obergefreiter 1-1/4 years ago.  M. already had KCIC when P/W came to the boat.
BROCKMANN   M got KCIC after 4th patrol.  Eichenlaud after sinking 150,000 tons.  HEYDA was I.W.O. on P/W's 1st trip.  MOSER was I.W.O. before KOTTMANN, and before that was 2.W.O.  KOTTMANN left boat before the death cruise.
WEBER (Via KEURT)   Ausgasklappe broken.  Caused them to surface.
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   P/W had Fu.M.B. ausbildung.  P/W came to personnel reserve in Brest.


Chapter II.  (Cont'd)
SCHÄFER   Rekrutenausbildung, Wesermünde 10th S.St.A. October, '41.  Then shortly Breda under Klt. SCHAFER of 3rd Company few weeks to Xmas.  The Aurich Funkschule.  The end May, Gdynia U-Schule about 8 weeks after which were two weeks course in U-boat radio, etc. which is special course taken by U/B Funkers.  It has now been lengthened.  Then Neustadt in 2 UAA U-bootsausbildungabteilung.  Then Funkstelle Brest for half a year.  March 15, 1943, joined U-203.
SCHUBERT   Oct. '38, eingetreten.  Served on Blücher when she was sunk off Norway.  Then served in Schule Flotillas on 250-ton boat with Olt. Jansen, U-151.  Served as Funker in Norway and in France.  Came to U-203 for 8th patrol.
GRÜNEWALD   SCHMIDT made only 1 trip.  ALBUTAT abgesofen.  HEER was L.I. when he came on board.  He made 1 patrol with HEEP.  DÄRROLD followed HEEP; ALBWTAT followed DÄRROLD and thus made only 1 trip.
GERNHARDT   Sequence of L.I.'s on U-203:  Olt.(Ing.) HEEP from 1st through 8th cruise.  Lt.(Ing.) DÄRROLD (uncertain of spelling) 9th and 10th cruises.  Olt.(Ing.) ALBUTAT made only last cruise.
    Sequence of I.W.O.'s:  Lt.z.S. MOOS (uncertain of spelling) from 1sr through 3rd.  HAUPT was II.W.O. on 1st three cruises, becoming I.W.O. on 4th cruise only.  KOTTMANN 5th, 6th and 7th cruises.  SEIDEL, 8th cruise only.  BÖTTGER or RÜGER (P/W uncertain) thought to be about 25 years old, 9th and 10th cruises.  SCHMIDT last cruise only.
BROCKMANN   KOTTMANN returned to Germany via Chile and Russia, just before beginning of war with Russia.  Presumably on Japanese ship.
    Was on U-203 with M. on all cruises except first two.
    Civilian occupation of BROCKMANN is "Maschinen-Schlosser" - machinist.  Had worked in shops of a Westphalian distributor for International Harvester Company's German plant at Neuss.  Is anxious to get back to his civilian trade and hopes that he will be permitted to do agricultural work during captivity, possibly even running a tractor.
    Prior to joining U-203, he served on a destroyer.  This destroyer was scuttled in the Fjord at Narvik when its ammunition was exhausted.  Next BROCKMANN attended U-Schule and was drafted to the U-203.  He had never attended Bblg., as he was considered sufficiently experienced.  At the U-Schule he attended there was no cut up U-boat for instructional purposes, but the machinery of a U-boat was arranged in operating groups.  At another school, however, he stated that there was a 500-ton U-boat that had been cut into sections.
BERKENHAGEN   Joined Navy Oct. 1, '40.  Rekrutenausbildung at Wesermünde for 3 months.  Durchgangskompanie at Gotenhafen from 7-8 weeks.  U-boat School at Pillau from mid-Feb. '41 to mid-May '41.  Leave of 2 wks. and returned to Pillau end of May.  Rekrutenausbildung at Plön beginning June '41, for 8 wks.  Ordered to Brest to join Flot. beginning of August.  Assigned to U-203 after few days in Brest as a Gefreiter.  Never was Obergefreiter.  Ausgück and at diving rudders in action.


Chapter II.  (Cont'd)
RYDZY   7th S.St. A. at Stralsund, for 8 weeks starting Aug. 1, '41.  In 3rd Kompanie under Klt. STEFFEN.  Durchgangsk. in Neustadt for 4 weeks, then direct to Brest without any U-Schule about Nov. 1.  Was Wache in Brest at the 1st Flot. Headquarters until Mar. '42, when he was assigned to U-203 in preparation for the 6th cruise.
GRÜNEWALD   DÖRRLODT L.I. on two first KOTTMANN cruises.
    Two others also had Fu.M.B. course.  Before P/W - in February.
BROCKMANN   Rekrutenausbildung in Stralsunk, starting early 1938.  Was in 2nd Komp. (Olt. DILZ) of 7th S.St.A. (KK. BRAUN was Kommandeur).  In Stralsund six months, then direct to DD until ship was scuttled in Narvik (has Narvik Shield).  Edelweiss Abzeichen is officially worn only by Gebrigsjaeger.  Then to Vorpostenboot in Trondheim until Dec. 1940.  Then to Maatenschule in Kiel-Wik, this school located in vicinity of Wik barracks, back of the Tirpitz Mole.  This lasted from Dec. '40 to Mar. '41.
    Then in 4th Durchgangsk. in Plön for six weeks.  Then to Pillau at end of May for eight weeks to ULD.  Was in 2nd Div. (technical) under ZERPKE.  IBBEKEN was head of the whole school at that time.  Only about 10 350-ton boats were in use at that time.  Classes in Pillau were held in the barracks opposite the Bahnhof.  The school boats berthed in the Fischerhafen, near the Robert Lay, near the south end of Pillau I.  HAUPT was never I.W.O.  Was Obersteuermann on 3rd cruise, becoming II.W.O. and Lt.d.R. after the 3rd cruise.  He was about 30 years old and left the boat after the 5th cruise.
    FUCHS was disliked by all on board, used to give men dirty jobs to do during the liberty period.  Was formerly on Scharnhorst (and made "Channel Dash"?).
BRANDT   Born in Hamburg, of Hbg. family, but moved to Berlin as child.  Father is director of Dahmler-Benz.  Brandt had 6 months of engineering studies at a University.  Enlisted in Navy.  Served on surface ships.  Then sent to Naval Engineering School.  Was given 2 semesters credit by University for Naval cruises.  Wants to continue studies towards engineering degree.  Leaving in May if possible.
BROCKMANN   SCHMIDT joined U-203 on 11th cruise.  War führer auf Uberwasserschiff.  ARP 6th Fahrt, April.  (might have been 7th)?.
    BROCKMANN E.K.II. Sept. '40 Trondheim auf Vorpostenboot.  E.K.I.
RYDZY   Joined Navy 8/1/41.  Rekrutenausbildung, Stralsund approx. 2 months.  Durchgangsk. a few weeks.  To Brest, 1st Flot. (W. WINTER Chef), where he did Watch Duty for several months.  Joined boat end(?) of Feb. '42, about 2 weeks before its 7th patrol.  His job was Ausguck, took turn at wheel, and Gefechtstat.  Was in Bugraum.  He also served the 2 cm. Flack.  His watch was 4 on and 8 off.  P/W made six trips in all.


SCHÖNFELDER (report)   UAK was made in February.
GERNHARDT   Bblg. 6 weeks at Kiel starting soon after New Year '41 and according to P/W definitely before launching, which took place in mid-January.  Commissioning mid-February, '41.  M. was at Bblg.  Crew lived in barracks near wharf.
    U.A.K. Kiel.  2 to 3 weeks.  Not clear on definite dates.  Crew lived on old World War 1 cruiser.
    Schiessflotille, Gotenhafen, mid-march to May 1, '41.  Here the boat did all its working up exercises.  No distinct Agrufront nor Takische Übungen.  P/W was in hospital in Gotenhafen for 3 weeks with rupture, joined boat at Restarbeiten, Kiel in May '41.


