A16-2 Serial 006  
                                                                                                        At Sea  
                                                                                                    19 July 1943.  
From: Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Osmond Ingram (AVD-9)
To: The Chief of Naval Operations (ONI)
Via: Commandant, Fifth Naval District
Subject: German Prisoners of War, Report of.
Reference: (a)  Vice Opnav Confidential Serial 01227316 of 19 May 1942.
Enclosures: (A)  Personal effects of prisoners in envelopes
  (B)  Miscellaneous papers, clothing, etc., not claimed
  (C)  Rescue lungs (3 boxes)
  (D)  Sample of solution derived from rescue lung
  (E)  Oil sample in 2 jars
  (F)  Envelope containing provision list
  (G)  Marked charts HO 4368, 4321, 4332 and BA 304
  (H)  Medical report and case history of prisoners
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  ND5(21)/A16-2                                                                                                    21 June 1943.  
  End-1 on USS OSMOND INGRAM (AVD9) A16-2 Serial 006 ltr, 19 June 1943  
  From:        ComFive  
  To:            Vice CNO  
  1.        Forwarded.  
                                                                                     CHAS. J. GASS  
                                                                                     By direction.  


A16-2  Serial 006
        1.        On 12 June 1943 at 1400Z this vessel was ordered to close a damaged and surface U-boat bearing 038 T, distant 20 miles.  Own position at 1400Z was 30-14N, 34-00W.  Wind northeast, force 2.  Sea condition 0.  Swells 0.  Barometer 30.31.
        2.        On arrival at the designated position a large oil slick was observed.  Twenty-one men were observed in the oil slick, of which seventeen were taken aboard.  Four dead were left in the water and names are unknown.  The following named men were taken as prisoners of war:
  1. Josef Grob (Gross) Stabsobermaschinist UN 331/28T
  2. Josef Holler Oberfunkmaat UN290/38T
  3. Rudolf Wiemer Oberfunkmaat UN5645/39T
  4. Werner Reinl Oberbootsmaat UO1497/37S
  5. Hans Siebert Bootsmaat UN4443/38S
  6. Herman Wiedemann Maschinenmaat UN4076/40T
  7. Klaus Preub (Preuss) Machanikersegefreiter UO37559/42S
  8. Werner Dreschsler Mechanikesobergefreiter UO6233/41S
  9. Erhard Lenk Mechanikersegefreiter UO8978/41S
  10 Gustaf Rehlke Matrosenobergefreiter UO4284/41S
  11. Wilhelm Bort Matrosenobergefreiter UN1389/41S
  12. Walter Schiller Maschinengefreiter UN12388/41T
  13. Paul Reum Maschinengefreiter UN19595/41T
  14. Hermann Polowzyk Maschinenobergefreiter UO3889/41T
  15. Werner Wilke Maschinenmaat UO3366/41T
  16. Hans Wosnitzka Matrosenobergefreiter UO3366/41T
  17. Wilhelm Erven Matrosenobergefreiter Unknown.
        Number 4 had shrapnel wound of left buttock.
        Number 5 had lacerations of forehand, small shrapnel wound of left arm, possible fracture of small bones of left foot, and numerous shrapnel wounds in back.
        Number 8 had bullet wound of right knee.
        Number 11 had shrapnel wound of right ankle, one-half inch laceration of index finger, right hand.
        3.        Of the above, numbers 15, 16 and 17 were seriously injured.  At 1730Z, 12 June 1943, Wilhelm Erven, Matrosenobergefreiter, service number unknown, died and burial at sea took place, with Josef Gross, present, at 2120Z, 12 June 1943 at 30-53N, 35-11W.  An autopsy of the subject man showed the following:  (1) Rupture of small intestines in four (4) places with free blood and feces in peritoneal cavity; (2) numerous hemorrhages in intestinal wall; (3) gross hemorrhages in
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lungs and free blood in pleurol space.  The results of the above and physical findings indicated that immediate surgery was necessary in the case of Hans Wosnitzka, Matrosenobergefreiter, UO969/418.  Surgery was completed at 0200Z 13 June and showed the following:  (1) no perforations but numerous hemorrhages throughout small intestines.  The Medical Officer decided not to operate on Werner Wilke, Maschinenmaat, UO 366/38T, although the two men presented similar symptoms but Wilke's were to a lesser degree.  On 13 June at about 2040Z Wilke was transferred to the U.S.S. Bogue, his condition apparently getting worse.
