COPY      No.          1295           
        This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it is issued without the express permission of the commanding officer
C.B. 3074
December, 1941





        This book is the property of H.M. Government
        It is intended for the use of officers generally and may, in certain cases be communicated to persons in His Majesty's Service, below the rank of commissioned officer, who require to be aquatinted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due caution and reserve.


Attention is drawn to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
Official Secrets Acts
C.B. 3074
This C.B. cancels the following Fleet Orders:-
        A.F.O. 2036/40.
        A.F.O. 2358/40.
        A.F.O. 2898/40.
        A.F.O. 3251/41.
        C.A.F.O. 1676/41.
        A.F.O. 21/42.
December, 1941


                                                                                                             December, 1941
        The instructions for the treatment and handling of prisoners of war in ships effecting capture, herein contained, are to be complied with by all concerned.
                                                                       BY COMMAND OF THEIR LORDSHIPS,
                                                                                                     ST.V. MARKHAM
To the respective Flag
    Officers, Captains,
    Commanders and
    others concerned.
            December, 1941.
(N.I.D. 2939/41.)


Prefatory remarks
Searching and effects
Preliminary Conversations in Ships effecting Capture
Intelligence requirements


Treatment and Handling of Prisoners of War in Ships effecting Capture
        The following procedure, which embodies the existing C.A.F.O.s and A.F.O. dealing with the treatment and interrogation of prisoners of war, in ships effecting capture, should be carefully followed.  It should be remembered that the primary value of a prisoner lies in his being a potential source of information rather than an object for excessive solicitude.  Attention is directed to Article 25, King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions, dealing generally with treatment of prisoners of war.
        2.  In order that the procedure may be successfully accomplished, Commanding Officers should consider what organisation is necessary prior to the capture or embarkation of prisoners.  Even though there appears no hope of boarding or seizing the enemy vessel, officers and ratings are likely to have important documents or mechanisms on their persons.  Throughout the operation, until prisoners are safely on board and stripped of all property, it is advisable to keep them in a state of terror, by gunfire or other means, so that none of the enemy crew may have the presence of mind to leave objects on board the sinking vessel or to dispose of them during rescue.
        3.  The importance of speed in dealing with prisoners immediately on embarkation cannot be over-emphasised; if delays occur prisoners may take the opportunity of --
                (a)  destroying or ridding themselves of any documents or papers in their possession;
                (b)  observing further Naval activities which may be undesirable for them to see;
                (c)  concocting amongst themselves various misleading versions of their recent activities.
                (The segregation of prisoners is referred to in paragraph 7 below.)
        4.  It follows that it is essential to plan in advance the necessary accommodation for the groups of officers, petty officers and men, who must be segregated as detailed in paragraph 7 below.  Similarly the selection of ratings to carry out the searching and guarding of prisoners should be arranged in advance.
        5.  The selection of the necessary and most convenient accommodation for prisoners will depend on the class of ship; consideration must be given to the possible effects on the ships fighting efficiency and the comfort of the ship's company whose own accommodation and messing facilities may become curtailed, particularly if the number of prisoners is large.
        6.  Reliable personnel should be detailed to carry out the separation, registration, searching and guarding of prisoners as described later, and to conduct preliminary talks with prisoners in accordance with paragraphs 29-38 below.  Those selected for these duties should be given careful instructions in advance.