WEBER (KUERT's report)   Didn't touch Norway on first patrol.
GERNHARDT   Sailed from Kiel end of May '41.  Through Great Belt and Kattegat.  Did not touch at any Norwegian port but followed coast until turning West into N. Atl., where their Quadrat was.
    Sank 4 M/V's from East bound convoy, totaling 24,000 T.  Put into base at St. Naz. after 4 weeks cruise about end of June '41.  Stayed in St. Naz. only about 8 or 9 days.
    The USS Texas was sighted on the 1st cruise in middle north Atlantic in June 1941.  Four ships were sunk on the 1sr patrol.  P/W does not recall how many torpedoes were used.
    P/W has vague recollection of Stanvac Palembang.  Is certain of having sunk Sam Houston and Cape Verde.  No recollection whatever of other ships mentioned.


GERHARDT   Confirms leaving St. Naz. July 6 or 7, '41.  Confirms sinking 5 M/V's and British destroyer from convoy exactly as we have it (first 2 and then 3 plus destroyer).  Confirms but without conviction, that sinking was in vicinity of Gib.  Returned to St. Naz. early in August.  P/W's recollection of D/C attacks is as follows:  2nd cruise about 70 D/C's.
    On return from the 2nd or 3rd cruise an English two-motored land plane, flying parallel and in opposite directions, passed them and was mistaken for a German plane.  The plane turned and attacked them from the rear with 4 bombs, which were all misses.  This occurred in the Bay of Biscay.  P/W confirms that DD and 5 ships were sunk in the vicinity of Gibraltar on the second cruise.


GERNHARDT   Starting mid-Sept., '41.  Lasted only 10 days.  Sank 1 tanker, 1 freighter, total 20,000 T. and hit 2 more without sinking them from East bound convoy.  Returned to Brest early in October and remained there for about 3 weeks or until Nov. 1, '41.  P/W got leave at this time.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   Early '42 patrol to Capetown.
BROCKMANN   3rd patrol:  Sank 2 and torpedoed 2 more.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   42,000 T. sank on cruise which ended at Lorient.  Walter in E-Raum at sinking.
GERNHARDT   Quadrat on 3rd patrol was middle North Atlantic, as it was on most of the other cruises.  This was the 1st patrol from which they returned to Brest.  P/W's recollection of D/C attacks is as follows:  3rd cruise about 20-30 -- ineffective from escort ship.
BERKENHAGEN   1st patrol (boat's 3rd) mid-Sept/early Oct. '41, approx. 10 days.  Sank 2 ships of about 20,000 T., may have hit two more.  Had a/c attack, "was usual".  Early return laid to depletion of torpedo supply.  Remained at Brest about 3 weeks.


RYDZY to MACHON   On the fourth patrol they sank an empty tanker.
GERNHARDT   Left Brest beginning Nov. '41.  Operated in Middle N. Atl.  Scored 3 or 4 hits but could not observe results.  P/W says it is "ganz unmöglitch" that 50,000 T. as reported were sunk on this trip.
BROCKMANN   On 4th patrol, sank 2 ships.
GERNHARDT   On the 4th cruise they scored 3-4 hits on ships in convoy.  Could not observe results because of fog.  P/W again emphatically denied that any such total as 50,000 T. was sunk on this cruise.
    Three or four bombs were dropped without doing any damage by a Sunderland in mid-N.Atl., during the 4th cruise.
    The Stammbesatzung, i.e., original crew of about 15 men, visited Pattenstadt Essen for 3 days in Jan. '42.  They were met and greeted and entertained by the Mayor and leading citizens of Essen.  They lived in a hotel, and were entertained at an official dinner in this hotel.  During this evening there was dancing and a floor show; beer apparently was the drink of the evening, at least for the ratings.  P/W disclaims any wild orgies during their stay in Essen.  One of the days they visited an abandoned coal mine, 800 meters underground, which had been turned into a museum.
BERKENHAGEN   2nd patrol (boat's 4th).  Left Brest early Nov. '41.  4 sinkings, approx. 20,000 T. all smaller ships.  Operational area mid-N. Atl.  Returned Brest early Dec. '41.  Xmas in Brest.  Very sure that "50,000 T." out of question on that trip.


GERNHARDT   Left December 28, 1941.  Operated in N. Atl.  Sank 3 or 4 freighters, totaling 20,000 T.  Out about 3 weeks, returning soon after middle of January.  At base (Brest) about 6 weeks.
BROCKMANN   Jan. '42 sank 8,000 T. boat.  Sank munitions carrier off Newfoundland.
GERNHARDT   Turtle was caught on 5th cruise in mid-Atl.  A crew member who later left boat to become P.O., dove overboard and caught it somewhere north of the Azores.  This occurred 14 days out from base and on the 1st Newfoundland cruise.
    The turtle Abzeichen was adopted upon completion of this cruise. 
    The 5th cruise was the 1st Newfoundland cruise.  The 6th was also to this area.  These were the only two cruises made to this area.
    P/W stated that U-203 was grounded during the Probesahrt in the Vorhafen at Brest preceding the 6th cruise.  There was a very heavy fog at the time.  No damage was done to the boat, and the boat was easily freed.  P/W denied that U-203 was ever grounded on the American coast, or any other place during any of the cruises.
BROCKMANN   U-203 was off Newfoundland in Jan. '42.  Very cold.
BERKENHAGEN   3rd patrol (boat's 5th).  Left Brest Dec. 26/28, '41.  Out approx. 3 weeks.  Sank 3/4 freighters of approx. 20,000 T.  Went near Newfoundland this trip.  Back to Brest mid-Jan.  Devices:  Turtle caught this trip.  P/W broke right index finger boxing for fun while ashore after his 3rd patrol (boat's 5th).  He was invalided Feb. through June.  In this time had 4 weeks leave at Rome, viz. month of April.  Knew nothing of 6th and 7th patrols of the U-203.
BROCKMANN   Newfoundland.  1 Bewacher versenkt, nicht Zerstörer.  2 freighters - 8,000 & 5,000 = 13,000 tons.


RYDZY to MACHON   M. was C.O. at time M. and B.d.U. on intimate terms (du).  M. had KCIC at time.
BROCKMANN   The only time the boat was ever versorgt was about two patrol before M. died i.e. about 6th of boat.  It was also the longest lasting 8 weeks.  M. never came back with more than one torpedo.
GERNHARDT   Left Brest near end of Feb., '42 for 6-7 week cruise.  Operated off coast of N. America.  Sank 3 tankers and 2 freighters, totaling 43,000 T., none in convoy.  Met 1,000 T. Versorgungsboot and took on fuel oil only.  P/W does not know name of C.O. of V-boot.  Returned to Brest end April, '42.  Remained at base about 4 weeks.  Part of crew got leave.
WEBER   First trip, left early in March from Brest for mid-Atl.  Lasted 6-7 weeks and sank 5 M/V's., 40,000 tons.  HEEP was L.I.
    On P/W's 1st cruise attacked a convoy and were attacked by Wabos.
    Versorgt on 1st cruise.
RYDZY   The Hatteras cruise was RYDZY's first one.  P/W's 1st cruise - would not definitely confirm having met a Versorgungsboot - but said that he did not remember the name of the C.O.
    They were depth charged on R's first Fahrt - His Gefechtsstation at that time was in the Bugraum.
BROCKMANN   On the 42,000 T. patrol, sank SS Scottsburg and Stanvac Palenbang.  Also sank SS Putnyhull (June 26, 24.20 N - 63.16 W) after an argument between M. and the Obersteuermann as to her speed.  She was sunk with 1 torpedo.
GRÜNEWALD   6th trip from Mid-May to end July.
BROCKMANN   Caught the turtle two trips before the death trip.
GERNHARDT   The 5th cruise was the first Newfoundland cruise.  The sixth was also to this area.  These were the only two cruises made to this area.  A tanker was sunk on the sixth cruise, considerably north of New York.  U-203 on this trip turned south from the vicinity of Newfoundland but never got as far south as New York.
    P/W's recollection of D/C attacks is as follows:  6th cruise about 70.