        4.        As survivors were brought aboard they were stripped of all clothing and equipment.  The conditions under which they were taken prevented inventory of personal effects for each individual but all gear letters, notebooks, etc., was collected and dried out.  These articles are forwarded herewith marked enclosures "A", "B" and "F" to this letter.  They were then dressed in unimpregnated decontamination clothing and placed under guard in the C.P.O. quarters.  The injured were taken care of as described in paragraph three.
        5.        In accordance with reference (a) no formal interrogation has been made.  However, in conversations with Wosnitzka, who has been separated from the other prisoners and has not been in contact with then since his rescue, the following information has been obtained and is believed authentic:
        During the U-boat's noon hour, 1400Z, 1200LCT, two planes were observed overhead, diving.  An order was given to dive and the U-boat submerged to forty (40) feet at which time the first bomb exploded.  Explosion caused loss of control and started a fire, (location unknown).  An order was given to "surface and fight it out the best they could."  On surfacing, the second bombs hit and buckled center section of U-boat.
        Wosnitzka was in the water on the surface when a bomb or depth bomb exploded within 20 to 30 meters from him, causing heavy water to fall on him.
        Wilhelm Erven was a ship's cook.  (Died)
        The complement of the U-boat was fifty-five (55).
        Another U-boat which had been damaged by Bogue's planes on 8 June rendezvous with this U-boat and eleven (11) wounded men were treated by their doctor, (rate or rank unknown), the first mentioned U-boat (damaged) proceeded home (Bordeaux).  Number of damaged U-boat was U-2 _ _.
        U-boats operate in groups of five and refuel at sea.  Two hundred are operating in the Atlantic.
        Refueling U-boats are suppliers which carry provisions in packages which weigh about one kilogram.
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        U-boat sun on 12 June was a "supplier" and carried approximately 20,000 packages of provisions, weighing one kilogram each, 450 tons of diesel oil and miscellaneous spare parts.  These "supplier" U-boats are a little over 100 meters long.  The one sunk was 1600 tons plus.  Germany has three suppliers similar to the one sunk.*  Each carries 15 torpedoes, spare parts, 450 tons of diesel oil and provisions for seven U-boats for about 2 weeks.  Own provisions last 140 days.  Supplies are obtained at Bordeaux and other Bunkers.  Of the torpedoes carried, seven are for the supplier's own use and eight for others.  The war head of the torpedo is about 54 centimeters in diameter and one meter long.  They are probably both steam and electric drive.  During daylight they are fired electrically.  Warheads have four horns.  Method of firing appears to be similar to curved fire and they are fired at about 5,000 meters.
        Refueling U-boats carry a doctor.
        U-boats refuel from a "supplier" during daylight on the surface at minimum surface speed.  They use only (1) two-and one-half inch hose and rate of delivery is about 13,000 gallons per hour.  While fueling, other four (4) U-boats of same group patrol at distance of six (6) miles as pickets.  Warning of approaching planes or surface vessels is sent by light and all submerge.
        Fueling of other submarines at sea is done by the alongside method at a speed of about three knots with the subs separated at a distance of 40 to 50 meters.  No lines of any kind are used.  The diesel oil hose of heavy rubber, about two and one-half inches in diameter and 150 to 180 meters long, is trailed in a bight astern of and between the two subs.  Air filled balloons, about three feet in diameter, covered with canvas, are made fast to the hose at increments of about 30 meters.  The balloons prevent hose from sinking below the surface while being trailed.  Discharge from the supplier is believed accomplished by using a pressure tank, actuated by high pressure air.  The astern method of fueling subs at sea has been tried but was not considered successful.
        U-boat lookouts are equipped with listening device for plane location.
        U-boats are tested for maximum depth of 200 meters.  When attacked, they invariably dive to 125-150 meters.  The ping of our equipment is noted and as the surface vessel approaches, all machinery is stopped.  No noise of any kind is made in the sub, personnel are not allowed to talk and the sub remains stopped until the first charges explode.  The sub then proceeds away from the attacking vessel at silent running speed and at 200 meters depth.  Our charges have apparently been going off above them and Wosnitzka stated that up until six months ago he thought the maximum depth at which our charges exploded was 100 meters.