        7.  (a)  To prevent the disposal by prisoners of war, before they are searched, of papers or secret material in their possession, all men as they come on board should be taken straight down below to a compartment where disposal of such papers is impossible.  Men should not be fallen in on the upper deck before being searched (see paragraph 3 (a) above).
               (b)  Prisoners of war should as soon as possible be segregated into the following groups:-
                (i)  Officers
               (ii)  Non-commissioned officers,
              (iii)  Men,
until after final examination.  The Commanding Officer is to be segregated from other officers and taken prisoner and no opportunity is to be given for intercommunication between the groups to which prisoners are segregated.  (see paragraph 3 (c) above).  Batches of prisoners, captured from different ships should, if practicable, be kept segregated from each other.
                (c)  In segregating prisoners the possibility of attempts by prisoners to conceal their actual identity must be considered and is referred to in paragraph 38 below.
        8.  The full names, ranks or ratings, and official or regimental numbers of all prisoners of war who may be received in the ship are to be entered in the ship's ledger in accordance with the Geneva Convention, no pressure may be exerted on prisoners to obtain information regarding the situation in their armed forces or their country.  Prisoners are only bound to declare their names and rank or rating.  As an alternative to their rank or rating they may declare their official or regimental numbers.
          9.  In obtaining this information, and that referred to in paragraph 15 below, it should be borne in mind that, in accordance with the Geneva Convention, no pressure may be exerted on prisoners to obtain information regarding the situation in their armed forces or their country.  Prisoners are only bound to declare their names and rank or rating.  As an alternative to their rank or rating they may declare their official or regimental numbers.  
        10.  Apart from persons actually in the enemy forces, enemy reservists, enemy men of military age and special agents, and neutrals in enemy service will be made prisoners of war by H.M. ships in the circumstances described in Articles 14 and 125 of the Naval Prize Manual (O.U. 5316) and Articles of the Control Service Manual (as modified by


Admiralty Instructions). The present instructions will be applicable to such prisoners except for such modifications as are imposed by the lack of rank, rating of other official status.  Thus, the only particulars which they will be required to declare are their name and nationality.
        11.  Notwithstanding the instruction laid down on O.U. 5316, Article 14, paragraph 3 and 4, officers and crews of captured enemy ships, when of enemy nationality, are not to be given the opportunity of signing an undertaking that they will not engage during hostilities in any service connected with operations of war and are to be handed over to the military police on landing.  This applies also to officers and crews of enemy ships which scuttle themselves to avoid capture.
        12.  The policy in regard to enemy aliens in neutral ships is laid down in Articles 51-54 of C.B. 1993.  Whenever an enemy subject is removed, from a neutral ship (other than a ship calling at a British port in the ordinary course of trade), the following additional particulars should be reported:-
                (a)  Where the removal took place;
                (b)  The status of the prisoner and the grounds for his removal.
        13.  In accordance with the provisions of Article 77 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 1929, Prisoner of War Information Bureaux have been established at Curzon Street House, Curzon Street, London, W.1, and in other theatres of war.
        14.  It is the duty of the Bureaux to reply to all enquiries about prisoners and to make out and keep up to date an individual return for each prisoner of war, giving his regimental or official number, name and name of the mother, address of the person to be notified in case of accident, wounds, date and place of capture, internment, wounding and death, as well as any other important particulars.  It is also the business of the Bureaux to collect all personal effects, valuables, correspondence, pay books, identity tokens, etc., which may have been lost or left behind by prisoners of war who have been repatriated or released on parole, or who have escaped or died, and to forward them to those concerned.  The Bureaux will in future also deal with enemy merchant seamen, who are hereafter included in the term "prisoners of war".
        15.  (a)  Ships effecting capture, or embarking prisoners, should report by signal to their Flag Officers, repeated Admiralty, the number of officers and other ranks of prisoners captured or embarked, and particulars of any wounded or cot cases.  Such particulars as are available regarding the bodies of enemy dead which may be picked up should also be included.
                (b)  Prisoners of war on being landed will be dealt with in accordance with paragraph 48 hereof and in future it will be the duty of the local Military authorities, to whom the prisoners are handed over, to report particulars of their capture (including the details referred to in paragraph 15 (a) above) to the appropriate Prisoners of War Information Bureaux according to the theatre of war in which the prisoners are landed.