Chapter IX.  (Cont'd)
RYDZY   Confirms meeting Versorger on this cruise, he thought it to be about 1,200 tons; only oil (Brennstoff) was supplied to them.  This happened 4-5 weeks after leaving base.  Confirms sinking 5 ships on this cruise, of which 1-2 were tankers.  HAUPT was II.W.O. on this trip, and HEEP L.I.  Said he had 3rd watch with the Obersteuermann on this trip.  About 14 days from base while attacking convoy, they received a numbers of Wabos, which caused no damage.
BROCKMANN   Hatteras (6th cruise).  The crew was told that this trip was to be in the vicinity of Hatteras, but P/W couldn't definitely say that they were there.
    Most successful, 42,000 tons.  3 tankers (13,000 T, 10,000 T, and 8,000 T).  2 freighters (5,000 T apiece.).
RYDZY   P/W's 1st patrol (boat's sixth).  Cape Hatteras.  Left Brest approx.  2nd week Mar. '42.  Out approx. 7 weeks.  Sank approx. 40,000 tons, 4 freighters and 1 tanker.  Returned May.  2-3 weeks lay over.


BROCKMANN   Had sunk 200,000 tons while he was on board.  Highest tonnage in one patrol 42,000 tons on his 5th (7th of boat) 2 freighters, 3 tankers all einzelfahrer near Trinidad about July '42.
GRÜNEWALD   His 1st patrol lasted 8 weeks and ended before Xmas.
    On his first cruise, sank 5 ships.
GERNHARDT   Left Brest beginning June, '42 Südreise.  P/W recalls seeing island of Tobago.  Sank 4 or 5 vessels, totaling 31-32,000 T.  (1 tanker and 4 freighters).  None were in convoy.  One freighter was named "Cap Verde".  On completion of this trip about end of July entire crew had leave.  KOTTMANN, who came to boat as 1.W.O. in January, '42, left the boat after this trip and was replaced by SEIDEL, who had been with boat since early summer.
    It is not clear whether on this or the previous cruise boat received "eine schöne Serie" of depth charges.  No damage was done to the hull, though some instrument glasses were broken.
WEBER   Second trip, began end of May or early June and returned end of July.  M. got KCIC on this trip.  Sank 5 ships, 32,000 T.  On return, remained in port 3-4 weeks.
    Versorgt on 2nd cruise.  Took on only oil.
RYDZY   P/W's 2nd cruise - in the summer - 5 ships sunk.
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   Patrol from Dec. to Jan. 4.  Ran on rock.  Failure of echolot, which registered 70 metres.  Damaged to starboard rudder, port rudder and keel.  Sea heavy, 12.
GRÜNEWALD   Came to boat May '42.  P/W's 1st trip was Südreise.  Bagged 5 Stück. 
    Turtle taken before this.  Shot all torpedoes on 7th.
    Saw C.O.'s from sunken boats in life rafts, and some were on board.
    About 10 Stück Wabos on this trip.  Had 2 Fleugzug attacks.
GERNHARDT   The Sam Houston was the only ship on which gun fire was used, she was hit first by a torpedo, and after the crew had taken to the boats she was finished off by gun fire.  This was the next to the last boat sunk on this cruise, the last one being a tanker.
BROCKMANN   Off Trinidad July '42.  Very hot.  Did not go into Caribbean nor below Trinidad towards Mouth of Orinoco.  Has not been off Cape of Good Hope. 
    Met a supply U-boat once - took oil but no torpedoes.
RYDZY   Left base kurz nach Pfingsten.  Sank 5 ships, including 1 tanker.  Confirmed final sinking of a ship with artillery fire on this trip, and has hazy recollection of doing the same to the tanker sunk on this cruise.  Had a/c attack in Biscay on way out, no damage done.


Chapter X.  (Cont'd)
RYDZY   P/W's 2nd patrol (boat's 7th):  Südfahrt.  Left Brest after Pfingsten.  Sank 5 ships of approx. 30,000 T.  Out 6/7 weeks.  Returned Brest.  2-3 weeks layover.  Had leave.  U-Abzeichen from Flot. Chef. WINTER.
BROCKMANN   Südreise.  1 tanker (10,500 T. - this is accurate); 2 freighters (10,000 approx. & 5,000 approx.); 1 Putney Hill (5,000 T. approx.); 2 freighters (5,000 T. approx. & 3,000 T. approx.).


BERHENHAGEN   Present when MÜTZELBURG dies confirmed that boat was taken in by 1st Lieut.  Doctor attended him from another large FRONT boat (not supply boat).  Spent Xmas '42 at base.  Xmas party officers and men together.  Last leave just before last cruise.
RYDZY   His first patrol was when MÜTZELBURG dies.  KOTTMANN took over - his first command - and out again in about 3 weeks.
    On patrol when MÜTZELBURG killed, nothing sunk; had just left Brest and were out only about 20 days.
    HEEP, former L.I., left when M. died succeeded by DERHOLDT.
    Doctor came from Versorger but M. already dead.
RYDZY to MACHON   M. running on boat, slipped and cracked head on pressure hull.  Was dead when Versorger was met - pronounced dead by Artz of Versorger.  Sewed up in canvas and buried at sea.  Versorger stood by to fire a salute.
    On P/W's 3rd war cruise with M. had sabotage on board.  A Bodenventil fastened with only two screws, usually has 6.  Discovered by at trial dive in Biscay and fixed while underway.
BROCKMANN   Obermaschinist PICKERT left after M's. death.
    M. lived only about 4 hours after his accident.  The head injury was not so bad as an internal one for which no one could do anything.  Buried at sea.  I.W.O. made a speech and the Versorger which had brought doctor fired a shot in salute, probably 2 cm.
RYDZY to MACHON   SEIDEL after the death, brought the boat back to Brest and rammed the drydock and damaged the boat.
GRÜNEWALD   Had Urlab in Sept. when Lt. SCHMIDT was abkommandiert.  This was after the P/W's 2nd patrol.  Sank nothing on M's. last patrol.
GERNHARDT   P/W missed this cruise because of high blood pressure.  Went home for 4 weeks leave.
WEBER   Todesfahrt, began end of August.  M. was killed while swimming.  Sank nothing.  The patrol was toward the south.  Returned to port Sept. 15 - 18 and remained in port until early November.


Chapter IX.  (Cont'd)
RYDZY   P/W's 3rd cruise - todes Fahrt - (Mützelburg).
    When asked if on his 3rd cruise (8th of the boat) they went south, the P/W replied - "Es war nicht so weit daraussen".
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   Patrol in August, back 4th or 5th Sept.  Sank 10,000 T. empty tanker with 3 torpedoes.
    Crew called back from leave by telegram 8 days ahead of time in Sept.  8th patrol, sank 10,000 T. sister ship of the empty tanker.  No armament.  Took captain aboard and let him go.
GERNHARDT   P/W was home on sick leave and knows nothing of eighth cruise.
BROCKMANN   M. accident occurred in mid-Atlantic N.W. of Azores in fall of 1942.  Was playing "follow-the-leader", jumped off rail, struck back and head, was unconscious 30 minutes; came to for a while, later died.  Buried at sea.
BERKENHAGEN   4th patrol (boat's 8th).  Mützelburg's last.  Left Brest end of August '42.  Confirms miscalculated dive, "due to Dunung".  Doesn't know what became of SEIDEL who took boat back to Brest.  Denies ramming of dry dock and damaging of boat story.  Doctor came after M. dies, from a Seekuh, not Versorgungsboot.  P/W thinks this patrol lasted about 3 weeks.  Back on Sept. 15/18, 1942.
RYDZY   The Arzt which attended M. came from a 750-ton Frontboat.  SEIDEL was I.W.O. for this trip only.  Trip lasted 18-20 days, and nothing was sunk, according to P/W.
    P/W's 3rd patrol (boat's 8th):  Tidesfahrt.  Left early Aug.  Out 3 weeks, M. death.  No torpedoes fired.  Had leave.