        *Germany has seven or eight other suppliers of about the same size which do not carry torpedoes but more diesel oil and provisions.
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        Losses are quickly replaced by rapid building program.
        The coast of France from Brest south contains many concrete "garages" from which U-boats operate.  The overhead is concrete, four (4) meters plus in thickness.
        Approximately 20 more U-boats were in the general area where sinking took place, 30-30N, 34W.
        Hans Wosnitzka was forced into submarine service after having been taken prisoner with 5,000 others.  One thousand were forced to choose between going to submarine service or being shot.  Wosnitzka was the sub's helmsman.
        Training is received on three ships of about 28,000 tons each.  One is named "Robert Ley."  Other training centers are located at the town of Gottenhoffen about 30 kilometers west of Danzig and at the town of Pillau, 150 kilometers east of Danzig.  No U-boats operate from there or are built there.  Instruction only is received.
        Planes, destroyers and corvettes are feared in the order named.
        Six officers, plus one medical officer, were in the U-boat sunk.  Captain's name was pronounced "Chiggar."  Officers on the U-boat were:
  Kpt Czygan Kmdt (36 years old)
  Ob. Lnt Schrotke I.W.O.
  Ltnd Holm II I.W.O.
  Ob. Ltnd Gotze L.F.
  Ltnd   W.F.
  Stabs artzt Hinter  
        One officer (name unknown) took charge of all books, magazines, newspapers, etc., and issued them after they had been at sea for a week or so.  It is not known if he is a member of the Propaganda Ministry.  The crew is allowed to listen to radio programs, but only those broadcast from Germany.  There is no radio reception while the submarine is submerged.
        Sound equipment is not used as a means of firing torpedoes.
        Radio equipment is used for detection of air and surface craft but it is believed to be only a listening device.
        Five men are on lookout watch while the sub is on the surface.  When submerged, the captain is at the periscope and is relieved by the executive officer.
        Four radiomen on board stand watches of six on and 18 off.  Two sound men are on watch when submerged, none when on surface.
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        Crash diving time for small boats is 20 seconds to get to 20 meters.  Suppliers take 30 seconds to get to 20 meters.
        U-boats stay submerged during daylight only and can remain submerged for four (4) days.  They are fitted with air purifiers.  During the night they operate on the surface.
        It takes from two to three hours to charge batteries.
        The 12th Flotilla is operating in the Atlantic.  Other flotillas are operating in the Mediterranean and the Pacific.  A day or so later, on 17 June, Wosnitzka said that no German submarines were operating in the Pacific.  The submarines operating in the Mediterranean are based at Messina.  They normally operate in groups of five.
        Sinkings are reported to Berlin by radio.  Only verification is captain's estimates.  Radio communications from Berlin control the sub's movements.  When a convoy is sighted, the U-boat sighting it reports to Berlin and Berlin in turn issues instructions to subs which might be able to make an attack.
        Block houses or submarine "garages" are located at Brest, Lorient and Bordeaux.  They are about 500 meters long, 150 meters in depth and 20 meters high.  The one at Bordeaux has eleven (11)) compartments; each compartment houses two (2) U-boats.  Buildings are painted yellow and green.  They have no other camouflage.  Raid on about 10 May at Bordeaux had no appreciable effect on garage roofs which are four meters thick but did block channel for a week, preventing subs from getting in or out.
        A minefield was laid last month by U-boats between Tangier and Tarifa, extending to Cape Spartel.  Extent is unknown.  The supplier sunk had onboard at one time 66 mines which were laid in the Straits of Gibraltar.  The mines laid at Gibraltar are about 30 meters below the surface.  They are attracted to a ship by magnetism and explode on contact.  A slight flux is believed to cut in an electrical switch which might polarize the mine, causing it to seek a ship.  Mines can be laid in 300 meters of water.