                Accordingly the officer in command of the Military escort taking charge of the prisoners (or the senior naval officer or police officer, if the prisoners are handed over to a naval or police authority), should be supplied with a nominal roll in the following form:-
         Record of prisoners of war..........................................................................
  taken by H.M........................................        at..............................................
  received in
    on...........................................................................  19....................
No on Ship's Books
Date Received on Board.
Date, Place, etc., of Disposal.
Whether Wounded or Since Died.
        The rank or rating in column 4 should, if possible, be given in native tongue.
        Copies, in duplicate, of the above nominal roll are to be forwarded to the Admiralty through the local Commander-in-Chief.
                (c)  As a general rule the above nominal roll should be prepared by the actual captor at the time when the prisoners are registered in accordance with paragraph 8 thereof but if this is not possible and the custody of the prisoners is transferred to another authority (e.g., another ship or a naval hospital) before the nominal roll has been prepared, the fact that the list had not been made should be clearly explained at the time of transfer so that the new custodian can prepare it.
                Particulars of the bodies of any enemy dead which may be picked up by H.M. ships should also be included in the nominal roll in order that a record of them may reach the Prisoners of War Information Bureaux.  If buried at sea this information should be included in the column headed "Date, Place, etc., of Disposal," and the time and place of burials should be stated.  If the body was landed and subsequently buried ashore, the date and place of burial should be stated if available.
                 (d)  Commanding officers of hospital ships and hospital carriers as to render the local Commander-in-Chief, a return as detailed above, whenever enemy prisoners of war are discharged ashore.  Particular care should be taken to show in column 7 of the return the destination of prisoner on discharge where such destination is known.  If the ultimate destination of prisoner is not known, the particulars of the military authorities who took charge of him should be stated.  This return is in addition to the return required on initially embarking prisoner if this has not already been rendered by the actual captor.


        16.  (a)  A copy of the above-mentioned return will be forwarded by the Admiralty to the Prisoner of War Information Bureaux, London.
                (b)  The policy regarding enemy submarines destroyed is to withhold publication of the names of survivors until after the date on which the submarine would have returned to her base.
                (c)  Accordingly, the names of Naval prisoners of war will only be reported to the enemy government by the appropriate Prisoners of War Information Bureaux after the Admiralty has approved the release of the names in question.
                (d)  Before Army Forms 3000 are forwarded to the enemy government by the appropriate Prisoners of War Information Bureaux they are to be scrutinised at the Admiralty, or, in the case of prisoners landed in the Middle East, or where a local Prisoners of War Information Bureaux exists, by an officer on the staff of the local Naval Commander-in-Chief; in the later case the local Prisoner of War Information Bureaux will cable particulars to the Admiralty will will fix a date for release.  Prisoner of War Information Bureaux have been instructed accordingly.
        17.  The earliest opportunity should be taken to examine methodically all prisoners of war.  Not only may this prevent the introduction of infectious or contagious diseases in H.M. ships or into Great Britain, but it may contribute to the saving of lives of prisoners from whom information may later be obtained.  Commanding Officers and Medical Officers in charge of Naval hospitals are to take the following action when wounded prisoners of war are received on board, or in hospital in this country, and it is found necessary for their clothing to be cut away for medical reasons.
                (a)  Any kit or clothing obtained in this way from personnel of enemy military forces, especially any badges or markings thereon, are to be sent to the Under-Secretary of State, War Office (Department M.I.19), or handed to the local military authorities.
                (b)  The kit or clothing of air force prisoners should be sent to the Under-Secretary of State, Air Ministry (Intelligence Department A.I.1(k)), Whitehall, or handed to the local A.I.1 (k) Interrogation Officer.
                (c)  The kit or clothing of enemy naval prisoners need not be forwarded to the Admiralty, unless specially requested.  Pockets and linings should be searched as soon as possible, and every single article or paper should be forwarded, without delay, to the Director of Naval Intelligence.
                (d)  Any kit or clothing forwarded as above should be accompanied by a report containing the full name, rank, rating and/or official or regimental number of the prisoner concerned, and details of the date and place of capture.  It is pointed out that the kit or clothing which is to be dealt with in this way is only kit or clothing which, having been cut away for medical reasons, would normally be thrown away or destroyed.