RYDZY   KOTTMANN's first patrol (boat's 9th) lasted 5 weeks, sank 13,000 T (2 ships) out of a convoy.
RYDZY to MACHON   31,000 T. on 1st war cruise.  Only out 10 days in Biscay and attacked a convoy.  Sank nothing after that.
BROCKMANN   KOTTMANN's first patrol (9th of the boat) started end Oct. ended Nov. 4/5, returned with 6 fish having used 5 to sink 22,000 tons - 3 ships 7,000, 5,000, 10,000.
GRÜNEWALD   On KOTTMANN's 1st cruise, sank 2 ships.  Afterwards sank nothing.
GERNHARDT   KOTTMANN C.O.  Cruise lasted about 4 weeks from beginning October to beginning November, '42.  Sand 2 freighters in convoy, totaling 14-15,000 T.  SEIDEL was not on this trip.
WEBER   1st KOTTMANN cruise, lasted until early December.  They were called back after having been out only 3-4 weeks.  Sank 2 ships, 12,000 T.
RYDZY   P/W's 4th cruise - 2 ships sunk.
    On the 1st KOTTMANN cruise a convoy was attacked - it was not very warm.
BROCKMANN   9th patrol:  mid-north Atl., 3 ships sunk.
GERNHARDT   Quadrat on ninth patrol was middle North Atlantic.
    On the ninth cruise U-203 started out from Brest and returned to Lorient.
    On the tenth they started out from Lorient and returned to Brest.
BERKENHAGEN   5th patrol (boat's 9th).  First KOTTMANN.  Left Brest in early Oct.  Sank 2 ships from convoy; approx. 15,000 T.  P/W claims he did not know what other U-boats were present.  Returned to Brest after approx. 4 weeks (beginning November).  P/W
RYDZY   Sank two ships from convoy, and were attacked with Wabos; Quadrat in N. Atlantic.
BROCKMANN   On the 9th cruise 2 ships were sunk, and one hit which was sunk.
RYDZY   P/W's 4th patrol (boat's 9th):  KOTTMANN's 1st patrol with U-203.
    Left September (?)  Out 4/5 weeks.  2 ships, approx. 13,000 T.  EK. II.  from Flotillenchef WINTER.  Had leave.


RYDZY   KOTTMAN's second (boat's 10th)  nothing sunk Xmas at sea.
BROCKMANN   Complete overhaul before this trip lasted 8 weeks.
    KOTTMANN's 2nd (10th of boat) started December 6, ended beginning Jan., returned with all fish.  Zig-zag fish for the first time on this last patrol, but shot none.  Only shot two E.T.O's at bewacher which shot guns at them and then dropped three D/C's.  Heavy sea (April 23 - diary).
GERNHARDT   Left Brest near December 1, spending Xmas at sea.  Cruise lasted 4 weeks.  Nothing sighted, nothing sunk.  Very heavy weather.  Returned to base about Jan. 1, '43.  After this cruise boat had Grunduberholung (basic overhaul), which lasted until beginning of April.  Whole crew got 3 weeks leave in watches. (Turne).
WEBER   Second KOTTMANN cruise, began early December and returned Jan. 10-12.  In N. Atl.  Sighted convoy but sea was too heavy to attack.  Stayed in port a long time to have engines repaired.  Damage due to heavy seas.  The boat was in 2 bases while the P/W was on board.  Not in Brest after the patrol before last.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   On April 2 (the day before they sailed) a bomb fell close to the bunkers in the water.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   Xmas '42 the boat was off the Canadian coast, sighted a convoy bound for England.  Sank a M/V which was loaded with tobacco.
    U-203 was in Lorient before Xmas and sailed from there about Dec. 8.
    They were there because Brest was overcrowded.
RYDZY   P/W's 5th cruise - Nothing.
BROCKMANN   Damaged on rock near coast.  Had failed to sound.  They were on the surface and were able to back off.  Damaged the after planes and the keel.  Were in Lorient on the vorletzte Fahrt.  Stayed there 14 days.
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   Next to last trip shot 4 fish at U-boats Falle with depth setting at 4 meters, range 2000 m.  A 7/8,000 T. ship.
SCHUBERT   Hit rock outside the harbor on 10th patrol.


Chapter XIII.  (Cont'd)
BROCKMANN   Over hauled bearings on Diesel Brest Jan. '43.  One prop. shaft bearing had run hot.  Pulled both prop shafts - lined up and fitted all bearings.  No repairs to hull or hydroplanes.  Replaced pistons on Diesel.
BERKENHAGEN   6th patrol (boat's 10th).  Left Brest during week of Dec. '42.  Xmas at sea.  Sank nothing.  Heavy seas.  Ran on a rock near Brest on return trip, but very slight damage to outer hull only.
    They followed a "Grundüberholung" of 3 months.  Crew had nothing to do with reconditioning work.  Had a month's leave at home.
BROCKMANN   They ran aground while entering Brest on the next to the last voyage.  This occurred outside the Roadstead and no damage was done.
    4-5 torpedoes fired.  Got Oberflächenlauben auf dieser Reise.  No knowledge of results.  Very heavy weather.
RYDZY   P/W's 5th patrol (boat's 10th):  Left in Dec. '42.  Heavy seas.  No sinkings.  Grundüberholung.  Leave.  Did watch duty during repairs.


WEBER (KUERT's report)   On last trip made four unsuccessful attacks.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   At sinking, water came in through the diesel exhaust.
RYDZY   Sunk on his fourth patrol.  No shipping sunk.
    Did not shoot at Q.E. but shot two aale few days before sinking.
    Had 11 aale on board.  4 in tubes, 2 on floor, 4 in bilges, one ATO on deck.  No stern tube.
RYDZY to MACHON   Received VON BÜLOW's signal about sinking Ranger.  At time the Ranger was 70 miles away from U-203U-203's F.P.N. 36449.
    Left Brest April 9.
    Thinks it was KOTTMANN's 3rd or 4th war cruise.  The boat was on its 12th war cruise.
    Mündungsklappe open and tubes ready to fire on carrier when they were attacked by Pathfinder.
    KOTTMANN sank nothing on last war cruise.
    22 U-boats in same quadrat at time of sinking.
BROCKMANN   Q.E. could just be seen one evening a long way off.  Left Brest with 2 V/P's no other U-boats.
    Never directly attacked on last patrol until sinking.
SCHÖNFELDER (Report)   Sailed (last trip) on March 28.
NAHORN   On last patrol, saw Queen Elizabeth.  It was foggy and a heavy sea was running.
WEBER   Last cruise:  Began early April.  Sighted and fired at escort vessels.
RYDZY   P/W's 6th cruise - sunk.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   They had no idea QE was around when they sighted her.  When sunk they had only just sighted the Biter and were so engrossed that they did not spot a/c.  They were only just surfaced.  Repeated the fact that they would not have been sunk had the bow caps on the tubes not given way and prevented them going deeper owing to the amount of water taken in.
BROCKMANN   BÜLOW claimed 2 hits and flames on SS Ranger but didn't claim sinking her.
GERNHARDT   P/W's recollection of D/C attacks is as follows:  11th cruise about 45 (at sinking).  They had previously escaped due to C.O.'s skill in tactical evasion.  Never used S.B.T. as far as P/W knows.  In fact P/W disclaims all knowledge whatever of S.B.T.