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        U-boats are built at Stettin, Kiel, Hamburg, Lubeck, Bremen, Danzig, Ebbling and Konicksberg.  U-boat garages are known to exist at the following places:  Brest, Lorient, Bordeaux, La Pallice, St. Rochelle and St. Nazaire.  Exact location of garages in last three places unknown.  At Brest the Bunker consists of 15 sections.  Each section houses one (1) U-boat.  The overhead is three meters thick.  The location of the Bunker is inside the breakwater west side and extends from the tank south of the Naval Academy in a northeasterly direction approximately 1,000 yards.  It is painted yellow and green.  A naval barracks is located at a point 48-23-30 N, 04-29W and consists of a tall modern building yellow in color.  There is a net between the breakwater at the entrance to the inner harbor.  Small patrol craft constantly patrol.  Flak and ack-ack up to 8.8 centimeters surround the entire area west and northwest of the positions given.  It is further believed that small caliber A.A. guns are mounted on the breakwater.  U-boats after repairs and alterations are tested in the general area of deep water one mile to the southward of inner harbor entrance (Radi-Abril), extending to the westward about four miles.  Nets are placed at the entrance to the Bunkers.  Known anti-aircraft guns consist of 2, 3.7, and 8.8 centimeters.  A 15 centimeter gun also exists but is not believed installed at Brest.  There are many airfields in the vicinity of Brest but are not believed to be in use.  They were in use when the fleet was present at Brest.  Reference chart is H.O. 4368 Consec 3351.
        The city of Lorient and Nouvelle Ville are in ruins.  A bunker which houses four U-boats exists at approximately 47-45-08 N, 03-20-57 W.  It is located just south of a new water pipeline and is on the east bank of the Le Scorff river.  It is painted yellow.  A large Bunker is located at approximately 47-43-56 N, 03-22-24 W.
        Adjacent to and southwest of this Bunker and connected to it by means of railroad tracks or similar tracks is another Bunker.  U-boats are received in the first mentioned Bunker, placed on a marine railway and taken to the southwest Bunker for repairs, overhaul, etc.  Anti-aircraft batteries surround the entire area of Lorient.  It is believed to be 2, 3.7 and 8.8 centimeters in caliber.  Six Ju-88's were stationed at Lorient a short time ago.  Airfields exist, location unknown.  Reference chart BA304 Consec 3343.
        A station minesweeper of approximately 3,000 tons sweeps the channel from Lorient to seaward to a point about 10 miles bearing 290 T from Ile de Groix Northwest Light.  This sweeper is believed to be of shallow draft and has a special rig up forward, consisting of cork and wire, which explodes mines on contact without damage to the sweep.  U-boats in proceeding to sea follow the sweep on the surface at 100 meters.  English mines are known to have been laid to the westward of Ile-de-Groix.  A german minefield exists north of Ile-de-Groix, between Ile-de-Groix and the mainland.  This vessel normally anchors, when not under way, northeast of Ile-de-Groix, two miles.  Reference chart H.O. 4321  Consec 3320.
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        At Bordeaux, A Bunker exists which is adjacent to the Basin at 44-52-07 N, 00-33-30 W and extends in a northeasterly direction.  To the northeast of the Bunker there is a large factory, two tall chimneys and a gas works.  South of the Bunker, an Italian Bunker is controlled by three dams or dikes and the water for the German Bunker is controlled by three dams or dikes and the water is approximately three or four meters.  This Bunker consists of 11 sections, each section housing two U-boats.  Repairs and overhaul are accomplished in the Bunkers.  Provisions can be obtained at this base.  Buildings surrounding the Bunker house personnel.  Many airfields exist in the vicinity of Bordeaux.  Two miles southwest of the German Bunker an 8.8 centimeter A.A. battery exists.  One to two miles north of the bunker there is a 3.7 centimeter A.A. battery and from one to two miles east of the Bunker there is a 2 centimeter A.A. battery, Reference chart H.O. 4332  Consec 3333.
        Refueling U-boats similar to the one sunk have one 10.5 centimeter gun, four 8.5 centimeter, two 2 centimeter.  Other U-boats have four 8.5 centimeter, six 2 centimeter guns.  Ammunition is fixed and consists of common and H.E. shells.  Tracers are apparently not used.  The gun batteries of U-boats are in the process of modification.  The 10.5 centimeter gun is located forward.  Four 8.5 centimeter guns are located on a gun platform just abaft the conning tower.  There are two guns per side but only two guns can be used at one time.  On the main deck aft of the conning tower itself there are 2 centimeter guns.  The 10.5 centimeter gun is not used against aircraft and can be elevated about 40 degrees, the 8.5 centimeter gun can be elevated 80 degrees and the 3.7 centimeter gun 90 degrees.