Searching and Effects
        18.  Men detailed to carry out the searching of prisoners should be told that every single article or paper - even an old train ticket or postmarked envelope - may provide a valuable link in a chain of evidence and consequently requires careful retention.
        19.  As the value of documents may vary according to the men from which they are taken, it is essential that the possessions of each officer or man should be put into separate envelopes or other receptacles, and his name written on the outside.  The entire effects of prisoners, individually labeled, should be placed in one or more labeled bags, preparatory to disposal.  A list showing the names of prisoners from whom effects have been removed and indicating the name of their vessel is to be prepared and is to accompany the effects when disposed of as detailed in paragraphs 22-26 below.
        20.  Sums of money carried by prisoners may only be taken from them on the order of an officer and after the amount has been recorded and a receipt given.  Sums thus impounded will be placed to the account of each prisoner.  Particular attention is to be paid to the need for furnishing a receipt to all enemy prisoners of war from whom money, jewelry or other articles of value are removed.
        22.  Arms, military equipment, notebooks and documents of all kinds including private letters, are to be removed from prisoners immediately after capture.  These belonging to Naval prisoners of war (after steps have been taken to examine such documents for information which may require early action) are to be forwarded direct to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiralty, as soon as possible.  It is most important that these should be available without delay, with a list of prisoners as detailed in paragraph 19.  Any personal effects of deceased or escaped Naval prisoners of war should likewise be forwarded to the Director of Naval Intelligence.
        23.  Commanding Officers of ships that pick up the bodies of enemy dead at sea are to forward the personal effects removed therefrom to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiralty, together with a report containing the following information:-
        (i)  Date on which body was picked up.
       (ii)  Position where picked up.
       (iii)  State of body.
      (iv)  Type of boat or vessel from which body came (if known).
       (v)  If an airman, the effects should be dealt with as detailed in paragraph 26 below and at the same time reporting the type of aircraft from which body came and how shot down (if known).


        24.  The personal effects of enemy merchant seamen are to be dealt with in the same way as the effects of Naval prisoners of war.
        25.  The effects of enemy Military prisoners of war captured by the Navy should be placed in a labeled bag, the effects of each man being individually labeled with his name, and handed to the local military authorities.  The effects, on disposal, are to be accompanied by the list of prisoners as detailed in paragraph 19.
        26.  Effects of enemy air force prisoners, individually labeled, should be sent to A.I.1(k), Air Ministry, Whitehall, or be handed to the local A.I.1(k) Interrogation Officer.  The effects, on disposal, are to be accompanied by the list of prisoners as detailed in paragraph 19 (see also paragraph 22 above).
        27.  Prisoners of war should not be allowed to communicate in any way with unauthorised persons before final examination and no opportunity should be given to send messages or post letters until these can be scrutinised for codes, etc., by a Naval Interrogation Officer.  Accordingly, any letters written by Naval prisoners of war, whilst in H.M. ships, should be forwarded to the Director of Naval Intelligence, with prisoners' effects, as laid down in paragraph 22.
        28.  Ships' papers falling within the scope of Section 38 of the Naval Discipline Act are to be forwarded to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiralty, marked for forwarding by him to the Court of Admiralty.  Affidavits verifying such papers should be sworn in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 116 of the Naval Prize Manual (O.U. 5316).  A schedule of the papers forwarded to the Director of Naval Intelligence in accordance with this paragraph should be annexed to the affidavit, which should aver that the papers have been sent to the Director of Naval Intelligence.  The affidavits and schedules should be forwarded direct to the Procurator-General, Storey's Gate, St. James', London, S.W.1.
Preliminary Conversations in Ships effecting Capture
        29.  It has been found that the discretion of prisoners of war is often temporarily undetermined by the shock and stress of capture and by initial anxiety as to their fate.  In such circumstances and particularly if suitably encouraged, prisoners may well be abnormally communicative and even eager to talk.
        30.  Ships effecting captures should exploit such a state of mind before prisoners have had time to recover their reserve and self-possession, but in so doing it is imperative that any suggestion of formal interrogation, or even interview, be avoided, since this inevitably places prisoners on their guard, indicated subjects on which information is required and prejudices the subsequent work of the Interrogation Officers at the Interrogation Centre.  Inept preliminaries may completely wreck subsequent interrogations.