Chapter XIV.  (Cont'd)
BERKENHAGEN   7th patrol (boat's 11th).  Last patrol.  Left Brest early in April.  No sinkings.  Sighted large steamer.  Didn't know it was Q.E. or not.  Didn't know of v. BÜLOW in vicinity of carrier.  Didn't know name of latter.  No torpedoes fired this patrol.  Didn't know of flooding of non-functional exhaust as he was off duty at the time.  They were in sea 20 minutes.
RYDZY   P/W's 6th patrol (boat's 11th):  Left early April.  Fired no torpedoes.
BROCKMANN   U-bootefalle - gesichtet and angegriffen.  Keinen Treffer gemacht.  Kommandant hat es gesagt.


BERKENHAGEN   Knew Obermaschinist PICKERT (had sailed in U-203 with him) but did not know WALLBAUM.
RYDZY to MACHON   M. and I.W.O. argued as to whether they should run at 12 or 15 knots, during attack on a large freighter.  M. gave way to I.W.O. and allowed him to fire a fan shot of all 4 tubes while running at 15 knots.  All missed.  M. took over and reduced speed to 12 knots and hit target with 1 torp.
BROCKMANN   Sank SS off Bib. on one of first two patrols.  Dec. '41 sank trawler off New York.  Came quite close to the coast and saw ice and snow.  100 d/c's most they ever got on one patrol.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   U-203 made 3 patrols to America during which she was off Newfoundland, Hatteras, Trinidad, and the entrance to the Panama canal.  Down Carib. way they sank one tanker in ballast by first firing a fish then guns and then another fish, after which an a/c appeared and they had to dive in a hurry everyone being on deck to see the fun.  The a/c dropped 6 D/C's, was joined by another and then the two dropped another 17.  No. damage.  (twin-engines).
RYDZY to MACHON   KOTTMANN at one time had 12 weeks leave while the boat was in the Werft.  SCHMIDT, with 25 men, was abkommandiert in Brest.
SCHÖNFELDER (Report)   Were in Lorient from Nov. 9 to Dec. 8 (approximately).  Boat has been at St. Naz. and Bordeaux.  Boat has never been south of Trinidad.  Boat has never been in Caribbean.  Was supposed to go in but for some reason couldn't make it.  Boat has never had any Diesel trouble.  Sank in all over 200,000 tons.  42,000 on one cruise.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   When patrolling off Trinidad it was M's. practice to let small ships go by and wait for the good big ones.
    WEBER made several cruises with M. including one before U.S. was in the war when they had the CR Texas in their sights but could not fire owing to U.S. being neutral.  Also once they all came to the periscope to have a look at the New York skyline.
GERNHARDT   P/W never heard story of trouble with exhaust valves and sudden return to base.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   Were off Trinidad twice and sank an 8,000 T. tanker.  They were attacked by two flying boats.  They were Versorgt on one patrol.


Chapter "X"  (Cont'd)
RYDZY   The turtle was caught before RYDZY came to the boat. 
    To the P/W's knowledge no merchant skippers were taken aboard - at least not during his watches.
    Their boat never sank ships with gunfire alone - always used torpedoes - sometimes finished them off with gunfire.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   In summer '42, U-203 was on one occasion one of 22 boats attacking a convoy from which only two ships escaped.
BROCKMANN   On one Südfahrt took aboard the engineer officers for questioning.  M. often took C.O.'s on board for interrogation.
    Heaviest D/C on Hatteras patrol.  Used Pillenwerfer at this time.
    On 1st Newfoundland patrol, shot 4 torpedoes at a U-boots Falle.  All went underneath but a bewatcher got in way of one ship and sank.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   Made 11 patrols, 8 with M.  Sank 3 tankers on 1st U.S. cruise.  One of 13,000 T and one of 8,000 T.
GRÜNEWALD   Sank a Brazilian ship.
BROCKMANN   U-203 never received any damage from aircraft attack.  Estimated that M. had 50-60% batting average with his torpedoes.


Chapter XVI.  SINKING OF U-203
RYDZY   Obersteuermann HEIN kicka da bucket when sunk as also the cook who neu eingestiegen.
    Lights stayed on at sinking.
RYDZY to MACHON   Pillenwerfer out of order at time of sinking.
BROCKMANN   At sinking water came in aft, quite a lot, probably thru druck-kërper
    All lights stayed on.
    2nd L.T. DERHOLDT, 3rd (lost at sinking) ALBUTAT (Leut.(Ing.) 1937 B).  Opened flut-ventil himself.  No scuttling charges set, or ready.
SCHÖNFELDER (Report)   Water entered boat not because Gasklappen were broken by bombing but because there was not enough time to close them.  Boat became Achterlästig on account of water entrance and water was already beginning to rise in E-Raum.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   At sinking couldn't get deeper than 50 m.  All compasses broke and depth gauges also smashed.  The had been in position to attack Bitter and were waiting for the destroyers to move away a little before firing.  They were looking so hard at her that they did not notice the a/c which came from other side and when they dived they could not get the caps on bow tubes closed, which somehow let water in.  The "E-gerät" also broke.
    L.I. stayed down below with two others to sink the ship.
GRÜNEWALD   At time of the sinking, the propeller noises of the destroyers could be heard in the boat.
NAHORN   At sinking, the destroyer dropped 40-50 Wabos.  One bomb dropped by the plane.
MEISSEN   During D/C attacks all lights except emergency were put out in boat by C.O.'s order.
WEBER   Final attack was sudden (to him).  Es hiess:  Alarm! then D/C's then started.  There were about "40, mehr oder weniger".  Claims he was eating at the time, in the Bugraum.  Heard propeller noises with his unaided ears.  Then ordered to put on life belt and abandon ship.
GERNHARDT to SCHÖENFELDER   Ausgasklappe not closed at sinking.
GERNHARDT   English plane that sighted them at time of sinking did not attack.


Chapter XVI.  (Cont'd)
BROCKMANN   L.I. opened valves and flooded boat.  Was not rescued, as probably got fouled.
BRANDT   The casualties at the U-203 sinking are said largely to be due to these people being very heavily clothed, and sinking immediately after going overboard, consequently being unable to inflate their life belts before drowning.
    The Fähnrich(Ing.) was blown out of the c/t hatch by the heavy air pressure in the U-boat, but as he flew through the air, he managed to grab a holding on ring on the periscope shaft.  He was wearing an escape lung and a life belt.  He inflated the latter with oxygen from the flask of the former.