        Limiting factors which determine the duration of the U-boat's cruise are:  (1) Fuel;  (2) Food).
        There are five known submarine training centers at Pillau, Gottenhoffen, Danzig, Memel and at the head of the peninsula extending into the Gulf of Danzig and east of Puck Bay.  The training center at Memel is the school for officers, exact location unknown.  Training is done on ships as mentioned before.
        Air bases are known to exist at Calais and Boulonge.  A flight training center is believed to exist in the vicinity of Bordeaux, approximately five kilometers east of the Bunker before mentioned.
        Aircraft factories are known to be in operation at Dessau and Rostock.  These factories build bombers.
        Gasoline is used for military purposes only.  There is no shortage of Diesel oil for submarines insofar as Wosnitzka knows.  All refined oils are brought from Romania.  Crude oil is refined there.
        Submarine's maximum surface speed is 20 knots, submerged 8 knots.  Maximum duration submerged at 8 knots is eight to ten hours.  Known fuel consumption for supplier was 10 tons when making 20 knots for eight hours.
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        Gyro compass in use is called "Kreiselkompas" and is manufactured by "Anschutz" in Kiel.  They are believed to be of excellent quality.  A magnetic compass is also mounted adjacent to the helm but is seldom used.  Navigational positions are obtained in the normal manner.  In addition a new type of sextant or octant with a clock-like mechanism has been issued recently for obtaining star fixes at night.  It is called "Liebellensechstant."
        If a surfaced U-boat's torpedoes hit a ship in a convoy and the explosion is heard, a box type mechanical device is thrown overboard which emits a sound similar to the noise of a U-boat's propellers.  This is not done when submerged.  Our sound signal is heard at a distance of at least five miles.
        Admiral Doenitz's headquarters are located at Berlin but he visits U-boat bases frequently.  In April he visited the Bunker at Bordeaux.
        U-boats are built at places previously mentioned but these are mainly assembly points.  Parts and units are received from many other places.
        The U-boats operating in the Atlantic displace from 600 to 800 tons.  Those operating in the Mediterranean are of about 600 tons.  As mentioned before suppliers are about 1600 tons.
        Tactical diameters are not known but full rudder for the supplier was 20 degrees, for other U-boats 30 degrees.  U-boats have two propellers.
        U-boats have a recognition signal by flashing light which consists of four letters and is changed daily.  The challenge consists of one (1) letter and the reply of one (1) letter.  This is followed by a second challenge of one (1) letter and answered by one (1) letter.  Smoke bombs are not used and there is no emergency recognition signal in use.
        All major units of the German fleet know the location of U-boats in their vicinity or area.  U-boats returning to the Bay of Biscay have orders not to submerge in less than 200 meters of water unless it is absolutely necessary.  There appears to be very little air coverage off the Bay of Biscay.
        Ships of German navy are known to be located in the fiords of Norway.  Prisoner knows of no main drives contemplated.  U-boats have no information on operations.  Location of ammunition dumps is not known.
        During the latter part of December a Japanese submarine of 2,000 tons made a call at Lorient.  It carried a plane.
       The German people are not getting enough to eat and hope that the war will end soon, Wosnitzka said.  They appear to be depressed and are low in spirits.
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        Personnel forced into the U-boat service are treated the same as Germans but occasionally a group of Germans will chide a foreigner.  Promotion advantages are the same for Germans and foreigners and is based on time served.  After two years in a boat, if a man decides to stay another year he is promoted for it.  U-boat personnel are well cared for.  Few hot meals are ever served on board U-boats.
        All persons in France capable of working are forced to do so.  The French have built the Bunkers which are of steel reinforced concrete.  The Germans as as overseers on all work.  The French people are by description a "conquered people."
        6.        By observation the following information obtained from others among the prisoners is submitted:
  (a) Joseph Grosz Stabsobermaschienist, UN331/28T, is the leader of the group.