        31.  Commanding Officers should accordingly make a very careful selection of officers and men to be entrusted to carry out these preliminary talks and as far as possible ensure that those selected have received in advance the necessary instructions.
        32.  These conversations, which constitute a great responsibility for those selected to carry them out, must be conducted in an informal manner and may well give valuable information if carried out in a favorable atmosphere, e.g., while prisoners are having a meal.
        33.  Those selected to deal with prisoners should be instructed to treat prisoners courteously, but EXTRAVAGANT FRIENDLINESS MUST BE STRONGLY DISCOURAGED.  A slightly warmer tone could be adopted with prisoners who appear more likely to divulge information.  It may be found that flattery, in some cases, will produce a satisfactory reaction.
        34.  A mentioned in paragraph 9, pressure may not be exerted on prisoners to obtain information and, accordingly, intensive or persistent interrogation must be avoided.  For best results it will be found advisable to assume a certain degree of ascendancy over the enemy, but rough handling, which might result in reprisals being taken against British or Allied prisoners of war, must be strictly prohibited.  As the German character frequently interprets kindness as weakness, anything approaching fraternization is to be avoided.
        35.  Prisoners will have been schooled to be very reticent and, due to the development of the Gestapo, will often refrain from talking in the presence of their messmates.  Accordingly, should nay prisoners be considered likely to become communicative, they should ob some pretext or other, be separated, possibly in the Sick Bay, where alone, under sympathetic treatment, they may be induced to impart valuable to me of some corresponding rank.
        36.  During these preliminary conversations no mention is to be made of our knowledge of enemy movements, and SPECULATION AS TO OUR SOURCES OF INTELLIGENCE IS NEITHER TO BE SOUGHT NOR ENCOURAGED.
        37.  Details of all preliminary conversations should be written down at once, so that no points are omitted, and forwarded to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiralty, without delay.  It is important that the reports of these conversations should be as accurate as possible.
        38.  Attempts may be made to conceal the real identity of certain prisoners so as to avoid detailed interrogation on important technical subjects.  It is known, for example, that prisoners have been instructed not to divulge the actual occupation of Telegraphist Petty Officers and ratings, who usually profess to have been otherwise employed.  Any information respecting such subterfuges would facilitate subsequent interrogation and should be communicated to the Director of Naval Intelligence.


Intelligence Requirements
        39.  Intelligence requirements will vary from time to time, although Commanding Officers will be able to issue brief instructions regarding these requirements, it is unlikely that information, except of a general nature, will be obtained during the preliminary talks.
        40.  Obviously, remarks regarding prisoners' own ship, recent activities, other units, bases and naval personnel would be of interest.  The effect of British weapons and prisoners' opinions on British ships and tactics might prove of value.
        41.  Interrogation of Naval prisoners of war is carried out by trained officers at the Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre (C.S.D.I.C.) referred to in paragraph 30.  Experience has shown the undesirability and even danger of preliminary formal interrogation by inexperienced officers not in possession of the full facts.  Therefore, when Naval prisoners of war are captured on a foreign station which does not possess a C.S.D.I.C., interrogation is to be confined to the scope of informal conversations, referred to in paragraphs 29-38.
        42.  If the Admiralty, or the Commander-in-Chief, should require immediately any particular item of operational information, instructions will be signaled to this effect and any interrogation is to be confined to the subjects indicated.
        43.  (a)  The possibility (with officers probability) of prisoners of war understanding English must be taken into account.  Instances of escape have occurred and may recur and accordingly all discussion of tactics, armament, etc., should be avoided within the hearing of prisoners.
                (b)  It is suggested that men with the best knowledge of the enemy's language should be used as guards for the prisoners.  On no account should these guards show that they understand the prisoner's language.  It should be possible to stage a convincing demonstration of ignorance in order to lull the prisoners into feeling safe whilst conversing together.  The posting of suitable guards may result in valuable conversations being overheard.
        44.  Recently a U-boat Commanding Officer, pretending to be a rating, was overheard by a guard formulating a version of recent activities, which was to be passed to their interrogators.  This officer was promptly removed before he could develop his scheme further.
45.  Rating prisoners of war should be victualled in the same way as Naval ratings, except that the spirit ration is not issued to them.  Rum may be issued in exceptional circumstances to both officers and ratings, e.g., if the are suffering from exposure.