Chapter XVII.  DETAILS OF U-203
WEBER (KUERT's report)   Was Artillerismaat but maintains no new 20 mm.  Admits GHG but swears no KDB.  No mines.
BERKENHAGEN   Leave in two watches each of three weeks.
RYDZY   4 men on watch at a time as usual (incl. OOW).
    Always belonged to 1st Flot. in Brest of which Werner WINTER still Chef now.  Had red tortoise device starboard side of c/t and arms of Essen on front.  Has FuMB which had to be taken down for diving.  Mounted on Sehrohrbock.  Only used in bad visibility.  Never turned.
RYDZY to MACHON   U-203 has 4 bow tubes and none aft.  Had Pillenwerfer aft.  Had FuMB.  Carried 4 acoustic torpedoes which run a zigzag course.  Carried total of 11 torpedoes.
    Coat of arms of Essen, Patenstadt, on c/t.
    Had 8-8. forward, 2 cm. neuerevolver cannon on bridge.  P/W is a 2 cm. specialist.
BROCKMANN   Diesels GW Drecke gebläse ??
    No after tube.  Pillenwerfer starboard side in E-raum.  Not much used or well thought of.  Not used at sinking.
    Had GHG, KDB and FuMB.  DT had been ausgebaut 4 patrols back, used to detect a/c above water.  FuMB much better.  DT mounted for several cruises.  Boat always used diesel-electric, revs varying with seegang.  Engines old and 3X AK only gave about 400 revs.  Only could do 13/14 knots at AK and possibly 16 knots flat out.  Motors by Siemens-Halske. 
    One junkers and one E-verdichter.  Distiller gave 12/14 liters an hour.
    Total fresh water tank capacity 1,000/1,200 liters.
    The patrome to the Pillenwerfer were in fine wire mesh bags.
    KOTTMANN put Olympia rings on c/t under stadt wappen Essen.
    Never carried mines.  Fuel capacity about 100 tons.  Boat had new 20 mm. type.
RYDZY to MACHON   Call letters of U-203 are UIL.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   The new 20 mm. still fires a carton full of 24 shots at a time, and has no drum, but the firing time was been reduced by half, or, dear reader, to put it in another way you can fire twice as much in the same time as before.
    Patenstadt - Essen.  They had new type tracers which do not show up for about 1,000 m. and only become visible after that.  The idea is not to give away the position whence they came to the enemy.  They carried dynamite for demolition on board.
GRÜNEWALD   Caught a turtle before the P/W joined the boat.  The rings were added under KOTTMANN.


Chapter XVII.  Cont'd)
GRENHARDT   Heckrohr was never built into U-203.  P/W did not know why.  P/W disclaimed any knowledge of torpedoes or what went on in the Heckraum.
WEBER   No Heckrohr when P/W came to boat.
    FuMB in various positions.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   Confirms 4 tubes - 5th never built in.  Zigzags:  Has a deck to direct movements.  It is always set to 1000 m. (straight run) after which it zigs as follows:
    Only to be fixed in convoys, only used at night.  All other U-boats keep clear.  It has a more powerful, though not a larger, explosive.  It was to be U-203 tactics to fire one zig-zag and one old torpedo one after another.  The idea is to use up the old ones.  Eventually only zig-zag will be used.  It is a faster torpedo than usual/
GERNHARDT   Heckrohr was never ausgebäut.
RYDZY   The Olympic device was placed on the boat by KOTTMANN when he took over.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   Zig-zag torpedoes can be set to run on any length of leg probably up to 100 m.  There must also be set the angle of turn and whether the first alteration is to be left or right.  When set and fired the fish will travel say 500 m. on a straight course alter course say 150 degrees, run another 500 m. alter course again 150 degrees, etc.  Any angle of turn up to 360 degrees can be set.
    Torpedoes usually fired 3/4 m. deep but never when boat below 7 m.
    Only the C.O. handles the FuMB.  Tried to build it on the periscope but it would not hold, so placed on c/t housing.
BROCKMANN   U-203 had had two rudders and two screws.
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   The new torpedoes were air driven and had a cable.  Only boat in the series to have 4 tubes.  Type VII C.


Chapter XVII.  (Cont'd)
BROCKMANN   Pillenwerfer - Probably does not know details.  Called 6th tube "Pupsrohr".
GRÜNEWALD   P/W had never heard of KDB.
    Fu.M.B. had 2 dials, one graduated from 0 - 100 and one from 0 - 30.
    Used Metox set.
RYDZY   Armament:  4 MG's:  one 2 cm. Flak fed by magazine containing 20 shells which were propelled into the gun by a spring; one 8.8 cm. gun on forward deck.


RYDZY to MACHON   1st Flotilla Brest, Werner WINTER, Flotillenchef.
BROCKMANN   WINTER has 1st Flotilla.
WEBER   Brest; 1st Flot.  KOHAUS was C.O. 1st Flot. Oct. '41 to Mar. '42.


BERKENHAGEN   Did not go ashore much in Brest, did not know Cafe Moderne but did know Cafe de la Marine.  Spent most time in Naval canteen in Dockyard where they got German beer and cigarettes.
RYDZY   In Brest he lived in a school - quite comfortable.
    The Pufen cost 30 Franks on the lower floor - more upstairs - depending on what you got.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   In Brest, U-boat crews live in barracks formerly used by French officers.  In Brest, air attack on April 2, bombs fell near Bunker #2.  The Bunkers are located 150 meters from the Bay.
BROCKMANN   Room for 3 boats in Bunker, middle one forward.
SCHUBERT   Members of boats are on placards in French harbors.
GRÜNEWALD   Confirmed 8 S.St.A. at Leer - and that MENSEL & RODEWALD were there.
GERNHARDT   U-203 sailed from Brest at various hours, always on surface day or night, unless something was sighted.  Usual speed was L.F. Diesel Electric unless orders to the contrary were received.
    U-203 in Brest always used the same dry bunker but different wet bunkers.  P/W has never seen 2 boats in wet bunker and always one in dry bunker.
    U-203 always entered and left Brest during the daytime, they were usually accompanied both in and out for 5 or 6 hours by two or three patrol boats.
    Usual speed at this time, 6-5 knots, never over 8 knots.
    (Rough tracing of British Admiralty map shows location of bunkers, barracks, Kantina, and Flot. headquarters).  Workshops are under cover in the bunkers.  Except for the Bunkers all U-Waffe activity seems to be located in the old French Naval School, near the beginning of the Mole in the Southwest corner of the port, and a good half hour bus drive from the city on the other side of the river.  P/W said crew preferred to spend time on the other side of the river.  P/W said crew preferred to spend time in their own Kantina, because of better entertainment and cheaper prices.  Not many trips were made into Brest.  The Abscheidesfeier were held in the Kantina.
    There were about 6 boats in Brest the last time P/W was there, three in wet Bunker, and three in dry Bunker.  Boats of 1st and 9th Flots. use the same Bunkers.  P/W claimed little or no damage to the U-boat Base at Brest as result of aircraft attack.  During air raid alarms all personnel took shelter in the Bunkers.  Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were in dry docks 8 and 9, (see map).
    P/W remembers the Cafe de la Marine, for the rest went only small places, the names of which he can't remember.
    Lorient:  Lived in Emmsmann Kaserne.  Bunkers were in Keroman, a considerable distance from Lorient.  P/W was there only a short time, as he had Urlaub during boat's stay in Lorient.
    St. Naz:  P/W was there the Bunkers were not yet built, they berthed in