  (b) U-boats had received information that a carrier was operating in the vicinity.  (Grosz)
  (c) Statement by one member that carrier group had been chased for fourteen days.  (Bogue group departed base Roger 31 May 1943).  (All)
  (d) U-boat left Bordeaux, France, and was operating from there.  (Dreschler)
  (e) Planes' attack angle was very effective.  (unknown)  Fighter planes are greatly feared due to speed and the small target which they present.  (Grosz)
  (f) Hans Siebert, Bootsmaat, UN4443/38S, was in the German merchant marine service and has been in the U.S.  He speaks a little English.
  (g) U-boat departed Bordeaux, France, between 10 and 14 May.  A newspaper, dated 21 May was found on one of the prisoners and was said to have been received from the damaged sub while alongside being repaired.
  (h) U-boat suffered an internal explosion which killed most of the crew.  (Grosz, Reinl)
  (i) Captain was severely wounded by machine gun bullets.  Conning tower was riddled.  (Grosz)
  (j) Other members of the crew were probably Ebner, Burger, Koltzsch and C. Schmidt N476/34S.
  (p) Prisoners appear anxious to please Commanding Officer of rescue ship (Osmond Ingram).  They have asked for work, shaved beards, had hair cut and mended clothes to present good appearance when landed so that there would be no discredit on this ship.
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  (q) The solution obtained from the lung (Enclosure D) is believed to be NH2O.  (Grosz)
  (r) Hitler visited a U-boat base and Grosz claims to have talked with him for 15 minutes in company with other members of the crew and two officers.
  (s) A supposedly captured U.S. Film has been shown to them, giving details of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
  (t) A Jap two-man sub was at some U-boat base about a year ago and was thoroughly inspected by U-boat personnel.  Consensus was that they were a bunch of junk and only good for harbor work.
  (u) Great hate is shown for all Russians, the Japanese are likewise despised.  (Grosz, Siebert)
  (v) The opinion was expressed by Grosz that the non-return of the supplier to Germany will cause an intensified hunt by all U-boat commanders for aircraft carriers.  (The Bogue was seen by the prisoners while they were in the water.)
  (w) Torpedoes are seldom fired at destroyers or corvettes.  The former are too fast and the latter too small and both have good maneuvering qualities.  (Grosz)
        7.        The following officers and men are deserving of special mention for the part they played in obtaining the information contained in this report and for their actions during and after the rescue:
        Lt.(jg) Leslie Hubbard (MC) USNR for his excellent treatment of wounded prisoners, for performing a major operation under the most trying conditions and for saving the life of Wosnitzka who has been an excellent source of enemy information which should prove of great value to the war effort.
        Louis Paul Rebelowski, 213-55-95, CWT(AN) USN, for his part as interpreter between Wosnitzka and the Commanding Officer and for his ability to induce the prisoner to divulge information which he at first declined to give.
        Lt.(jg) William B. Bagbey D-V(S) USNR for his excellent seamanship as boat officer in charge of picking up survivors and material from the water and for his aid in the preparation of this report and the assembling of all material taken from the water and from the survivors.
        Michael Lander, Jr., 283-34-01, MM2/c, USN, for his services as a German interpreter and the furnishing of information as given on paragraph 6 of this report.
        All other officers and the entire crew acted in accordance with the best traditions of the U.S. Naval service by a proper performance of duty at all times.
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        8.        Wosnitzka has been extremely cooperative and has been willing to answer all questions with the exception of one; i.e., the number of his U-boat.  This one question he will not answer because of a pledge or vow to the Roman Catholic Church.  He is extremely anxious to be kept completely separated from the other prisoners and I have promised that this will be done by our government.  He has been separated since his rescue and does not know the names of any other survivors on board.  He does not like the Germans and is anxious to help the United States in its effort to aid Poland.  He has expressed a desire to do garden work and drive a car.  Wosnitzka was formerly a shipping clerk.  He has a high school education.  He likes gardening and can drive a car and a motorcycle.  He has no friends or relatives in the United States.  He is intelligent and observing.  When questioned by a trained interrogator valuable information may be obtained.  It is hoped that my promise of complete separation and personal aid will be fulfilled by the proper authorities.
        9.        Time and the necessity for absolute secrecy have prevented the correlation of facts presented in this report.  The information is set forth more or less in the manner and order received from the prisoner.
                                                                                               N. J. SAMPSON
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