        46.  Officer prisoners of war should be victualled from the mess appropriates to their rank at the Commanding Officer's discretion, the mess concerned being credited with victualling allowance as for Naval officers plus an amount equal to the mess subscription in force at the time.  Such payments should be debited to Navy Vote 2.
        47.  Details of any prisoners of war victualled are to be shown separately in the ledger and abstract in accordance with King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions, Article 1700, Clauses 11 (vi) and 14 (iii), and in the provision account.
        48.  (a)  The custody of all prisoners of war is undertaken by the War Office.  On arrival in harbour, prisoners of war will be handed over to the Senior Naval Officer, who will normally arrange with the local military authorities for their transfer under escort.  The landing of prisoners is to be arranged so as to be unremarked by casual observers, and cap ribbons are not to be worn if they would disclose that the prisoners all came from one ship.  When prisoners of war are bought to a Naval base in H.M. ships they are to be kept below.  When embarking or disembarking they are to be blindfolded.
                (b)  Special ad hoc arrangements will be made if large numbers are captured.
                (c)  U-boat prisoners, and all commissioned and non-commissioned officers will be transferred, as required, under military escort to the Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre.  Military authorities will be requested by the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiralty, to transfer to the Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre any other Naval prisoners desired.
                (d)  If there are no local Naval or Military authorities, prisoners of war should be handed over to the Police with instructions to inform the nearest Naval and Military authorities.
                (e)  Prisoners of war on board British merchant or fishing vessels are, on arrival in port, to be handed over for disposal in accordance with the forgoing  provisions, the Admiralty being informed accordingly.
                (f)  Cot case casualties should be landed and taken to the nearest hospital and guarded there (if necessary) until responsibility is assumed by the Military authorities.
                (g)  Naval prisoners of war taken by the Police or Army after landing on the coast will be dealt with in the manner indicated in the preceding paragraphs, the Admiralty being informed accordingly.


        49.  So far as possible the punishment of offences by prisoners of war should be postponed until they are delivered into Military custody.  If it is necessary for an offence to be dealt with while a prisoner of war, other than an officer, remains in Naval custody, a Commanding Officer has power to award to a prisoner of war in his custody, in accordance with the Geneva Convention, the following punishments:-
        (i)  Detention for not more than 28 days.
       (ii)  Confinement in a cell for not more than 14 days.
         50.  The summary award of these punishments is subject to the following restrictions:-
                (a)  A prisoner of war who has been awarded a sentence of detention or cells may not be committed to a second period of detention or cells, if either period amounts to 10 days or more, until at least three days have intervened after release from the first sentence;
                (b)  A prisoner of war undergoing punishment is to be allowed at least 2 hours' exercise every day and is to be permitted to read and write and to send and receive letters;
                (c)  No officer prisoner of war may be placed in the same premises as men undergoing punishment.
        51.  Any offence by an officer or any grave offence by a prisoner of war which cannot be dealt with under these regulations must be reserved for trial by Military Court after his transfer to Military custody.
        52.  No prisoner of war is to be punished for making a complaint, even if the complaint is unreasonable.
        53.  Commanders-in-Chief and Senior Naval Officers abroad should make similar arrangements for the interrogation and custody of prisoners of war in connection with the local Military and Air Force authorities, where they exist.
(C49792)  3,000  2/42




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