Chapter XIX.  (Cont'd)
    the open, in the Inner Harbor of Penhoet, i.e., on the inside of the locks.
    Kiel:  During both UAK and Restarbeiten the crew lived on an old cruiser, believed by P/W to be the Hamburg.  During the UAK the boat was berthed at the Tirpitz Mole, no covers or camouflage were in existence at this time.
BROCKMANN   French workmen in shops at Brest, but not aboard U-boats.
    14 Pens at Brest - 7 dry and 7 wet.  12 cm. armor plate on doors.  This plating under ceiling to catch fragments.  Each Pen has a workshop.  Has seen where a bomb hit roof of shelter.  Does not know size of bomb.  Knocked hole 60-70 cm. deep.  No armor plate in concrete - only beams and reinforcing.  Concrete roofs about 3 meters thick.
RYDZY   P/W made the following statement about the base at Brest:  Confirms location of Bunkers in the southwest corner of the Inner Harbor, stating that there were 4-5 wet bunkers, and 5-6 dry bunkers.  The wet bunkers lie nearer the mole and adjacent to the dry bunkers.  There is never more than one boat in each dry bunker.  Wet bunkers are designed for 2 boats, but P/W has seen 3 boats in these bunkers at times.  He stated that (estimated) that there were 12-15 boats belonging to the 1st Flot.  The bunkers are used jointly by boats of the 1st and 9th Flotillas.  Confirmed Flotillenchefs WINTER & LEHMANN-WILLENBROCK, of the 1st and 9th Flotillen respectively, as of April '43.
    Stated that all repair shops were located inside the bunkers.  Oil and torpedoes were delivered to the boats by barges.
    All offices, living quarters, and recreational rooms are located in the old French Naval School behind the bunkers.  The headquarters of the 1st Flot., and the officers quarters are in the front wing of this building facing the harbor.  The crews quarters are more to the rear.  The Kantina is in the central unit, connecting the front and rear of this big block of buildings.  P/W stated that food and drink (particularly beer and cigarettes) were cheaper and better in the Kantina than in Brest.  However, they frequently went into town, where P/W's favorite spot was apparently the "Mimi".
    P/W reported no damage from air raids to any establishments in the city of Brest, exact location not known to P/W.
    While in Lorient they stayed in a Kaserne "dicht am Wasser", which indicates a reference to the Emmsmann.
GRÜNEWALD   At Le Touquet, practiced on wave length 1.30 m. to 1.37 m. - a British land station - for practice.


Chapter XIX (Cont'd)
BROCKMANN   Then to St. Naz. in August., remained there in a Personnel Reserve until assigned to U-203 in Sep. '41.  They were quartered in an old French barrack, about 30 minutes walking distance from the harbor.  When he joined the boat the Bunkers were nearly finished, and were already in use.  They were located Bassin de St. Naz. on the Quai Henri Chevereau, and had 5 Boxen, including both wet and dry.  The U-boat crews lived in the same barracks as the Personnel Reserve, some crews also at this time lived at La Baule, some distance away.  He gave the name of the street on which the barracks were located as "Sauvne", evidently misspelled.  U-boats always used the Eastern Entrance to the Bassin.  He knew of no U-boat activity in the Bassin De Penhoet; all supplies were loaded at the Bunkers.
    Brest:  The Bunkers are built over the underground oil tanks, a little to the northeast of the French Naval School; oil was pumped into the boats directly from these tanks.  Torpedoes are stored in the Bunkers.  There are 15 Boxen, about equally divided between wet and dry.  The wet Boxen were designed for two boats but can accommodate three, and still close the doors.  On his various visits to base he generally found 6 boats in the shelters at one time.  (Details of former French Naval School shown on map).
    Shore installations of 1st Flot. in Brest undamaged by A/C.
    Lorient:  When they put into Lorient they tied up in front of the Emmsmann Kaserne, the boat was later moved to the Keroman Bunker (said there were only 3 Boxen there).  Torpedoes, oil, and provisions were all loaded on the wharf bei the Emmsmann Kaserne.  They left Lorient on Sunday afternoon, accompanied by Vorpsoten Booten, as usual when leaving base their speed was determined by that of the Vorpsotenboote, about 10 knots.
    7th Flot. in St. Naz.  Flot. Headquarters in a school in town, 1/2 hour walk but in other direction from barracks.  Flot. Chef. (SCHLER) war Klt. dann.
RYDZY   P/W laughed at idea of heavy steel doors at entrance to wet Bunkers, said that a plane couldn't fly low enough to release a torpedo to enter Bunkers, because the jetty "mole" was in the road.
    P/W never was in Lorient.


WEBER (Via KUERT)   There are new 3,000 ton supply boats which have not yet been on operations.  They have complete workshops.
GRÜNEWALD   P/W had no training on the new torpedoes.  The Mechanikersmaat did all the Einstellung.  Never heard of acoustic torpedoes.
    AZ pistol - called AZ.  Nor marked on the boxes.  Combination AZ & MZ never trained on them.  Smallest angle for setting, 15-20 degrees.
    Length for arming - can be short or long(?).  Written on pistol container "Kurz" and "Lang".  Boxes 2-3 meters for ship with draft of 4 meters.
    Never saw 3 propeller torpedoes.  Atos sometimes have 4 blades.  Had 4-bladed ones on board.  Ztos had 4 blades.  Etos had no markings - green ring on the Tiefenapparat.
    U-boat Abzeichen after 2 cruises.  EK.II. after 3 patrols.
    0 - 12 Tiefenapparat.  All had green ring.  Inmer rechts am.  Always the same.
    Pistols can be removed.  Ratings removed Fu.M.B. antenna.  Magnetic pistols, doesn't know of a new type.
    P/W says there are only 2 types of torpedoes, A & E.  Ztos are identical with Atos except for spindle and wheel about 1 foot aft of other setting.  Marked with green ring aft green stripe.  All Etos have 2 bladed propellers and Atos have 3.  Etos have 1 speed, 30 knots, range 12,000 meters, Ztos - wheel - 3 numbers visible.  P/W saw 80, 100, 120 and green and red stripes.  Not necessary to fire fan shots.  Can be fired singly.
    Pistols stowed in blue tin cans, only one type carried for use on any torpedo on board.  Marked P 1 . . . . . . . . . and a date.  No indication of type.
    Magnetic warheads not used since Narvik.
    Airplane signals have fluctuating tone.  Ships and land stations, a steadier tone.  Hard to distinguish ship from land station.
    After P/W had 10 days training was unable to determine range because intensity of signals received depended on power of original output.
    Bearing could be determined within 10-15 degrees, after only 10 days training.  Never heard of aerial automatically turning.  Turned by hand at Le Toquet.
    P/W says procedure is as follows:
            1.  Large dial (o-100) is tuned.
            2.  When signal is heard.  The small dial is turned until maximum intensity is received.
            3.  Then the aerial is rotated to get bearing.
    Usually don't bother to rotate aerial but dive immediately after setting signal.
    P/W was trained at Westminster Hotel, le Touquet.  P/W knew only the Metox set.
GERNHARDT   Obergefreiter qualifies for P.O. by going to Maatenschule, which lasts about 6 months.  Two of the schools are at Freidrichsort bei Kiel and at Wesermünde (Tech).  After 2 years service as Maat a man is qualified automatically to be Obermaat in all the Laufbahne.  These are all


Chapter XX.  (Cont'd)
    Unterfeldwebel ohne Porte Epee.  The next promotion to Steuermann Maschinist, Funkmeister or Bootsmann depends on the recommendation of the Kommandant or Flotillenchef, extra time of service not being a determining factor.  These ratings are all Feldwebel mit Porte Epee.
    Insignia of rank, 1 star.
    Before becoming Oberfeldweble, P.O. again goes to school.
    Only Oberfeldwebel schule known to P/W is in Kiel.  Obersteuermann, Obermaschinist, Oberbootsmann, Oberfunkmeister, and Obermechainker are all Oberfeldwebel mit Port Epee.  Insignia of rank, 2 stars.
    It will be noted that only two points at which promotion is dependent on attendance at school is from Obergefreiter to Maat and from Feldwebel to Oberfeldwebel.
BROCKMANN   New Diesels are filled with cast steel crankshafts, 950/1350 H.P. Ct.W. uses Mechanisches Gebläse - MAN - Büchi dish type friction - pressure spring type clutch.  Asbestos woven linings in stern part.
    Discs come ready cut, bound in rolls.  Asbestos fiber weave with copper wires.  Riveted with copper or aluminum rivets.
    Torpedo booby trap trip:  Lines running from control room to switch on pistols of torpedoes.  If tripped closes circuit and detonates.  Did not set up at sinking, nor use other demolition charges.
    Hydroplanes are manipulated by telemotor from control room, and actuated by electric driving motors.  Have familiar hand emergency gear - hand wheels, levers, and rods.
    Although Diesel fuel is much lighter in color and specific gravity, than formerly, this Maschinenobermaat states that it it "Rumanisches Gas = Öl" * Rumanian gas oil.  (This statement conflicts with that of Fährn. (Ing.) BRANDT, who states that diesel fuel is now synthetic).  Also Diesel bearings are still of the same material as formerly.  (Also conflicts with BRANDT's statement as to use of aluminum alloy bearings).  Note: BROCKMANN is probably correct - BRANDT misleading.
    Use "Messer Filtrier Apparat" - oil filter for lubricating oil.  Consists of wire screen plates.  As dirt accumulates, a screw is turned, shoving plates down and forcing dirt into a receiver.  Centrifugal oil separator is also used.  Denies any difficulties with lubricating oil.
    On cruises in tropical waters, U-boat crews get a kind of heat rash, in the form of white blisters under the skin.  When they break and sweat gets into the lesions, the discomfort is great.
BRANDT   A liquid similar to glue in appearance is used to coat the outer lenses of periscopes, so that water does not adhere when the periscope is raised above the surface.  Two main difficulties are still said to be present in German U-boat periscope:  Oil films adhere to the outer lenses when surfacing the periscope in oil coated waters and the entry of water through the packings in periscope shaft glans.  Removal of this water and condensation is said to be effected by means of heating or blowing with heated air and by the use of a hygroscopic agent.  An anti-fogging preparation is also said to be used on the ocular of the periscope.


Chapter XX.  (Cont'd)
BRANDT   Favors M.A.N. Diesels over G.W.  Has not heard of 2 cycle Deutz Diesels.  Knows only about smaller Deutz, stationary engines.  He is not familiar with internal combustion turbines.  Oil situation in Germany is acute.  Light synthetic diesel oil being used on submarines.  Apparently some difficulty is being encountered with overheating as a result of fuel used.  Cylinder head breakage is caused by this overheating and also by some structural defect in design of the head and improper pattern of cooling water circulation, both of which have not been overcome.  The use of vanes on cylinder heads had been discontinued.
    Junkers crankless air compressor is now so dependable that electrically driven compressors are only infrequently used.
    Pointed out that one of great difficulties, due to inherent hull shape of submarine, in designing for greater speed, is second bow wave.
    Said that drop streamlining was not very applicable to U-boats, but that new S-boats were approaching this design, and had stepped bottoms.  While he stated that S-boat motors used gasoline for fuel, he apparently has seen or heard of an S-boat using double acting high speed diesels.
    Mercedes-Benz is building a Vee type gasoline S-boat motor.
    Does not attach much weight to increasing power, and consequently speed of U-boats.  He states that policy of Kriegsmarine is to stay with proven diesels, and not introduce complicated propulsion machinery beyond the capacity of personnel to operate.
    As to synthetic lubricating and hydraulic oils, Leunawerke have done much research work in this field, but oils being produced for use by the Navy are far from satisfactory.  In the hydraulically steered Voith-Schneider propellers, great difficulty is encountered with the synthetic hydraulic oils dissolving packings.  Petroleum base oils are said to be much more satisfactory.
    In present U-boat Diesels (M.A.N. and G.W. 6 cylinder, 4 cycle, single acting, equipped with Büchi superchargers), at emergency speed ("3 x A.K."), the R.P.M. are 480 to 500, and the exhaust temperature is about 5000 celsius.  At this temperature no difficulty is encountered with the vanes of the Büchi supercharger burning out.  Further, at the higher speeds up to "3 x A.K." there is a fairly close numerical identity between the number of R.P.M. and the number of degrees celsius of the exhaust temperatures.
    Maximum diving depth of U-boats is about 200 meters, apparently on the deeper side.
    The German Navy is said to have a new diving suit made of articulated alloy steel parts, of 5 mm. thickness, and capable of being used at depths of several hundred meters!!??
    Complements of German U-boats were apprehensive about operating in the Med. and off the U.S. coast due to the ease with which the U-boats in shallow waters could be observed by aircraft.  A wholesome respect for aircraft exists.
    A blockade runner carrying rubber and American made tires captured in the Far East made a French port.  So urgent was the need for tires by the German Army, that these were rushed to the Renault works in Paris, immediately mounted on vehicles that had been built for the Army but which could not be moved due to lack of tires.  Just a few hours after the vehicles left the plant, the bombing which destroyed it took place.


SCHUBERT   Didn't listen to Kammeradschafts Dienst.  Once heard Der Chef. V's on Beta Signal according to wish of sender.


BROCKMANN   U-202 - LINER - definitely not lost.  In Brest shortly before they left.
WEBER (Via KUERT)   The Jap boat in Lorient which WEBER saw had a small a/c with folding wings under the c/t.  She was about 1,600 tons.
    WEBER spoke of two boats built for the Turks one of which was called UA 290.
    A U-boat whose Patenstadt is Bayreuth ran on a mine off Brest early '43, and was sunk but the crew saved.
GERNHARDT   SCHNEE (ex U-210) was a good friend of M.
    P/W knew of LINDER and knew he had been at Brest.
NAHORN   At Pillau, saw an Ueberseekuhe.
    Graf Zeppelin is ready for use at sea.
BROCKMANN   POSER now C.O. of U-202.  LINDER is sick.  U-202 entered Brest.  Just as U-203 was leaving.  It was flying 2 pennants.
    U-FIEDLER in BUNKER with U-203 (SUHREN's boat?).
    REMUS in Brest, end '42 (has BARTHELS boat ?).
    U-ROSENBERG belongs to 1st Flot.
RYDZY   He saw U-FIDLER in Brest before the last cruise - it is an old boat - probably SUHREN's.
    The P/W has seen SCHNEE's boat - the Turmabzeichen is a Snowman.
GRÜNEWALD to MACHON   WOLFF C.O. of U-509.  BINAS I.W.O.  Device of SHUREN's new boat, 3x 447.  The cat is black.
    P/W served with SCHNEE in U-201 for four months.
SCHUBERT   Olt. JANSEN, C.O. of U-151, a 250-T. Schoolboat.
GERNHARDT   Abzeichen seen at Brest:  SCHNEE had snowman.
                                           Crab device.
GRÜNEWALD   U-REMUS.  STEINMEYER, Mechanikergefreiter, seen in Brest, Jan. '43.


RYDZY to MACHON   Suhren has Swords and is now on staff of B.d.U. but believes that he will later be C.O. of a U-Kreuzer.
    SCHNEE is adjutant of B.d.U.  B.d.U.'s son is IWO on a Versorgungsboot.
BROCKMANN   Black cat is personal not Flotilla abzeichen.
    SCHNEE has a staff job.  SUHREN was in 1st Flot., now teaching.
GERNHARDT   Other officers recalled by P/W:  Teddy SUHREN; SCHNEE; LEHMANN-WILLENBROCK; REMUS; all of whom were at Brest with P/W.
GRÜNEWALD   Saw SUHREN in Brest.  Kater for Abzeichen.  Saw SCHNEE March - April.
    Saw U-LINDER.
RYDZY   Confirmed LINDER, SCHNEE, REMUS, & SUHREN as former members of the 1st Flot.  REMUS became ill "und fahrt nucht mehr".  It was stated that the present commanders are all new and fairly young, their names were not known by the P/W.
BROCKMANN   POSER had LINDER's boat, was taken over when LINDER became ill.  REMUS also gave up his boat because of illness.
    POSER has a Stadtwappen as Abzeichen.
RYZDY   Olt. RÖTRGER followed SEIDEL as I.W.O.  Lt. SCHMIDT came on last trip.
    Lt. HAUPT was 2.W.O. before ARP, who came to U-203 on the Südfahrt, i.e. the 7th cruise.



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